Immune Status
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Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 164
Janeen L. Salak-Johnson ◽  
Cassidy Reddout ◽  
Lily Hernandez ◽  
Anne Visconti

The study aimed to investigate and characterize the maternal effects of feeding Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boularddii (Scb) to sows from late-gestation through lactation on progeny cortisol, immune status, and stress responsiveness from birth to 14 days post-weaning. Eighty-four piglets were born to sows fed control (CON) or probiotic (PRO) boluses twice daily for 59 days. Blood samples were obtained at birth and 24 h later to assess prenatal effects; 7, 14, and 21 day-of-age to assess potential developmental effects; and at 24 h, 7, and 14 days post-weaning to assess the effects of weaning stress on immune and cortisol responses. Pigs born to PRO sows had less robust cortisol response and enhanced immune parameters at birth and 24 h later, indicating less stress. In response to weaning, pigs born to and nursed by PRO sows displayed unique cortisol and immune profiles than CON pigs. These results indicate that feeding sows Scb probiotics during late gestation reduces stress responsiveness to farrowing stress while increasing immune cell populations. Pigs nursed by PRO sows had a more robust initial cortisol response and enhanced neutrophil function and B-cell lymphocyte proliferation in response to weaning stress. These data imply it may be possible to maternally alter immune and stress responses in utero and during suckling in the short-term and up to 14 days post-weaning. However, more research is needed to optimize this strategy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 354 (11-12) ◽  
pp. 27-31
M. V. Dovydenkova

Relevance. The breeding stock and young cattle in the conditions of industrial technology of animal husbandry experience an increased antigenic load, which leads to disturbances in the immune status and the development of inflammatory processes manifested by endometritis and mastitis, diarrheal and respiratory syndromes. It was relevant to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the immunological reactivity of the animal’s body according to the state of resistance in cattle with clinical and subclinical mastitis, depending on the age of lactation. As a result of complex studies, the specific and nonspecific reactivity of the body of cattle in different periods of lactation was studied.Methods. The object of the study were cows of a black-and-white Holstein breed (n = 450). Groups of animals were formed according to the age of lactation:1st lactation, 2–3rd lactation, 3–4th lactation and for health reasons: clinically healthy animals, with subclinical mastitis and clinical mastitis. Milk samples were taken from cows to count the number of somatic cells, and blood to determine the quantitative content of IgG immunoglobulin and indicators of nonspecific resistance.Results. It was found that with mastitis in cows of different lactation ages, almost identical changes in the immune status were observed. Quantitative determination of IgG levels in animal blood serum is the basis for assessing the immunity of cattle. The immune status in clinically healthy animals was characterized by a higher level of the total amount of IgG immunoglobulin in the blood serum (amounted to 22.25 ± 0.70 mg/ml), whereas in cows with a subclinical form of mastitis, the level of IgG immunoglobulin decreased by 12.3%, with a clinical form of mastitis — by 17.2%. The results also showed that in cows of different lactations with subclinical and clinical mastitis, the bactericidal activity (by 10.8%) and the lysozyme activity of the blood increased significantly (by 8.22%). In cows with clinical mastitis — by 8.6% and 9.7% respectively, compared with the indicators in groups of healthy animals. Thus, mastitis, occurring in acute and subacute form, leads to a decrease in the resistance of the cows’ organism.

2022 ◽  
Bas Kolen ◽  
Laurens Znidarsic ◽  
Andreas Voss ◽  
Simon Donders ◽  
Iris Kamphorst ◽  

In response to the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 many governments decided in 2020 to impose lockdowns. Although the package of measures which constitute such lockdowns differs between countries, it is a general rule that contacts between people, and especially in large groups of people, are avoided or prohibited. The main reasoning behind these measures is preventing that healthcare systems become overloaded. As of 2021 vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are available, but these do not guarantee 100% risk reduction and it will take a while for the world to reach a sufficient immune status. This raises the question whether and under which conditions events like theater shows, conferences, professional sports events, concerts and festivals can be organized. The current paper presents a COVID-19 Risk taxation method for (large scale) events. This method can be applied to events to define an alternative package of measures replacing generic social distancing.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Jun Tian ◽  
Shao-Bing Dai ◽  
Si-Si Jiang ◽  
Wen-Yi Yang ◽  
Yi-Qun Yan ◽  

AbstractRecent evidence suggests that innate and adaptive immunity play a crucial role in Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, studies regarding specific immune cell classification in the peripheral blood in PD remain lacking. Therefore, we aimed to explore the different immune status in patients with PD at different ages of onset. We included 22 patients; among them were 10 who had early-onset PD (EOPD) and 12 had late-onset PD (LOPD) and 10 young healthy controls (YHCs) and 8 elder HCs (EHCs). Mass cytometry staining technology was used to perform accurate immunotyping of cell populations in the peripheral blood. Motor symptoms and cognitive function were assessed using the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) III score and Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) score, respectively. T test and ANOVA statistical analysis were performed on the frequency of annotated cell population. Linear regression model was used to analyze the correlation between clusters and clinical symptoms. We characterized 60 cell clusters and discovered that the immune signature of PD consists of cluster changes, including decreased effector CD8+ T cells, lower cytotoxicity natural killer (NK) cells and increased activated monocytes in PD patients. In summary, we found that CD8+ T cells, NK cells, and monocytes were associated with PD. Furthermore, there may be some differences in the immune status of patients with EOPD and LOPD, suggesting differences in the pathogenesis between these groups.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Min Li ◽  
Wenye Zhu ◽  
Ummair Saeed ◽  
Shibo Sun ◽  
Yan Fang ◽  

Abstract Background Asthma is a heterogeneous disease and different phenotypes based on clinical parameters have been identified. However, the molecular subgroups of asthma defined by gene expression profiles of induced sputum have been rarely reported. Methods We re-analyzed the asthma transcriptional profiles of the dataset of GSE45111. A deep bioinformatics analysis was performed. We classified 47 asthma cases into different subgroups using unsupervised consensus clustering analysis. Clinical features of the subgroups were characterized, and their biological function and immune status were analyzed using Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and single sample Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (ssGSEA). Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and protein–protein interaction (PPI) network were performed to identify key gene modules and hub genes. Results Unsupervised consensus clustering of gene expression profiles in asthma identified two distinct subgroups (Cluster I/II), which were significantly associated with eosinophilic asthma (EA) and paucigranulocytic asthma (PGA). The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two subgroups were primarily enriched in immune response regulation and signal transduction. The ssGSEA suggested the different immune infiltration and function scores between the two clusters. The WGCNA and PPI analysis identified three hub genes: THBS1, CCL22 and CCR7. ROC analysis further suggested that the three hub genes had a good ability to differentiate the Cluster I from the Cluster II. Conclusions Based on the gene expression profiles of the induced sputum, we identified two asthma subgroups, which revealed different clinical characteristics, gene expression patterns, biological functions and immune status. The transcriptional classification confirms the molecular heterogeneity of asthma and provides a framework for more in-depth research on the mechanisms of asthma.

2022 ◽  
pp. 94-101
E. Yu. Evdokimov ◽  
Zh. B. Ponezheva ◽  
E. V. Svechnikova ◽  
A. V. Sundukov

Introduction. Psoriasis is an inflammatory dermatosis, which has characteristic clinical features and is closely associated with immunological changes in the skin. HIV-infected patients suffering from psoriasis have immunological features associated with the effect of HIV virus on CD4+T-lymphocytes.Aim. To identify clinical features of psoriasis in HIV-infected patients depending on the stage of HIV infection and immune status.Materials and methods. An open prospective study (2014–2018) included 143 patients with psoriasis vulgaris, of which 79 (55.2%) were infected with HIV and 64 (44.8%) were not infected with HIV. The groups were comparable in terms of age and gender. The diagnosis of psoriasis vulgaris was established with due account for its clinical presentation and histologically confirmed in 29 (20.3%) patients, of which 17 (58.6%) were infected with HIV and 12 (41.4%) were not infected with HIV. In a biopsy, tissue samples were taken from the areas of inflammatory and healthy skin in each patient. Numbers of CD4+ and CD8+T-lymphocytes in the biopsy samples obtained were calculated using immunohistochemical staining of biopsy. The severity of psoriasis progress was assessed using the psoriasis lesions severity index, taking into account the body surface area covered by lesions, the intensity of erythema, infiltration and sloughing of skin. In the course of the study, the patients had general clinical examinations performed, their HIV infection confirmed or denied, their immune status assessed, and their clinical stage of HIV infection determined.Results and discussion. Mild psoriasis was less often identified, and moderately severe and severe psoriasis was more often observed in HIV-infected patients as compared to HIV-negative patients. The psoriatic plaque CD8+T-lymphocyte counts in HIV-infected patients grew with increasing immunosuppression and clinical stage of HIV infection; these changes were not observed in HIV-negative patients.Сonclusion. HIV-infected patients often have moderately severe (39.2%) and severe (22.8%) psoriasis vulgaris. The psoriatic plaque CD8+T-lymphocyte counts in HIV-infected patients predominate over the CD4+T-lymphocyte counts, while the HIV-negative patients show the opposite test results.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Dong Tan ◽  
Yafei Zhang

Objective. To compare the effect of choosing ERCP, OCBDE, and LCBDE for the treatment of patients with recurrent common bile duct stones after biliary tract surgery. Method. 115 patients with recurrent common bile duct stones after biliary surgery in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed and divided into three groups according to the procedure, 36 patients in the ERCP group, 38 patients in the OCBDE group, and 41 patients in the LCBDE group, and compared the efficacy, stress status, and immune status of the three groups. Result. The stone removal rates were 91.67%, 97.37%, and 97.56% in the ERCP, OCBDE, and LCBDE groups, respectively ( P > 0.05 ). There were statistical differences between the ERCP, OCBDE, and LCBDE groups in terms of operative time, postoperative recovery time of exhaustion, recovery time of defecation, recovery time of feeding, and hospitalization time ( P < 0.05 ). The postoperative complication rates were 8.33%, 10.53%, and 7.32% in the ERCP, OCBDE, and LCBDE groups, respectively ( P > 0.05 ). The recurrence rates within 1 year after surgery were 2.78%, 7.89%, and 2.44% in the ERCP, OCBDE, and LCBDE groups, respectively ( P > 0.05 ). Conclusion. ERCP has short operative time, short hospital stay, and rapid postoperative recovery. LCBDE has mild trauma, and OCBDE has a wide range of application. Each of the three procedures has its own advantages and shortcomings, and the most appropriate procedure should be selected on the basis of comprehensive evaluation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 42 ◽  
pp. 03002
Nikolay Nikolaevich Berezhnov ◽  
Marina Gennadievna Kurbanova ◽  
Anastasia Yurievna Kolbina

The article presents substantiation for expanding the market for functional food products, in particular, confectionery - caramel. Proper nutrition is an integral part of a modern person diet; due to their properties, they increase the immunity and immune status of a person. The aim of the work is to create composite mixtures for sugar-free caramel using modern software. The studies were carried out using the MathLab software package, in particular the Statistica 10.0 software. A methodology for creating recipes using system packages has been developed. To enrich the caramel, the following components were selected: apple juice, coltsfoot extract, orange juice, mint and burdock extract, cranberry and lingonberry juices. An optimal recipe has been designed and equations are presented for calculating the dosages of the components of the enriched sugar-free caramel based on a natural sweetener isomalt with the addition of plant-based additives containing macro and micronutrients necessary for the normal functioning of the human body with a diagnosis of type II diabetes mellitus.

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