threaded fasteners
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2022 ◽  
Vol 168 ◽  
pp. 108652
Jiayu Huang ◽  
Jianhua Liu ◽  
Hao Gong ◽  
Xinjian Deng

2021 ◽  
pp. 105-116
Brayton Lincoln ◽  
Kenneth J. Gomes ◽  
James F. Braden

Haris Stamatopoulos ◽  
Francesco Mirko Massaro ◽  
Jalal Qazi

AbstractAt present, the mechanical properties of laterally loaded threaded fasteners with large diameters embedded in timber elements remain unknown. An experimental study of laterally loaded threaded rods with wood screw threads embedded perpendicular to grain in softwood elements (spruce and pine glulam and spruce LVL) is presented in this paper. Embedment tests with the load acting parallel and perpendicular to grain were carried out and the embedment strength and stiffness were quantified. For some test series, the experimental embedment strengths were lower compared to the predictions according to Eurocode 5 in terms of both mean and characteristic values. This finding indicates that the predictions by Eurocode 5 are not always conservative. To investigate the effect of the thread, additional series of embedment tests were carried out with smooth dowels featuring a diameter approximately equal to the core diameter of the threaded rods. Finally, the yielding moment of threaded rods was quantified based on a series of three-point bending tests of threaded rods. The experimentally determined yielding moment was significantly higher than the prediction of Eurocode 5.

2021 ◽  
Tim Donofrio

Abstract Manufacturers of high volume, high strength, precision automotive fasteners have constantly faced increased product quality standards, delivery, and price pressures over the last decade. These pressures force manufactures to seek out new developments and creative methods for improving their long-term competitive positions. This paper will discuss two areas of mesh belt heat treatment system development that have been successfully integrated and exploited by manufactures to maintain their competitive position. Methods for heat treating threaded fasteners have evolved significantly over the last 20 years. Earlier versions of low capacity shaker hearth, rotary hearth and plate belt systems have now become extinct in favour of modern highly efficient, continuous soft handling mesh belt heat treatments systems. Design innovations for improving the accuracy of tempering furnace tolerances bands and integrating inline zinc phosphate removal systems will be discussed along with the feature benefits which these new design innovations provide manufactures of automotive fastener systems.

2021 ◽  
pp. 379-401
Michael B. Connelly

Abstract This article first provides an overview of the types of mechanical fasteners. This is followed by sections providing information on fastener quality and counterfeit fasteners, as well as fastener loads. Then, the article discusses common causes of fastener failures, namely environmental effects, manufacturing discrepancies, improper use, or incorrect installation. Next, it describes fastener failure origins and fretting. Types of corrosion in threaded fasteners and their preventive measures are then covered. The performance of fasteners at elevated temperatures is addressed. Further, the article discusses the types of rivet, blind fastener, and pin fastener failures. Finally, it provides information on the mechanism of fastener failures in composites.

Saman Fernando ◽  
Jessey Lee ◽  
Tilak Pokharel ◽  
Emad Gad

Torque as a tightening method is a simple technique that can be used to tighten a bolt to a given pre-load. Therefore, it is important to theoretically derive an accurate torque vs tension relationship for threaded fasteners as this would enable the industry to achieve a reliable pre-load. Various attempts were made to develop a complete theoretical relationship between torque and tension. Due to the thread angle there exists a nut dilation force causing the nut to expand radially out wards. This effect is more prominent in nuts with smaller height (Style 0 hex nut, refer ISO 4035 1 ). This nut dilation force creates a combined frictional effect with the drive torque thus affecting the torque tension relationship. This paper proposes a novel 3D formulation for torque tension relationship taking into consideration the nut dilation effect. This paper further develops new formulae for tightening and loosening torque, retaining torque, tension vs nut rotational angle relationship as well as formula for nut dilation force for both tightening and loosening.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (8) ◽  
pp. 168781402110394
Oybek Maripjon Ugli Eraliev ◽  
Yi-He Zhang ◽  
Kwang-Hee Lee ◽  
Chul-Hee Lee

The most commonly used part in engineering fields is threaded fasteners. There are a lot of advantages of fasteners. One of them is that they can be easily disassembled and reused, but a bolted joint can loosen easily when a transversal load is applied. The clamp load of a bolted joint can also loosen slowly when subjected to repeated temperature changes. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the self-loosening of bolted joints under cyclical temperature variation. Experiments are carried out under several cyclical temperature changes with different bolt preloads. Rectangular threaded bolted joints with M12 × 1.75 bolts and nuts are tested in a specially designed testing apparatus. Material of bolt, nut, and plates is a stainless steel. The experimental results show that the high initial bolt preload may prevent the joint from self-loosening and the bolted joint has loosened significantly in the first cycle of temperature changes. From this investigation, the loosening of the bolted joint can be considered as a first stage self-loosening.

2021 ◽  
Carol Johnston ◽  
Matthew Doré

Abstract Now that bolted flanges rather than grouted connections are used to join the transition piece to the monopile in offshore wind turbine towers, many large bolts are being used in applications which subject them to fatigue loads. The bolts in these ring flanges are typically M64 or M72 in size (ie 64mm of 72mm nominal diameter). The fatigue design codes, BS 7608, DNVGL-RP-C203 and Eurocode 3 do provide S-N curves for threaded fasteners, but the reference diameter in those documents is 25mm or 30mm. A thickness correction is provided, to account for larger diameter bolts, but this was originally derived by analysis of the performance of welded joints. It is unclear whether the S-N curves and the recommended thickness correction are appropriate for larger diameter threaded fasteners. The offshore wind industry usually specifies hot dip galvanised bolts, to provide some corrosion protection in the offshore environment. Again, there is uncertainty over whether the S-N curves in fatigue design standards apply to bolts with a galvanised coating. Since the fatigue design codes provide S-N curves for air, free corrosion or seawater with cathodic protection, it is also unclear which of these should be used to predict the fatigue performance of bolts with a galvanised coating. In order to provide data to address these uncertainties, hot-dip galvanised, grade 10.9, M72 bolts from two manufacturers were tested in both air and a seawater environment. In order to represent the conditions experienced by bolts in internal ring flanges, the artificial seawater was sprayed onto the bolts during testing. Tests were conducted with a mean stress corresponding to 70% of the specified minimum 0.2% proof strength of the bolts. Tests were also performed in air, on uncoated M72 bolts, and uncoated M64 bolts for comparison. The results suggest that the current thickness correction in DNVGL RP C203 and BS 7608 is appropriate for M72 bolts. The results in air from the galvanised bolts were below those from uncoated bolts. Although the galvanised results were above the thickness corrected in-air standard design curves (BS7608 Class X -20%, DNVGL Class G and DNVGL ST 0126 FAT 50), they were below the mean curves, suggesting that the performance of galvanised bolts is slightly lower than the existing recommendations.

Friction ◽  
2021 ◽  
Hao Gong ◽  
Xiaoyu Ding ◽  
Jianhua Liu ◽  
Huihua Feng

AbstractLoosening of threaded fasteners is a key failure mode, which is mainly caused by the slippage and friction behaviors on the thread and bearing surfaces, and will affect the integrity and reliability of products. Numerous scholars have conducted research on the loosening of threaded fasteners; however, comprehensive reviews on the loosening of threaded fasteners have been scarce. In this review article, we define loosening as a loss of preload and divide it into non-rotational and rotational loosening. The causes and mechanisms of non-rotational and rotational loosening are summarised. Some essential topics regarding loosening under transverse vibration have also attracted significant attention and have been investigated widely, including the loosening curve, critical condition of loosening, and influencing factors of loosening. The research carried out on these three topics is also summarised in this review. It is believed that our work will not only help new researchers quickly understand the state-of-the-art research on loosening, but also increase the knowledge of engineers on this critical subject. In the future, it is important to conduct more quantitative research on local slippage accumulation, and the relationship between local slippage accumulation and rotational loosening, which will have the potential to comprehensively unravel the loosening mechanism, and effectively guide the anti-loosening design of threaded fasteners.

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