emulsion stability
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Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 312 ◽  
pp. 122921
Hairong Wu ◽  
Xin Chen ◽  
Rong Tan ◽  
Yinglin Luo ◽  
Yu Hu ◽  

Nano Letters ◽  
2022 ◽  
Timothy J. Welsh ◽  
Georg Krainer ◽  
Jorge R. Espinosa ◽  
Jerelle A. Joseph ◽  
Akshay Sridhar ◽  

Geofluids ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Salem Basfar ◽  
Ashraf Ahmed ◽  
Salaheldin Elkatatny

The sagging tendency of hematite in drilling mud is a common challenge occurring at high-pressure and high-temperature (HP/HT) applications. This work studies the performance of hematite-based invert emulsion mud for HP/HT conditions and provides a solution to prevent the hematite settlement using a combination of ilmenite with hematite. Practical mud formulation was utilized over a range of ilmenite/hematite ratios (0/100, 20/80, 40/60, and 50/50%) to study sagging behaviour. From the sag tests, the optimum combination proportion was determined. Thereafter, the density, emulsion stability, rheological and viscoelastic properties, and filtration conduct for the formulated mud were evaluated. The experiments were conditioned as per the standards of the American Petroleum Institute. The obtained results of sagging experiments indicated that including 50% of ilmenite mitigated the hematite settling and reduced the sag tendency towards the safe range. A slight drop (4%) in mud weight was noticed upon adding the ilmenite, whereas the emulsion stability was enhanced from 551 to 574 volts with the 50% ilmenite content. The rheology and viscoelasticity measurements showed that 50/50% combination improved the yield point (YP) by 50% with a trivial 1 cP increment on plastic viscosity (PV), hence enhancing the YP/PV ratio by 46%. Also, the gelling strength was enhanced resulting in flat rheology and better gel structure. The filtration behaviour of 50% ilmenite mud was improved compared to blank hematite as it resulted in 21, 15, and 17% reduction on the filtrated volume, filter cake weight, and thickness, respectively. This study provides a solution for hematite sagging issue at HP/HT using combined weighting agents, which contributes to enhancing the mud stability and avoiding several well control issues and related operational and technical challenges that eventually will economize the drilling cost and time.

2022 ◽  
Vol 335 ◽  
pp. 00017
Hemas Azizila Nidhal ◽  
Herly Evanuarini ◽  
Imam Thohari

Reduced fat mayonnaise has the disadvantage of destabilization of emulsion. Emulsion destabilization that occurs is the separation of oil and water. Pumpkin flour is used to increase the viscosity and stability of the emulsion. The objective of this study was to determine the best percentage of the use of pumpkin flour in reduced fat mayonnaise based on pH, emulsion stability, moisture content, and sensory evaluation. The material used in this research was mayonnaise made from egg yolk, canola flower oil, vinegar, pumpkin flour as a fat replacer carbohidrates based, and other optional ingredients. The method used was an experimental laboratory with a completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments consisted of without the use of pumpkin as a control, the use of pumpkin flour 2%, 4%, and 6% of the total oil used. The variables measured were pH, emulsion stability, moisture content, and sensory evaluation. The results showed that the use of pumpkin flour on mayonnaise gave highly significant effect on pH, stability emulsion, moisture content and increased panelists preferences. The conclusion of the study that using 6% pumpkin flour produced the best reduced-fat mayonnaise.

Cao Liu ◽  
Tianchun Xiao ◽  
Lingrui Cui ◽  
Lian CEN ◽  
Jinshan XU ◽  

The emulsified feedstock technique is to improve the performance of products by using the micro-explosion phenomenon of emulsion. However, an obstacle to some applications of this technology is the contradiction between emulsion stability and micro-explosion intensity. For the first time, adding water-soluble polymers was proposed to solve this problem. Two polymers of xanthan gum (XG) and nonionic polyacrylamide (NPAM) were investigated and the results show that micro-explosions have five forms. As one of these five forms, the intensity of optimal micro-explosion is three orders of magnitude higher than other forms, and adding 0.5% XG increases the probability of optimal micro-explosion from 0% to 60% due to the low surface activity, strong thickening and pseudoplasticity of XG solutions. By contrast, NPAM does not promote micro-explosion because of its strong surface activity. Finally, a new mechanism for micro-explosions related to surface tension, interfacial tension and viscosity is proposed.

ScienceRise ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 11-17
Ihor Strashynskiy ◽  
Victoria Grechko ◽  
Oksana Fursik ◽  
Vasyl Pasichnyi ◽  
Andrii Marynin

The object of research. One of the alternatives of naturally occurring structuring agents with great potential in the food industry is the use of chia seeds. The meal obtained from the processing of chia seeds is the object of the above studies. Investigated problem. The study of changes in the emulsifying and rheological properties of chia seed meal, depending on the temperature treatment regimes, will determine the manifestation of the cryoprotective properties of this additive. This will help to solve the problem of deterioration in the quality of frozen split ends as a result of uncontrolled formation of ice crystals in the structure of the meat product. Main scientific results. Determination of the effect of heat treatment (heating to 70±2 C and freezing to -18 °C in the center) on the emulsifying properties of hydrated systems of chia seed meal showed that the emulsifying ability index increases by 7 % and 16 %, and the emulsion stability - by 8.7 % and 18.8 % according to the type of heat treatment. A decrease in emulsifying ability, emulsion stability, effective viscosity and shear stress was found in proportion to an increase in the degree of hydration. An increase in the indicators of effective viscosity and tangential shear stress as a result of heat treatment of prototypes was noted – by 45.3 % and 46.5 %, respectively. Freezing the hydrated dispersion of chia seed meal led to an increase in the ultimate shear stress by an average of 18.45 % compared to the untreated sample, the effective viscosity of the experimental dispersion did not change. The area of practical use of the research results. It can be used at food industry enterprises to improve the emulsifying and structural properties of products and their enrichment with dietary fiber. The innovativeness of the proposed solution. The results obtained prove the prospects of using this additive as a stabilizer, emulsifier and cryoprotectant in the technology of frozen meat products. The area of use of the innovative solution. This will ensure a consistently high quality of finished products and will improve the efficiency of production of a wide range of food products.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 44
Nan Pan ◽  
Wei Wan ◽  
Xin Du ◽  
Baohua Kong ◽  
Qian Liu ◽  

Herein, we discuss changes in the emulsifying properties of myofibrillar protein (MP) because of protein denaturation and aggregation from quick-frozen pork patties with multiple fat levels and freeze–thaw (F–T) cycles. Protein denaturation and aggregation were confirmed by the significantly increased surface hydrophobicity, turbidity, and particle size, as well as the significantly decreased solubility and absolute zeta potential, of MPs with increases in fat levels and F–T cycles (p < 0.05). After multiple F–T cycles, the emulsifying activity and emulsion stability indices of all samples were significantly reduced (p < 0.05). The emulsion droplets of MP increased in size, and their distributions were dense and irregular. The results demonstrated that protein denaturation and aggregation due to multiple F–T cycles and fat levels changed the distribution of surface chemical groups and particle sizes of protein, thus affecting the emulsifying properties.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 34
Damien A. Sebben ◽  
Stephanie V. MacWilliams ◽  
Long Yu ◽  
Patrick T. Spicer ◽  
Vincent Bulone ◽  

Water-in-oil-in-water (W1/O/W2) emulsions (double emulsions) have often been used for the encapsulation of bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins. Instability of both anthocyanins and double emulsions creates a need for a tailored composition of the aqueous phase. In this work, double emulsions with a gelled internal water phase were produced and monitored over a 20-day storage period. The effect of the electrolyte phase composition (varying electrolyte components, including adipic acid, citric acid, and varying concentration of potassium chloride (KCl)) on anthocyanin and double emulsion stability was analysed using colour analysis, droplet sizing, and emulsion rheology. The effect of electrolytes on colour retention was shown to differ between the primary W1/O emulsion and the secondary W1/O/W2 emulsion. Furthermore, droplet size analysis and emulsion rheology highlighted significant differences in the stability and structural behaviour of the emulsions as a function of electrolyte composition. In terms of colour retention and emulsion stability, a citrate-buffered system performed best. The results of this study highlight the importance of strict control of aqueous phase constituents to prevent anthocyanin degradation and maximise double emulsion stability. Additional experiments analysed the effect of pectin chemistry on the anthocyanin colour retention and leakage, finding no conclusive difference between the unmodified and amidated pectin.

Yuli Witono ◽  
Ardiyan Dwi Masahid ◽  
Maria Belgis ◽  
Zuida Amalina Rizky

The consumption of Monosodium Glutamate with a large amount can lead to nerve cell damage to the brain so that natural ingredients substitute MSG is needed. In this research, we produced smart flavors from catfish through enzymatic hydrolysis by combining papain and biduri enzymes. The purpose of the study was to identify the influence of enzyme concentration and length of hydrolysis on the smart flavor characteristics and determine the best treatment to produce smart flavors. The parameters identified were color, yield, moisture content, dissolved proteins, degrees of hydrolysis, antioxidants, water binding ability, and emulsion stability. The results show the highest brightness are biduri and papain combination by 60:40 with one-hour hydrolysis. The highest dissolved protein is 50:50 combination with three-hour hydrolysis. In addition, antioxidant activity is marked in a combination of 50:50 with one-hour hydrolysis.

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