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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Shouping Cai ◽  
Jiayu Jia ◽  
Chenyang He ◽  
Liqiong Zeng ◽  
Yu Fang ◽  
...  

Pinewood nematode (PWN), the causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD), causes massive global losses of Pinus species each year. Bacteria and fungi existing in symbiosis with PWN are closely linked with the pathogenesis of PWD, but the relationship between PWN pathogenicity and the associated microbiota is still ambiguous. This study explored the relationship between microbes and the pathogenicity of PWN by establishing a PWN-associated microbe library, and used this library to generate five artificial PWN–microbe symbiont (APMS) assemblies with gnotobiotic PWNs. The fungal and bacterial communities of different APMSs (the microbiome) were explored by next-generation sequencing. Furthermore, different APMSs were used to inoculate the same Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) cultivar, and multi-omics (metabolome, phenomics, and transcriptome) data were obtained to represent the pathogenicity of different APMSs at 14 days post-inoculation (dpi). Significant positive correlations were observed between microbiome and transcriptome or metabolome data, but microbiome data were negatively correlated with the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the host. Five response genes, four fungal genera, four bacterial genera, and nineteen induced metabolites were positively correlated with the ROS level, while seven induced metabolites were negatively correlated. To further explore the function of PWN-associated microbes, single genera of functional microbes (Mb1–Mb8) were reloaded onto gnotobiotic PWNs and used to inoculate pine tree seedlings. Three of the genera (Cladophialophora, Ochroconis, and Flavobacterium) decreased the ROS level of the host pine trees, while only one genus (Penicillium) significantly increased the ROS level of the host pine tree seedlings. These results demonstrate a clear relationship between associated microbes and the pathogenicity of PWN, and expand the knowledge on the interaction between PWD-induced forest decline and the PWN-associated microbiome.


2022 ◽  
Vol 951 (1) ◽  
pp. 012009
Author(s):  
A Karim ◽  
Hifnalisa ◽  
Y Jufri ◽  
Y D Fazlina ◽  
Megawati

Abstract Soil organic matter is an indicator of soil fertility. The purpose of this study was to analyse various forms of soil organic carbon in citronella plantation, citronella plantation under pine tree, and soil under pine tree. Soil organic carbon in various forms was analysed from soil samples taken from each horizon and soil profile. The soil profiles observed were ultisol profiles planted with citronella, citronella under pine tree, and under pine tree, and slopes; 0-8%, 8-15%, 15 -25%, and 25-40%, in order to obtain 12 soil profiles with a total of 39 soil samples. Ultisols planted with citronella had higher soil organic carbon than ultisols planted with citronella under pine tree and ultisols under pine trees. Based on the slope, the highest soil organic carbon was obtained in the soil with a slope of 0-8%, and decreased with increasing slope. Based on soil depth, the highest soil organic carbon was obtained in the upper horizon, compared to the horizon below. The highest total soil organic carbon was obtained at the soil surface horizon with a slope of 0-8% and citronella was planted. This pattern of total soil organic carbon is similar to that of sesquioxide bound organic carbon, but is not consistent with that of free clay bound organic carbon.


Author(s):  
Е.Д. Скаковский ◽  
Л.Ю. Тычинская ◽  
Е.И. Гапанькова ◽  
И.А. Латышевич ◽  
А.Г. Шутова ◽  
...  

Методом ЯМР проведен анализ состава живиц восьми видов сосен подрода Pinus: черной австрийской (P. nigra), аллепской (P. halepensis), горной (P. montana), жесткой (P. rigida), Коха (P. kochiana Klotsch), Муррея (P. murrayana Balf), обыкновенной (P. sylvestris) и Палласа (P. nigra subsp. pallasiana), произрастающих в различных районах. Кроме того, исследовано содержание смоляных кислот, выделенных в 1963 г. из живиц трех видов сосен того же подрода: черной австрийской, крючковатой (P. uncinata) и кулундинской (P. sylvestris ssp. Kulundensis). Установлено, что состав живиц названных видов сосен хорошо описывается наличием восьми смоляных кислот (абиетиновая, дегидроабиетиновая, изопимаровая, левопимаровая, неоабиетиновая, палюстровая, пимаровая и сандаракопимаровая) и девяти монотерпенов (камфен, 3-карен, лимонен, мирцен, α-пинен, β-пинен, терпинолен, βфелландреен, п-цимол). Количественное содержание этих смоляных кислот зависит от многих факторов (вида сосен, времени и места сбора живицы, а также условий сбора и хранения образцов). Кроме того, наблюдаются реакции изомеризации и окисления, приводящие к перераспределению состава. В изученных живицах содержание монотерпенов сильно отличается, являясь наименьшим у сосны аллепской и наибольшим у сосны обыкновенной. The NMR method was used to analyze oleoresin composition of eight species of Pinus subgenus: Austrian black (P. nigra), Alleps (P. halepensis), mountain (P. montana), hard (P. rigida), Koch (P. kochiana Klotsch), Murray (P. murrayana Balf), common (P. sylvestris) and Pallas (P. nigra subsp. pallasiana) growing in different areas. In addition, the content of resin acids isolated in 1963 from the oleoresins of three species of pines belonging to the same subgenus: black Austrian, hooked (P. uncinata) and Kulunda (P. sylvestris ssp. Kulundensis) was studied. It was found that the oleoresin composition of the named pine species is well described by the presence of eight resin acids (abietic, dehydroabietic, isopimaric, levopimaric, neoabietic, palustrine, pimaric and sandaracopymaric) and nine monoterpenes (camphor, 3-caren, limonene, myrcene, α-pinene, β-pinene, terpinolen, β-felandreene, p-cymol). The quantitative content of these resin acids depends on many factors (pine species, time and place of oleoresin collection, and sample collection and storage conditions). In addition, isomerization and oxidation reactions are observed, leading to a redistribution of the composition. In the studied oleoresins, the content of monoterpenes differs greatly, being the lowest in Alleps pine and the highest in Scots pine.


Boreas ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jan Esper ◽  
Claudia Hartl ◽  
Oliver Konter ◽  
Frederick Reinig ◽  
Philipp Römer ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
Md. Amdadul Huq ◽  
Muhammad Zubair Siddiqi ◽  
Sri Renukadevi Balusamy ◽  
M. Mizanur Rahman ◽  
Md Ashrafudoulla ◽  
...  

A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic and rod-shaped novel bacterial strain, designated MAH-26T, was isolated from rhizospheric soil of a pine tree. The colonies were orange coloured, smooth, spherical and 0.7–1.8 mm in diameter when grown on Reasoner's 2A (R2A) agar for 2 days. Strain MAH-26T was able to grow at 10–40 °C, at pH 6.0–9.0 and with 0–1.0 % NaCl. Cell growth occurred on nutrient agar, R2A agar, tryptone soya agar and Luria–Bertani agar. The strain gave positive results in oxidase and catalase tests. Strain MAH-26T was closely related to Flavihumibacter sediminis CJ663T and Parasegetibacter terrae SGM2-10T with a low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (92.8 and 92.9 %, respectively) and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the strain formed a distinct phylogenetic lineage from the members of the closely related genera of the family Chitinophagaceae . Strain MAH-26T has a draft genome size of 6 857 405 bp, annotated with 5173 protein-coding genes, 50 tRNA and two rRNA genes. The genomic DNA G+C content was 41.5 mol%. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone 7. The major fatty acids were identified as iso-C15:0, iso-C15:1 G and iso-C17:0 3OH. On the basis of phylogenetic inference and phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular properties, strain MAH-26T represents a novel species of a novel genus of the family Chitinophagaceae , for which the name Pinibacter aurantiacus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Pinibacter aurantiacus is MAH-26T (=KACC 19749T=CGMCC 1.13701T).


Forests ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1713
Author(s):  
Linghan Gao ◽  
Xiaoli Zhang

Accurate forest above-ground biomass (AGB) estimation is important for dynamic monitoring of forest resources and evaluation of forest carbon sequestration capacity. However, it is difficult to depict the forest’s vertical structure and its heterogeneity using optical remote sensing when estimating forest AGB, for the reason that electromagnetic waves cannot penetrate the canopy’s surface to obtain low vegetation information, especially in subtropical and tropical forests with complex layer structure and tree species composition. As an active remote sensing technology, an airborne laser scanner (ALS) can penetrate the canopy surface to obtain three-dimensional structure information related to AGB. This paper takes the Jiepai sub-forest farm and the Gaofeng state-owned forest farm in southern China as the experimental area and explores the optimal features from the ALS point cloud data and AGB inversion model in the subtropical forest with complex tree species composition and structure. Firstly, considering tree canopy structure, terrain features, point cloud structure and density features, 63 point cloud features were extracted. In view of the biomass distribution differences of different tree species, the random forest (RF) method was used to select the optimal features of each tree species. Secondly, four modeling methods were used to establish the AGB estimation models of each tree species and verify their accuracy. The results showed that the features related to tree height had a great impact on forest AGB. The top features of Cunninghamia Lanceolata (Chinese fir) and Eucalyptus are all related to height, Pinus (pine tree) is also related to terrain features and other broadleaved trees are also related to point cloud density features. The accuracy of the stepwise regression model is best with the AGB estimation accuracy of 0.19, 0.76, 0.71 and 0.40, respectively, for the Chinese fir, pine tree, eucalyptus and other broadleaved trees. In conclusion, the proposed linear regression AGB estimation model of each tree species combining different features derived from ALS point cloud data has high applicability, which can provide effective support for more accurate forest AGB and carbon stock inventory and monitoring.


Religions ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1035
Author(s):  
David Charles Gore

In Hebrew scripture and the New Testament, trees play a prominent role, most obviously in the first chapters of Genesis and the last chapter of Revelations. Trees also serve as messianic heralds, as life-giving resources, as aesthetic standards of beauty, as exemplars of strength and fame, and as markers and instruments of salvation. Like the Hebrew Bible, the Book of Mormon and other Latter-day Saint scriptures feature prominent references to forests, trees, branches, roots, and seeds. What is unique about the spiritual and cultural landscape invoked by Latter-day Saint scripture? More specifically, what is said about trees and their accoutrements in restoration scripture? While numerous studies have focused on the major thematic tree scenes in the Book of Mormon, the tree of life in the visions of Lehi and Nephi, Zenos’ allegory of the olive tree, and Alma’s discourse on the seed of faith and the tree of righteousness, this paper aims at a broader look at trees in Latter-day Saint scripture. Taking cues from Robert Pogue Harrison’s Forests: The Shadow of Civilization, this paper takes a wide-ranging look at how trees in restoration scripture can help us rhetorically address the ecological dilemmas of our time. When the Gods built us a home, they did so with trees, and when God called on Their people to build a house, God told them to “bring the box tree, and the fir tree, and the pine tree, together with all the precious trees of the earth” to build it (see Abraham 4:11–12 and D&C 124:26–27). Another revelation declares bluntly: “Hurt not the earth, neither the sea, nor the trees” (D&C 77:9). As eaters of sunshine and exhalers of oxygen, trees have much to teach us about how to live, and trees in restoration scripture specifically contribute to a broader vision of ecological living.


Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (22) ◽  
pp. 7671
Author(s):  
Toshiki Tsubota ◽  
Shion Tsuchiya ◽  
Tatsuya Kusumoto ◽  
Dimitrios Kalderis

Pine tree biochar produced by flame-curtain pyrolysis, an inexpensive and simple pyrolysis methodology, was used as the starting material for KOH-activated carbon. Flame-curtain pyrolysis is a simple, low-technology methodology that can be performed by non-specialized personnel. The elemental analysis of the biochars highlighted the high reproducibility of the process. The N2 adsorption isotherms indicated that KOH activation was effective for the preparation of high-surface-area activated carbons from the biochar. The BET specific surface area increased with the quantity of KOH added in the activation process, achieving a maximum value of 3014 m2 g−1 at 85.7 wt.% of KOH addition. The adsorption isotherms of all samples were IUPAC type I, establishing their microporous nature. Results from the Mikhail–Brunauer (MP) method and αs plot indicated that the pore size distribution became wider and the pore volume increased as the KOH content increased. The measured capacitance values followed the same dependence on KOH content. The maximum capacitance value at 1 mV s−1 was determined as 200.6 F g−1 for the sample prepared at 75 wt.% of KOH addition. Therefore, pine tree biochar prepared by simple pyrolysis equipment is a suitable precursor for the development of an electric double-layer capacitor.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Margaret Norris

<p>This project aims to reconstruct historic fossil fuel derived CO₂ (CO₂ff) emissions from two closely located point sources in Taranaki, New Zealand. The Vector gas processing plant and the Ballance agri-nutrients ammonia urea plant have combined emissions of ~0.16 TgC yr⁻¹ since 1970 and 1982 respectively. Previous work found 2–5 ppm CO₂ff in short term integrated samples collected 600m downwind of the Vector plant. This study extends the dataset back 30 years using radiocarbon measurements in tree rings.  Trees incorporate CO₂ from the local atmosphere into their annual growth rings. Measurements of ¹⁴C in polluted and clean air trees were compared to the Baring Head Δ¹⁴CO₂ atmospheric record. As CO₂ff emissions are devoid of ¹⁴C addition of CO₂ff will cause a decrease in ¹⁴C directly related to the amount of CO₂ff present.  Trees growing immediately downwind of the Vector plant and from clean air locations in Taranaki and Baring Head Wellington, were cored and cut into one year growth increments. Two cellulose preparation methods were tested to confirm effectiveness at removing mobile extractive components and lignin. Radiocarbon and stable isotope results showed that the ANSTO method was more effective than the Rafter method. The clean air trees compare well with the Baring Head atmospheric record whereas trees growing downwind of the Vector plant demonstrate lower ¹⁴C content consistent with CO₂ff addition. Historic CO₂ff emissions were reconstructed for the polluted trees, with 1–3ppm of CO₂ff in the Luscombe chestnut tree and 4–7 ppm CO₂ff in the Vector pine tree. CO₂ff observations were compared with reported emissions from the Vector and Ballance plants. Observed CO₂ff increased by 10% in the Vector pine tree for the period 1994–2012 relative to pre-1994 levels, whereas combined CO₂ff emissions increased by 64%. No increase was observed in the Luscombe chestnut tree for the same time period. Meteorological analysis was performed to assess the relative contribution of CO₂ff from the sources to the trees. It is proposed that the trend observed in the Vector pine is due to the dominance of emissions from the Ballance plant and a relatively minor contribution from the Vector plant.</p>


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Margaret Norris

<p>This project aims to reconstruct historic fossil fuel derived CO₂ (CO₂ff) emissions from two closely located point sources in Taranaki, New Zealand. The Vector gas processing plant and the Ballance agri-nutrients ammonia urea plant have combined emissions of ~0.16 TgC yr⁻¹ since 1970 and 1982 respectively. Previous work found 2–5 ppm CO₂ff in short term integrated samples collected 600m downwind of the Vector plant. This study extends the dataset back 30 years using radiocarbon measurements in tree rings.  Trees incorporate CO₂ from the local atmosphere into their annual growth rings. Measurements of ¹⁴C in polluted and clean air trees were compared to the Baring Head Δ¹⁴CO₂ atmospheric record. As CO₂ff emissions are devoid of ¹⁴C addition of CO₂ff will cause a decrease in ¹⁴C directly related to the amount of CO₂ff present.  Trees growing immediately downwind of the Vector plant and from clean air locations in Taranaki and Baring Head Wellington, were cored and cut into one year growth increments. Two cellulose preparation methods were tested to confirm effectiveness at removing mobile extractive components and lignin. Radiocarbon and stable isotope results showed that the ANSTO method was more effective than the Rafter method. The clean air trees compare well with the Baring Head atmospheric record whereas trees growing downwind of the Vector plant demonstrate lower ¹⁴C content consistent with CO₂ff addition. Historic CO₂ff emissions were reconstructed for the polluted trees, with 1–3ppm of CO₂ff in the Luscombe chestnut tree and 4–7 ppm CO₂ff in the Vector pine tree. CO₂ff observations were compared with reported emissions from the Vector and Ballance plants. Observed CO₂ff increased by 10% in the Vector pine tree for the period 1994–2012 relative to pre-1994 levels, whereas combined CO₂ff emissions increased by 64%. No increase was observed in the Luscombe chestnut tree for the same time period. Meteorological analysis was performed to assess the relative contribution of CO₂ff from the sources to the trees. It is proposed that the trend observed in the Vector pine is due to the dominance of emissions from the Ballance plant and a relatively minor contribution from the Vector plant.</p>


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