Essential Aspect
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Author(s):  
Yuvraj Praveen Soni ◽  
Eugene Fernandez

Solar PV systems can be used for powering small microgrids in rural area of developing countries. Generally, a solar power microgrid consists of a PV array, an MPPT, a dc-dc converter and an inverter, particularly as the general loads are A.C in nature. In a PV system, reactive current, unbalancing in currents, and harmonics are generated due to the power electronics-based converters as well as nonlinear loads (computers induction motors etc). Thus, estimation of the harmonics levels measured by the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) is an essential aspect of performance assessment of a solar powered microgrid. A major issue that needs to be examined is the impact of PV system control parameters on the THD. In this paper, we take up this assessment for a small PV based rural microgrid with varying levels of solar irradiance. A Simulink model has been developed for the study from which the THD at equilibrium conditions is estimated. This data is in turn used to design a generalized Linear Regression Model, which can be used to observe the sensitivity of three control variables on the magnitude of the THD. These variables are: Solar Irradiance levels, Power Factor (PF) of connected load magnitude of the connected load (in kVA) The results obtained show that the greatest sensitivity is obtained for load kVA variation.


Author(s):  
Kazuho Kojima ◽  
Shigeki Hirano ◽  
Yasuyuki Kimura ◽  
Chie Seki ◽  
Yoko Ikoma ◽  
...  

AbstractThe tendency to avoid punishment, called behavioral inhibition system, is an essential aspect of motivational behavior. Behavioral inhibition system is related to negative affect, such as anxiety, depression and pain, but its neural basis has not yet been clarified. To clarify the association between individual variations in behavioral inhibition system and brain 5-HT2A receptor availability and specify which brain networks were involved in healthy male subjects, using [18F]altanserin positron emission tomography and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Behavioral inhibition system score negatively correlated with 5-HT2A receptor availability in anterior cingulate cortex. A statistical model indicated that the behavioral inhibition system score was associated with 5-HT2A receptor availability, which was mediated by the functional connectivity between anterior cingulate cortex and left middle frontal gyrus, both of which involved in the cognitive control of negative information processing. Individuals with high behavioral inhibition system displays low 5-HT2A receptor availability in anterior cingulate cortex and this cognitive control network links with prefrontal-cingulate integrity. These findings have implications for underlying the serotonergic basis of physiologies in aversion.


2022 ◽  
Vol 39 (1) ◽  
pp. 99-122
Author(s):  
Antoine Pageau-St-Hilaire

Abstract This paper examines the role of love in Xenophon’s Cyropaedia. I argue that an essential aspect of Cyrus’ knowledgeable rule is a specific understanding of eros and a corresponding strategy to cope with the power of love. Specifically, I contend that by exploiting a common Greek distinction between the beloved and the lover, he articulates the view that lovers are subjects or even slaves to their beloved who deceive themselves into thinking that their attraction and the ensuing behaviors are voluntary. Accordingly, Cyrus attempts to avoid falling in love and to rule as a universally beloved leader. Reflecting on the implications of this solution, I finally suggest that Xenophon wishes to show the limits of Cyrus’ solution.


2022 ◽  
Vol 1212 (1) ◽  
pp. 012030
Author(s):  
A S Dermawan ◽  
S M Dewi ◽  
Wisnumurti ◽  
A Wibowo

Abstract The concreted conditions assessment of the systems is an essential aspect of security assessment programs. In situ measurements of Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) may be indicative of the level of damage in the original concrete. UPV influenced by the specific characteristics of the mixture. In situ UPV measurements can be indicative of the level of damage in the original concrete. The research purpose is the damage classification, UPV test interpretation (strength, density, elasticity modulus, Concrete Quality Designation (CQD)), and determines the level of structural damage visually so that more accurate inspection results. The research result showed that the plastic hinge was more damaged than other parts of the beam-column joints. The UPV test obtained density 0.84-1.03 g/cm3, CQD 10% -20%, static elastic modulus 7.68-8.39 Gpa according to [3],[4] including very poor and visually is included in category IV spalling off of covering concrete (crack width > 2mm). The use of UPV as supporting assessment for classification, repair, and maintenance of structures. If density, CQD, and elastic modulus of defining very poor classification, the structure that needs immediate repair. The use of UPV is faster, without damaging parts of the structure, and also induces damage to the core specimens as a result of the coring process, making it faster and more economical.


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (3) ◽  
pp. 406-411
Author(s):  
Assumpta Yamuragiye ◽  
Elizabeth Anne Kinsella

BackgroundReflective practice is an essential aspect of knowledge generation for professional practice. By reflecting on action, professionals learn to improve their practices. Through processes of reflection, practitioners participate in a dialogue between theory and practice. Even though reflective practice is an important approach for learning from experience, its place remains unclear in anesthesia clinical education as well as anesthesia practice in a broad sense.AimThe aim of this paper was to examine the affordances of reflective practice in anesthesia clinical education.MethodsTwo cases, illustrating critical incidents in the anesthesia clinical teaching environment, were examined to consider how incorporating reflective practice into clinical education can advance knowledge generation in the field.FindingsThe two cases studies show how reflective practice can contribute to experiential learning, particularly through reflection on critical incidents.ConclusionReflective practice can help bridge the gap between theoretical knowledge and practice in anesthesia education and practice.Rwanda J Med Health Sci 2021;4(3):406-411


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (3) ◽  
pp. 117-124
Author(s):  
Christina Rony Nayoan ◽  
Indra Yohanes Kiling

Introduction: The importance of personal hygiene in preventing the spread of infection cannot be underestimated. Handwashing is an essential aspect of personal hygiene, especially among children. This study aimed to explore primary school students' hygiene in rural and remote areas in the Kupang regency. Methods: This study was conducted as a part of the end line evaluation of the MEMBACA II project. Teachers from four primary schools in three villages were purposively selected to participate in this study. The teachers were recruited from the participant schools of the MEMBACA II Project. Data was collected using phone interviews. Data were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Results: In total, there were 31 participants across four primary schools interviewed. The participants consisted of teachers, village leaders, village reading camp facilitators, and school supervisors. Participants were recruited as a proxy for providing information about students' hygiene. There were three themes identified as a result of the data analysis. The first theme is an improvement in children’s hygiene behavior. The second theme is the benefit of the little doctor program in children’s hygiene practices. The third theme challenges in children’s hygiene promotion and education. Overall, children were used to handwashing practices. They understood the importance of handwashing, especially during the Covid-19 pandemic. They were also aware of four essential times of handwashing. However, the adults perceived the need for handwashing equipment and access to clean water were the main challenges to maintaining students' hygiene. Conclusion: The study demonstrated the significance of regularly teaching children about handwashing in making handwashing habits among these youngsters. A continuing provision of health literacy and access to clean water is required to maintain hygiene behavior 


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 283
Author(s):  
Ilaria Henke ◽  
Mauro Esposito ◽  
Valentina della Corte ◽  
Giovanna del Gaudio ◽  
Francesca Pagliara

In recent years, the air transport sector has played a significant role in the economy of the areas served. The demand for air travel has doubled every fifteen years and has grown faster with respect to other industries. This is also due to the introduction of low-cost airlines (LCA). In the coming decades, more efficient management of airports will become an essential aspect to address. A clear understanding of the current airport structure based on the analysis of the operational efficiency will therefore be necessary. All air carriers seek to expand their operations at airports, which tend to operate efficiently in order to reduce costs. However, in carrying out their activities and maximizing operational efficiency, airports should simultaneously manage to increase their passengers’ satisfaction. All over the world, passengers are demanding higher levels of service and regulators are paying increasing attention to the provision of airport services and the quality of the services supplied. Starting from these considerations, the aim of this paper is to study the efficiency of an airport through joint analysis of the operational efficiency (with the Data Envelopment Analysis -DEA-model) for the airport manager (by maximizing the exploitation of existing infrastructures), taking into consideration the quality of airport services as perceived by the user. The original and added value of this work lies in the quantitative analysis of the main characteristics that determine the efficiency of main European airports, also taking into account the quality perceived by the users during their trips with the air mode. Thus, the efficiency of 103 European airports in 37 different countries, for the year 2018, were compared, highlighting the effect of low-cost airlines. This aspect, as far as the authors know, has not been treated in the literature. Indeed, this study represents a decision support system (DSS) tool for operational managers in the air sector for the identification of the characteristics that improve airport efficiency. This paper refers to the pre-COVID-19 period because it would not be useful to make an efficiency analysis influenced by the pandemic, since the latter represents a specific event. Therefore, this analysis provides interesting inputs for both researchers and practitioners to manage the issue of efficiency in ordinary contexts. Moreover, the airline industry is characterized by cut-throat competition, and it may be very useful in the close future to examine this issue to improve firms’ management in the industry.


Biology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 39
Author(s):  
Giovanni Chimienti ◽  
Ricardo Aguilar ◽  
Michela Maiorca ◽  
Francesco Mastrototaro

Coral forests are vulnerable marine ecosystems formed by arborescent corals (e.g., Anthozoa of the orders Alcyonacea and Antipatharia). The population structure of the habitat-forming corals can inform on the status of the habitat, representing an essential aspect to monitor. Most Mediterranean corals live in the mesophotic and aphotic zones, and their population structures can be assessed by analyzing images collected by underwater vehicles. This is still not possible in whip-like corals, whose colony lengths and flexibilities impede the taking of direct length measurements from images. This study reports on the occurrence of a monospecific forest, of the whip coral Viminella flagellum in the Aeolian Archipelago (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea; 149 m depth), and the assessment of its population structure through an ad-hoc, non-invasive method to estimate a colony height based on its width. The forest of V. flagellum showed a mean density of 19.4 ± 0.2 colonies m−2 (up to 44.8 colonies m−2) and no signs of anthropogenic impacts. The population was dominated by young colonies, with the presence of large adults and active recruitment. The new model proved to be effective for non-invasive monitoring of this near threatened species, representing a needed step towards appropriate conservation actions.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (2) ◽  
pp. 6-13
Author(s):  
Mariwan Hasan ◽  
Latef Noori

Apparently the best and yet the most famous work by Ayad Akhtar is American Dervish which was published in 2012. It has gained quick attention, but not by many, as a debut novel about the identity issue. Yet, no studies have been devoted to studying the novel from an analytical point of view of Pakistani-American migrants’ issues in America, in general. However, the novel has received some attention, there remain some aspects, in our view, and an essential aspect amongst them is the analytical study of the novel, which is not explored yet. In general migrants to new countries will usually face difficulty and especially if they are followers of a different religion. Also, the difference in their culture with culture of the country they migrate to will be an obstacle in integrating themselves into the new culture as seen in the character of Hayat Shah’s father; whereas to some extent different for Hayat himself. Hayat befriends a Jewish girl and neglects Islam and similarly his father becomes friend with a Jewish teacher, Nathan. It is not easy for the migrant people to integrate into the American culture and tolerate the other religious beliefs such as Judaism as it is quite a novel experience for them. The migrants obligingly ignore their surrender to their own Islamic religion and assimilate into the Judaism and American culture, which is very difficult. These are the two key aspects that the paper focuses on by analyzing and highlighting the challenges that Hayat Shah and his family members face in America. Akhtar demonstrates the difficulty for the migrant characters between either choosing Islam or Judaism or secularism to be able to live like Americans.


Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 177
Author(s):  
Francisco Javier Gutiérrez Gutiérrez Ortiz ◽  
Francisco López-Guirao ◽  
Francisco José Jiménez-Espadafor ◽  
José Manuel Benjumea

Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is a promising technology for the valorization of wet biomass with a high-water content, which has attracted increasing interest. Many experimental studies have been carried out using conventional heating equipment at lab scale, where researchers try to obtain insight into the process. However, heat transfer from the energy source to the fluid stream entering the reactor may be ineffective, so slow heating occurs that produces a series of undesirable reactions, especially char formation and tar formation. This paper reviews the limitations due to different factors affecting heat transfer, such as low Reynolds numbers or laminar flow regimes, unknown real fluid temperature as this is usually measured on the tubing surface, the strong change in physical properties of water from subcritical to supercritical that boosts a deterioration in heat transfer, and the insufficient mixing, among others. In addition, some troubleshooting and new perspectives in the design of efficient and effective devices are described and proposed to enhance heat transfer, which is an essential aspect in the experimental studies of SCWG to move it forward to a larger scale.


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