chlamydia trachomatis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Mahin Izadi ◽  
Laleh Dehghan Marvast ◽  
Mohammad Ebrahim Rezvani ◽  
Marzieh Zohrabi ◽  
Ali Aliabadi ◽  

Some microbial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have adverse effects on the reproductive tract, sperm function, and male fertility. Given that STIs are often asymptomatic and cause major complications such as urogenital inflammation, fibrosis, and scarring, optimal treatments should be performed to prevent the noxious effect of STIs on male fertility. Among STIs, Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common asymptomatic preventable bacterial STI. C. trachomatis can affect both sperm and the male reproductive tract. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived exosomes have been considered as a new therapeutic medicine due to their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and regenerative effects without consequences through the stem cell transplantation based therapies. Inflammation of the genital tract and sperm dysfunction are the consequences of the microbial infections, especially Chlamydia trachomatis. Exosome therapy as a noninvasive approach has shown promising results on the ability to regenerate the damaged sperm and treating asthenozoospermia. Recent experimental methods may be helpful in the novel treatments of male infertility. Thus, it is demonstrated that exosomes play an important role in preventing the consequences of infection, and thereby preventing inflammation, reducing cell damage, inhibiting fibrogenesis, and reducing scar formation. This review aimed to overview the studies about the potential therapeutic roles of MSCs-derived exosomes on sperm abnormalities and male infertility caused by STIs.

Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 111
Everett Webster ◽  
Kyra W. Seiger ◽  
Susan B. Core ◽  
Amanda L. Collar ◽  
Hannah Knapp-Broas ◽  

An effective vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis is urgently needed as infection rates continue to rise and C. trachomatis causes reproductive morbidity. An obligate intracellular pathogen, C. trachomatis employs a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) for host cell entry. The tip of the injectosome is composed of the protein CT584, which represents a potential target for neutralization with vaccine-induced antibody. Here, we investigate the immunogenicity and efficacy of a vaccine made of CT584 epitopes coupled to a bacteriophage virus-like particle (VLP), a novel platform for Chlamydia vaccines modeled on the success of HPV vaccines. Female mice were immunized intramuscularly, challenged transcervically with C. trachomatis, and assessed for systemic and local antibody responses and bacterial burden in the upper genital tract. Immunization resulted in a 3-log increase in epitope-specific IgG in serum and uterine homogenates and in the detection of epitope-specific IgG in uterine lavage at low levels. By contrast, sera from women infected with C. trachomatis and virgin controls had similarly low titers to CT584 epitopes, suggesting these epitopes are not systemically immunogenic during natural infection but can be rendered immunogenic by the VLP platform. C. trachomatis burden in the upper genital tract of mice varied after active immunization, yet passive protection was achieved when immune sera were pre-incubated with C. trachomatis prior to inoculation into the genital tract. These data demonstrate the potential for antibody against the T3SS to contribute to protection against C. trachomatis and the value of VLPs as a novel platform for C. trachomatis vaccines.

2022 ◽  
Scot P Ouellette ◽  
Laura A Fisher-Marvin ◽  
McKenna Harpring ◽  
Junghoon Lee ◽  
Elizabeth A Rucks ◽  

Pathogenic Chlamydia species are coccoid bacteria that use the rod-shape determining protein MreB to direct septal peptidoglycan synthesis during their polarized cell division process. How the site of polarized budding is determined in this bacterium, where contextual features like membrane curvature are seemingly identical, is unclear. We hypothesized that the accumulation of the phospholipid, cardiolipin (CL), in specific regions of the cell membrane induces localized membrane changes that trigger the recruitment of MreB to the site where the bud will arise. To test this, we ectopically expressed cardiolipin synthase (Cls) and observed a polar distribution for this enzyme in Chlamydia trachomatis. In early division intermediates, Cls was restricted to the bud site where MreB is localized and peptidoglycan synthesis is initiated. The localization profile of Cls throughout division mimicked the distribution of lipids that stain with NAO, a dye that labels CL. Treatment of Chlamydia with 3-,6-dinonylneamine (diNN), an antibiotic targeting CL-containing membrane domains, resulted in redistribution of Cls and NAO-staining phospholipids. In addition, MreB localization was altered by diNN treatment, suggesting an upstream regulatory role for CL-containing membranes in directing the assembly of MreB. This hypothesis is consistent with the observation that the clustered localization of Cls is not dependent upon MreB function or peptidoglycan synthesis. Furthermore, expression of a CL-binding protein at the inner membrane of C. trachomatis dramatically inhibited bacterial growth supporting the importance of CL in the division process. Our findings implicate a critical role for localized CL synthesis in driving MreB assembly at the bud site during the polarized cell division of Chlamydia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 24
Cristian Piras ◽  
Enrico Gugliandolo ◽  
Fabio Castagna ◽  
Ernesto Palma ◽  
Domenico Britti

Ivermectin has a wide number of many diverse functions. Certainly, it is irreplaceable for the treatment of parasitic pathologies in both human and veterinary medicine, and the latter represents the major field of its application. It has been called the “drug for the world’s poor” because of its role as a saviour for those living on the margins of society, in underdeveloped areas afflicted by devastating and debilitating diseases, such as Onchocerciasis and Lymphatic filariasis. It showed huge, unexpected potential as an antibacterial (Chlamydia trachomatis and mycobacteria), and it has antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties. The research line described here is placed right in the middle of the investigation on the impact of this drug as an antimicrobial and an immunomodulator. Being a drug widely employed for mass administration, it is mandatory to broaden the knowledge of its possible interaction with bacterial growth and its generation of antimicrobial resistance. Equally, it is important to understand the impact of these drugs on the immune systems of animal species, e.g., horses and dogs, in which this drug is often used. More importantly, could immunomodulation and antibacterial activity promote both bacterial growth and the occurrence of resistance mechanisms?

Liang Peng ◽  
Jingping Gao ◽  
Zihao Hu ◽  
Hongbo Zhang ◽  
Lingli Tang ◽  

Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted diseases globally. Untreated C. trachomatis infections can ascend to the upper genital tract and establish a series of severe complications. Previous studies using C3−/− and C5−/− mice models demonstrated that C3-independent activation of C5 occurred during C. trachomatis infection. However, the mechanism of how chlamydial infection activates C5 in the absence of C3 has yet to be elucidated. To delineate interactions between C5 and chlamydial infection, cleavage products in a co-incubation system containing purified human C5 and C. trachomatis-HeLa229 cell lysates were analyzed, and a novel cleavage pattern of C5 activation induced by C. trachomatis infection was identified. C5 was cleaved efficiently at the previously unidentified site K970, but was cleaved poorly at site R751. C5b was modified to C5bCt, which later formed C5bCt-9, which had enhanced lytic ability compared with C5b-9. The chlamydial serine protease CPAF contributed to C3-independent C5 activation during C. trachomatis infection. Nafamostat mesylate, a serine protease inhibitor with a good safety profile, had a strong inhibitory effect on C5 activation induced by chlamydial infection. These discoveries reveal the mechanism of C3-independent C5 activation induced by chlamydial infection, and furthermore provide a potential therapeutic target and drug for preventing tubal fibrosis caused by chlamydial infection.

2022 ◽  
Xin Su ◽  
Hong Xu ◽  
Maegan French ◽  
Yujie Zhao ◽  
Lingli Tang ◽  

Sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis can ascend to the upper genital tract due to its resistance to innate immunity in the lower genital tract. C. trachomatis can activate cGAS-STING signaling pathway in cultured cells via either cGAS or STING. The current study was designed to evaluate the role of the cGAS-STING pathway in innate immunity against C. trachomatis in the mouse genital tract. Following intravaginal inoculation, C. trachomatis significantly declined by day 5 following a peak infection on day 3 while the mouse-adapted C. muridarum continued to rise for >1 week, indicating that C. trachomatis is susceptible to the innate immunity in the female mouse genital tract. This conclusion was supported by the observation of a similar shedding course in mice deficient in adaptive immunity. Thus, C. trachomatis can be used to evaluate innate immunity in the female genital tract. It was found that mice deficient in either cGAS or STING significantly increased the yields of live C. trachomatis on day 5, indicating an essential role of the cGAS-STING signaling pathway in innate immunity of the mouse genital tract. Comparison of live C. trachomatis recovered from different genital tissues revealed that the cGAS-STING-dependent immunity against C. trachomatis was restricted to the mouse lower genital tract regardless of whether C. trachomatis was inoculated intravaginally or transcervically. Thus, we have demonstrated an essential role of the cGAS-STING signaling pathway in innate immunity against chlamydial infection, laying a foundation for further illuminating the mechanisms of the innate immunity in the female lower genital tract.

Yan Han ◽  
Mei-Qin Shi ◽  
Qing-Ping Jiang ◽  
Wen-Jing Le ◽  
Xiao-Lin Qin ◽  

BackgroundWe aimed to evaluate the clinical performance of the GeneXpert® (Xpert) CT/NG assay for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) using urine and cervical swabs collected from patients in China.MethodsThis study was conducted from September 2016 to September 2018 in three Chinese urban hospitals. The results from the Xpert CT/NG test were compared to those from the Roche cobas® 4800 CT/NG test. Discordant results were confirmed by DNA sequence analysis.ResultsIn this study, 619 first void urine (FVU) specimens and 1,042 cervical swab specimens were included in the final dataset. There were no statistical differences between the results of the two tests for the detection of CT/NG in urine samples (p > 0.05), while a statistical difference was found in cervical swabs (p < 0.05). For CT detection, the sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert test were 100.0% (95%CI = 96.8–99.9) and 98.3% (95%CI = 96.6–99.2) for urine samples and 99.4% (95%CI = 96.5–100.0) and 98.6% (95%CI 97.5–99.2) for cervical swabs, respectively. For NG detection, the sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert test were 99.2% (95%CI = 94.9–100.0) and 100.0% (95%CI = 99.0–100.0) for urine and 100% (95%CI = 92.8–100.0) and 99.7% (95%CI = 99.0–99.9) for cervical swabs, respectively.ConclusionThe Xpert CT/NG test exhibited high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of CT and NG in both urine and cervical samples when compared to the reference results. The 90-min turnaround time for CT and NG detection at the point of care using Xpert may enable patients to receive treatment promptly.

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