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Coatings ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 98
Yaling Da ◽  
Jianxing Liu ◽  
Zixian Gao ◽  
Xiangxin Xue

In this work, a series of epoxy acrylate (EA)/mica composite coatings were synthesized through introducing mica powders of different particle size into epoxy acrylate coatings and using an ultraviolet (UV) curing technique to investigate the influence of mica particle size on the coatings. Mica powders of different particle sizes were obtained by ball-milling for 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 h with a planetary high-energy ball mill. The particle size and morphologies of ball-milled mica powders were characterized by laser particle size analyzer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that planetary ball-milling reduced the particle size of mica powders effectively. Mica powders that were un-ball-milled and ball-milled were added into the epoxy acrylate matrix by a blending method to synthesize the organic-inorganic UV curable coatings. The optical photographs of the coatings showed greater stability of liquid mixtures with smaller particle size fillers. The chemical structures of EA/mica composite coatings were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the conversion rate of C=C bonds was calculated. The results indicated that the C=C conversion of coatings with mica powders of smaller particle sizes was higher. Tests of mechanical properties and tests using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that pencil hardness, impact resistance, and coating resistance were improved due to the reduction of mica powders particle size.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Siteng Fan ◽  
Peter Gao ◽  
Xi Zhang ◽  
Danica J. Adams ◽  
Nicholas W. Kutsop ◽  

AbstractPluto, Titan, and Triton make up a unique class of solar system bodies, with icy surfaces and chemically reducing atmospheres rich in organic photochemistry and haze formation. Hazes play important roles in these atmospheres, with physical and chemical processes highly dependent on particle sizes, but the haze size distribution in reducing atmospheres is currently poorly understood. Here we report observational evidence that Pluto’s haze particles are bimodally distributed, which successfully reproduces the full phase scattering observations from New Horizons. Combined with previous simulations of Titan’s haze, this result suggests that haze particles in reducing atmospheres undergo rapid shape change near pressure levels ~0.5 Pa and favors a photochemical rather than a dynamical origin for the formation of Titan’s detached haze. It also demonstrates that both oxidizing and reducing atmospheres can produce multi-modal hazes, and encourages reanalysis of observations of hazes on Titan and Triton.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 495
Nives Jovičić ◽  
Alan Antonović ◽  
Ana Matin ◽  
Suzana Antolović ◽  
Sanja Kalambura ◽  

Globally, lignocellulosic biomass has great potential for industrial production of materials and products, but this resource must be used in an environmentally friendly, socially acceptable and sustainable manner. Wood and agricultural residues such as walnut shells as lignocellulosic biomass are one of the most affordable and important renewable resources in the world, which can partially replace fossil resources. The overall objective of the research is to provide background information that supports new applications of walnut shells in a biorefinery context and to increase the economic value of these non-wood forest products. This paper presents the properties characterization of liquefied biomass according to their chemical composition. All results were compared to liquefied wood. In this study, the liquefaction properties of five different walnut shell particle sizes were determined using glycerol as the liquefaction reagent under defined reaction conditions. The liquefied biomass was characterized for properties such as percentage residue, degree of liquefaction, and hydroxyl OH numbers. The chemical composition of the same biomass was investigated for its influence on the liquefaction properties. Accordingly, the main objective of this study was to determine the liquefaction properties of different particle sizes as a function of their chemical composition, also in comparison with the chemical composition of wood. The study revealed that walnut shell biomass can be effectively liquefied into glycerol using H2SO4 as the catalyst, with liquefaction efficiency ranging from 89.21 to 90.98%.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 690
Su-Young Choi ◽  
Dong-Bum Kim ◽  
Wan-Goo Park ◽  
Jin-Sang Park ◽  
Sang-Keun Oh

This study analyzed the characteristics of viscosity change and oil leakage stability according to the average particle size and content of organic and mineral-based extenders such as CaCO3(CA) and anti-sedimentation (ASE) among materials consisting of bituminous emulsion mastic (BEM). The fabrication of samples for research was done using a melting method of 2L capacity with the production mixing ratio of BEM used in the actual manufacturing process as a standard mixing ratio. Each sample size was adjusted to 16 μm, 5 μm, 2 μm, 1.4 μm and 1 μm, the average particle size of CA as a variable, and the content of ASE for each particle size was set to increase from 1 to 6 times the standard mixing ratio. The analysis found that in all average particle sizes of CA, the viscosity increased as the content of anti-sedimentation increased, and the viscosity was highest at the CA average particle size of 16 μm. The viscosity increased as the average particle size decreased at 5 μm, 2 μm, 1.4 μm and 1 μm. In addition, it was confirmed that the oil leakage stability increased as the average particle size of CA decreased, and the content of ASE increased. The evaluation results showed that specimens that met both workability and oil leakage stability conditions were the specimens with 4 times and 5 times the ASE content at the CA average particle size of 2 μm, and those with twice the ASE content at the CA average particle size of 1.4 μm.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 421
Yao Yu ◽  
Yang Tian ◽  
Hui Zhang ◽  
Qingxian Jia ◽  
Xuejun Chen ◽  

Meloxicam (MLX) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. However, its poor water solubility limits the dissolution process and influences absorption. In order to solve this problem and improve its bioavailability, we prepared it in nanocrystals with three different particle sizes to improve solubility and compare the differences between various particle sizes. The nanocrystal particle sizes were studied through dynamic light scattering (DLS) and laser scattering (LS). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize the morphology of nanocrystals. The sizes of meloxicam-nanocrystals-A (MLX-NCs-A), meloxicam-nanocrystals-B (MLX-NCs-B), and meloxicam-nanocrystals-C (MLX-NCs-C) were 3.262 ± 0.016 μm, 460.2 ± 9.5 nm, and 204.9 ± 2.8 nm, respectively. Molecular simulation was used to explore the distribution and interaction energy of MLX molecules and stabilizer molecules in water. The results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) proved that the crystalline state did not change in the preparation process. Transport studies of the Caco-2 cell model indicated that the cumulative degree of transport would increase as the particle size decreased. Additionally, plasma concentration–time curves showed that the AUC0–∞ of MLX-NCs-C were 3.58- and 2.92-fold greater than those of MLX-NCs-A and MLX-NCs-B, respectively. These results indicate that preparing MLX in nanocrystals can effectively improve the bioavailability, and the particle size of nanocrystals is an important factor in transmission and absorption.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 131
Hamdan N. Alajami ◽  
Ehab A. Fouad ◽  
Abdelkader E. Ashour ◽  
Ashok Kumar ◽  
Alaa Eldeen B. Yassin

This work aimed to optimize a celecoxib (CXB)-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) colon delivery system for the enhancement of anticancer activity. An ultrasonic melt-emulsification method was employed in this work for the preparation of SLN. The physical attributes were characterized for their particle sizes, charges, morphology, and entrapment efficiency (%EE), in addition to DSC and FTIR. The in vitro drug release profiles were evaluated, and the anticancer activity was examined utilizing an MTT assay in three cancer cell lines: the colon cancer HT29, medulloblastoma Daoy, and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. All of the prepared SLN formulations had nanoscale particle sizes ranging from 238 nm to 757 nm. High zeta-potential values (mv) within −30 s mv were reported. The %EE was in the range 86.76–96.6%. The amorphous nature of the SLN-entrapped CXB was confirmed from SLN DSC thermograms. The in vitro release profile revealed a slow constant rate of release with no burst release, which is unusual for SLN. Both the F9 and F14 demonstrated almost complete CXB release within 24 h, with only 25% completed within the first 5 h. F9 caused a significant percentage of cell death in the three cancer cell lines tested after 24 h of incubation and maintained this effect for 72 h. The prepared CXB-loaded SLN exhibited unique properties such as slow release with no burst and a high %EE. The anticancer activity of one formulation was extremely significant in all tested cancer cell lines at all incubation times, which is very promising.

2022 ◽  
Giuseppe Battaglia ◽  
Salvatore Romano ◽  
Antonello Raponi ◽  
Daniele Marchisio ◽  
Michele Ciofalo ◽  

Magnesium is a raw material of great importance, which attracted increasing interest in the last years. A promising route is to recover magnesium in the form of Magnesium Hydroxide via precipitation from highly concentrated Mg2+ resources, e.g. industrial or natural brines and bitterns. Several production methods and characterization procedures have been presented in the literature reporting a broad variety of Mg(OH)2 particle sizes. In the present work, a detailed experimental investigation is aiming to shed light on the characteristics of produced Mg(OH)2 particles and their dependence upon the reacting conditions. To this purpose, two T-shaped mixers were employed to tune and control the degree of homogenization of reactants. Particles were analysed by laser static light scattering with and without an anti-agglomerant treatment based on ultrasounds and addition of a dispersant. Zeta potential measurements were also carried out to further assess Mg(OH)2 suspension stability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 905 ◽  
pp. 142-146
Yi Qiao ◽  
Zhen Xing Zhu ◽  
Dong He ◽  
Su Bin Jiang ◽  
Teng Fei Yu ◽  

Heteroatoms-doped ultrathin carbon materials hold great promise for electrochemical energy application. Herein, we develop a salt-templating method to prepare three-dimensional Fe-N co-doped carbon (FeNPC) with ultrathin (~ 5-nm-thick) structural feature. The synthetic procedure involves the following steps: First, fabrication of nanoNaCl templates with uniform particle sizes (~500 nm) via one-pot solution synthesis. Second, fabrication of the precursor by encapsulating of NaCl nanoparticles via the in-situ polymerization of pyrrole monomers under vapor atmosphere. Last, FeNPC formation by subsequent pyrolysis and pickling. The optimized sample displays excellent performance as supercapacitors exhibiting 393.5 F g-1 at 1A g-1 in 6 M KOH. Furthermore, the symmetric supercapacitors assembled with the optimized sample show an energy density of 10.45 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 300 W kg-1 and outstanding cycling stability retaining 93% capacitance at 5A g-1 after 10000 cycles.

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