Oral Doxycycline
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2021 ◽  
Michael Burns ◽  
Paul Robben ◽  
Ramesh Venkataraman

ABSTRACT Lyme disease is a vector-borne infection that can affect multiple different organ systems. Lyme carditis represents one of these sequelae and is defined by acute onset of high-grade atrioventricular block in the presence of laboratory-confirmed infection. Current guidelines recommend patients with Lyme carditis be admitted for close cardiac monitoring and intravenous antibiotics therapy. Our case illustrates an active duty male who was initially diagnosed with Lyme disease after initially reporting symptoms including headache, fever, eye pain, and rash, with subsequent development of exercise intolerance 6 weeks later. An electrocardiogram (ECG) obtained at that time was misinterpreted as first-degree heart block, and he was initiated on oral doxycycline therapy and referred to cardiology. On follow-up to cardiology clinic, the prior ECG was reviewed and interpreted as complete heart block. A repeat ECG showed resolution of the heart block, and exercise stress testing showed chronotropic competence. This case illustrates the resolution of complete heart block in Lyme carditis with oral doxycycline, suggesting this antibiotic as a possible alternative treatment agent.

Jo Ann Wong

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection caused by the pathogenic Leptospira interrogans. Humans acquire the infection either through direct contact with the urine of infected animals, commonly rats or indirect contact of contaminated water or soil. It is a rare cause of acute hepatitis in the UK with fewer than 100 reported cases a year and hence diagnosis is commonly delayed. A 51-year-old fit Caucasian gentleman was admitted with a one-week history of painless jaundice, dark urine and pale-coloured stools. This was associated with feeling unwell, anorexia, nausea and intermittent epigastric discomfort. He binges on alcohol on a weekend. He works as a telephone engineer which occasionally exposes him to sewage water. On clinical examination, he was icteric with mild right hypochondriac tenderness. Liver biopsy was performed and histologically it was suggestive of leptospirosis. He was started on a five-day course of intravenous ceftriaxone followed by two days course of oral doxycycline. His IgM leptospirosis result finally came back as positive. Due to the rarity of leptospirosis in the UK, the serological testing of leptospirosis is only performed in the Rare and Imported Pathogens Laboratory in Porton Down, Salisbury leading to a delay in getting the result. The patient underwent an invasive procedure which can be avoided if the leptospirosis serology was ordered early and result available quickly. Fortunately, the patient made a full recovery after two months. Leptospirosis should be considered in an individual with acute hepatitis and a history of exposure to sewage.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Supplementary Issue-2: 2021 Page: S22

Lucy Y Eum ◽  
Stefanie Materniak ◽  
Paula Duffley ◽  
Sameh El-Bailey ◽  
George R Golding ◽  

Background: Several decolonization regimens have been studied to prevent recurrent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Clinical equipoise remains with regard to the role of MRSA decolonization. We compared initial MRSA clearance and subsequent MRSA recolonization rates over a 12-month period after standard decolonization (using topical chlorhexidine gluconate, and intranasal mupirocin) or systemic decolonization (using topical chlorhexidine gluconate, intranasal mupirocin, oral rifampin, and oral doxycycline). Methods: MRSA-colonized patients were randomized to receive either standard or systemic decolonization. Follow-up with MRSA screening was obtained at approximately 3, 6, and 12 months after completion of therapy. Kaplan–Meier survival curves were calculated and assessed for significant differences using log-rank tests. Results: Of 98 enrolled patients (25 standard decolonization, 73 systemic decolonization), 24 patients (7 standard decolonization, 17 systemic decolonization) did not complete the study. Univariate analysis showed a marginally significant difference in the probability of remaining MRSA-negative post-treatment ( p = 0.043); patients who received standard decolonization had a 31.9% chance of remaining MRSA-negative compared with a 49.9% chance among those who received systemic decolonization. With multivariate analysis, there was no difference in the probability of remaining MRSA-negative between systemic and standard decolonization ( p = 0.165). Initial MRSA clearance was more readily achieved with systemic decolonization (79.1%; 95% CI 32.4% to 71.6%) than with standard decolonization (52.0%; 95% CI 69.4% to 88.8%; p = 0.0102). Conclusions: Initial MRSA clearance is more readily achieved with systemic decolonization than with standard decolonization. There is no significant difference in the probability of sustained MRSA clearance.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (5) ◽  
pp. 541-544
Caroline Garraway ◽  
Thy Huynh ◽  
Robert Brodell ◽  
Vinayak K. Nahar

Pyodermite froide du visage, otherwise known as idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma (IFAG), is a benign lesion exclusively seen in children and presents as a cold abscess on the face.1 We report a case of a  14-year-old male with IFAG who failed initial treatment with oral doxycycline, but responded  to treatment with oral 13-cis-retinoic acid, oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and intralesional triamcinolone injections over a 7 month period. 

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (9) ◽  
pp. e245792
James Richardson-May ◽  
Alice Rothwell ◽  
Mohammed Rashid

An 82-year-old man with a history of herpes simplex keratitis 40 years previously presented with recurrence, 1 day following vaccination for novel COVID-19. His condition worsened despite topical treatment with ganciclovir gel. A diagnosis of herpetic stromal keratitis was made, requiring systemic aciclovir, topical prednisolone, moxifloxacin and atropine, and oral doxycycline. He improved clinically on treatment, with some residual corneal scarring. Visual acuity improved from 6/36 corrected at presentation, to 6/24 following treatment. Clearly, public and personal health benefits from vaccination are hugely important and we would not suggest avoiding vaccination in such patients. It is, however, important for ophthalmic providers to be aware of the rare potential for reactivation of herpetic eye disease following vaccination to enable prompt diagnosis and treatment.

Javid Hosseini ◽  
Mohammadreza Pourani ◽  
Reihaneh Mehregan ◽  
Mohammad‐Mehdi Forouzanfar ◽  
Reza M Robati

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (7) ◽  
pp. e243878
Ahmed Ashraf Abdelhamid ◽  
Takaaki Kobayashi ◽  
Joseph Tholany ◽  
Poorani Sekar

A 29-year-old man with a history of congenital aortic stenosis and mechanical aortic valve replacement with previous Cutibacterium acnes prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) presented with a 2-week history of fevers and night sweats. Transoesophageal echocardiogram revealed a 0.6 cm×0.5 cm vegetation on the mechanical aortic valve. An anaerobic blood culture became positive for C. acnes 6 days after the blood cultures were obtained. He did not have any surgical intervention. He was successfully treated with 6 weeks of ceftriaxone, followed by chronic suppression with oral doxycycline. Despite its low virulence, a growing number of C. acnes PVE cases have been reported, owing to its biofilm production. When clinical suspicion is high, extending culture incubation duration beyond the standard 5 days might be helpful. Most cases are treated with surgical repair or replacement in conjunction with antibiotics, but medical therapy alone has been documented as being successful.

2021 ◽  
pp. 112067212110248
Ankush Kawali ◽  
Sanjay Srinivasan ◽  
Padmamalini Mahendradas ◽  
Rohit Shetty

Introduction: Treating chronic macular edema (CME) post endophthalmitis is a challenge. Use of steroids may reactivate the infection and repeated intravitreal therapy with anti-vascular growth factor inhibitors (Anti-VEGF) puts the patient again at the risk of exacerbation of inflammation or endophthalmitis. We describe a case of CME post traumatic endophthalmitis successfully treated with topical interferon therapy. Case description: A 34-year-old Asian Indian lady with a history of cat bite to her right eye and treated elsewhere as traumatic endophthalmitis with recurrent macular edema, presented to us 1 year after the injury. She had received anti-VEGF injection for same. Her medical history was non-contributory except for close contact with her cat. Therapeutic trials with oral doxycycline followed by oral albendazole with steroids, as well as repeated anti-VEGF therapy failed to prevent recurrence of CME. Patient’s steroid responsiveness and reluctance for injections, made us to opt for a novel topical Interferon therapy. Macular edema resolved in 2 months. Interruption of interferon therapy due to COVID-lock down resulted in recurrence of the CME, which again responded well to interferon monotherapy. Conclusion: Topical interferon may have a role in the treatment of inflammatory macular edema and can serve as a, safer, economical and non-invasive treatment option compared to intravitreal steroids and anti-VEGFs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 36 (Supplement_1) ◽  
Mengyun Xiao ◽  
Stefanie Hammer ◽  
Wissam A Khalel ◽  
Lisann Pelzl ◽  
Bernhard N Bohnert ◽  

Abstract Background and Aims Urinary excretion of the fibrinolytic enzyme plasminogen has been identified as a characteristic feature of nephrotic syndrome (NS) in both human and experimental mouse models. Lack of plasminogen may lead to a hypercoagulable state and thrombosis, and mice with plasminogen deficiency have been shown to suffer from developing spontaneous thrombosis. However, the role of plasminogen in hypercoagulable state and thrombosis in an experimental nephrotic syndrome has not been investigated before. Method We investigated the relationship between plasminogen and a hypercoagulable state in an inducible nephrotic mouse model with conditional podocyte-specific podocin deletion (Nphs2Δipod * Plg+/+, n=12). The Nphs2Δipod mice with constitutive plasminogen knockout were used as negative plasminogen control (Nphs2Δipod * Plg-/-, n=15). All mice received a daily oral doxycycline administration for 2 weeks for NS induction. The last day of doxycycline treatment was set as day 0. Spot urine was collected daily for proteinuria and urinary plasmin activity measurement. Citrate blood was collected from each mouse before induction of NS, 7 days and 21 days after induction, respectively (Nphs2Δipod * Plg+/+ mice, n=4/timepoint; Nphs2Δipod * Plg-/- mice, n=5/timepoint). A global assessment of coagulation (extrinsic coagulation test, EX test) was examined by ClotPro® system. Besides, fibrinolysis was tested by adding tissue plasminogen activator (TPA test). Results According to the EX test, uninduced mice with plasminogen deficiency showed a significantly reduced clotting time (CT, Plg-/- vs. Plg+/+, 42 ± 1s vs. 54 ± 4s, p=0.0213), and decreased clot formation time (CFT, Plg-/- vs. Plg+/+, 82 ± 5s vs. 206 ± 28s p<0.0001) with a larger alpha-angle (Plg-/- vs. Plg+/+, 75 ± 1° vs. 66 ± 2°, p=0.0041). The maximum clot firmness (MCF) was significantly increased in uninduced plasminogen knockout mice (Plg-/- vs. Plg+/+, 45 ± 0.5mm vs. 32 ± 2.5mm p<0.0001). According to the TPA test, uninduced Nphs2Δipod *Plg-/-mice had a faster velocity of clot formation (α-angle, 75.6 ± 0.2° vs. 66.5 ± 1.6°, p=0.0254) and did not show any clot lysis in contrast to uninduced nphs2Δipod * plg+/+mice. After induction of NS, both Nphs2Δipod * Plg-/-mice and Nphs2Δipod * Plg+/+ mice developed massive proteinuria to a comparable extent (Plg-/- vs. Plg+/+on day 21, 218 ± 46mg/mg crea vs. 203 ± 28mg/mg crea), and plasminuria was detectable in nephrotic nphs2Δipod * plg+/+ mice. With the ongoing loss of plasminogen in the urine, CT and CFT was significantly reduced in nephrotic Nphs2Δipod * Plg+/+ mice. MCF was significantly increased with a faster velocity of clot formation measured by both the EX and TPA test. Moreover, clot lysis was significantly reduced. In nephrotic nphs2Δipod *plg-/-mice at day 21, there was also a tendency towards a decrease in CT, CFT and an increased velocity of clot formation. According to both EX and TPA test, there were no significant differences between the genotypes in nephrotic mice any more. Conclusion The results highlight that loss of plasminogen in the nephrotic state contributes to a hypercoagulable state with shortened clotting time, clot formation time, increased clot firmness, and most strikingly, loss of clot lysis. Changes in nephrotic wild-type mice were similar to mice with constitutive plasminogen deficiency, indicating that loss of plasminogen plays a role in the hypercoagulable state of nephrotic syndrome.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. A55-A55
Silas Allen Culver ◽  
Helmy M Siragy

Abstract Recently we reported that (Pro)renin receptor (PRR) expression increases in the renal nephron during high fat diet intake. This study evaluated the role of renal PRR in the development of obesity. Eight-week old male mice with inducible nephron specific PRR knockout (KO) and wild type littermate (control) were fed either normal diet (ND, 12%kcal fat) or high fat diet (HFD, 45%kcal fat) for 6 months. KO Mice underwent induction of PRR KO with oral doxycycline 2mg/mL in 2% sucrose water for 12 days prior to starting diet. Compared to ND, HFD increased body weight by 40% (p<0.05) in control mice. In contrast, compared to control mice fed HFD, body weight of induced PRR KO on HFD was reduced by 56% (p<0.05). Total body fat increased by 179% (p<0.05) with HFD compared to ND control mice while it did not increase in PRR KO mice fed HFD. Twenty-four-hour caloric intake was not reduced in KO mice compared to controls while there were significant increases in nocturnal VO2 by 31% and respiratory exchange by 10% (p<0.05) in HFD PRR KO mice compared to HFD fed controls. Unexpectedly, urine glucose excretion significantly increased in PRR KO mice on both ND and HFD. Our results demonstrate that nephron specific PRR KO reduced diet induced obesity and adiposity, while increasing energy expenditure. Future investigations are warranted to elucidate the mechanisms by which renal PRR contributes to the development of obesity.

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