health expenditure
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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Hui Liao ◽  
Chaoyang Yan ◽  
Ying Ma ◽  
Jing Wang

BackgroundThe disability problem has become prominent with the acceleration of the global aging process. Individual disability is associated with economic conditions and contributes to family poverty. As disability will change over a long period of time and may even show distinct dynamic trends, we aimed to focus on activities of daily living (ADL) and classify functional disability trends. Moreover, we aimed to highlight and analyze the association between functional disability trends and economic conditions and explore the influencing factors.Materials and MethodsA total of 11,222 individuals who were 45 years old or older were included in four surveys conducted by the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study in 2011, 2013, 2015, and 2018. Samples were analyzed after excluding those with missing key variables. The latent class growth model was used to classify the ADL trends. Two binary logistic regressions were established to observe the association between the ADL trends and follow-up economic conditions or catastrophic health expenditure trends.ResultsADL trends of older adults were classified into improving (25.4%), stabilizing (57.0%), and weakening ADL (17.6%). ADL trend was associated with follow-up poverty (p = 0.002) and catastrophic health expenditure trends (p < 0.001). Compared with the improving ADL trend, the stabilizing ADL may have a negative influence on individuals' economic conditions (OR = 1.175, 95%CI = 1.060–1.303). However, a stabilizing ADL trend was less likely to bring about catastrophic health expenditures (OR = 0.746, 95%CI = 0.678–0.820) compared with an improving ADL trend.ConclusionThe improvement of functional disability would make the medical expense burden heavier but would still be beneficial for the prevention of poverty. A significant association was found between socioeconomic factors and poverty. Preventing the older adults from developing disability and illness, improving the compensation level of medical insurance, and optimizing the long-term care insurance and the primary healthcare system can potentially contribute to the prevention of poverty. Meanwhile, focusing on people who are poor at early stages, women, middle-aged, low-educated, and in rural areas is important.

He Chen ◽  
Jing Ning

Abstract Long-term care insurance (LTCI) is one of the important institutional responses to the growing care needs of the ageing population. Although previous studies have evaluated the impacts of LTCI on health care utilization and expenditure in developed countries, whether such impacts exist in developing countries is unknown. The Chinese government has initiated policy experimentation on LTCI to cope with the growing and unmet need for aged care. Employing a quasi-experiment design, this study aims to examine the policy treatment effect of LTCI on health care utilization and out-of-pocket health expenditure in China. The Propensity Score Matching with Difference-in-difference approach was used to analyse the data obtained from four waves of China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Our findings indicated that, in the aspect of health care utilization, the introduction of LTCI significantly reduced the number of outpatient visits by 0.322 times (p<0.05), the number of hospitalizations by 0.158 times (p<0.01), and the length of inpatient stay during last year by 1.441 days (p<0.01). In the aspect of out-of-pocket health expenditure, we found that LTCI significantly reduced the inpatient out-of-pocket health expenditure during last year by 533.47 yuan (p<0.01), but it did not exhibit an impact on the outpatient out-of-pocket health expenditure during last year. LTCI also had a significantly negative impact on the total out-of-pocket health expenditure by 512.56 yuan. These results are stable in the robustness tests. Considering the evident policy treatment effect of LTCI on health care utilization and out-of-pocket health expenditure, the expansion of LTCI could help reduce the needs for health care services and contain the increases in out-of-pocket health care expenditure in China.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Yang Zhao ◽  
Shenglan Tang ◽  
Wenhui Mao ◽  
Tomi Akinyemiju

Objective: In China, cancer accounts for one-fifth of all deaths, and exerts a heavy toll on patients, families, healthcare systems, and society as a whole. This study aims to examine the temporal trends in socio-economic and rural-urban differences in treatment, healthcare service utilization and catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) among adult cancer patients in China. We also investigate the relationship between different types of treatment and healthcare service utilization, as well as the incidence of CHE.Materials and Methods: We analyzed data from the 2011 and 2015 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, a nationally representative survey including 17,224 participants (234 individuals with cancer) in 2011 and 19,569 participants (368 individuals with cancer) in 2015. The study includes six different types of cancer treatments: Chinese traditional medication (TCM); western modern medication (excluding TCM and chemotherapy medications); a combination of TCM & western medication; surgery; chemotherapy; and radiation therapy. Multivariable regression models were performed to investigate the association between cancer treatments and healthcare service utilization and CHE.Results: The age-adjusted prevalence of cancer increased from 1.37% to 1.84% between 2011 and 2015. More urban patients (54%) received cancer treatment than rural patients (46%) in 2015. Patients with high socio-economic status (SES) received a higher proportion of surgical and chemotherapy treatments compared to patients with low SES in 2015. Incidence of CHE declined by 22% in urban areas but increased by 31% in rural areas. We found a positive relationship between cancer treatment and outpatient visits (OR = 2.098, 95% CI = 1.453, 3.029), hospital admission (OR = 1.961, 95% CI = 1.346, 2.857) and CHE (OR = 1.796, 95% CI = 1.231, 2.620). Chemotherapy and surgery were each associated with a 2-fold increased risk of CHE.Conclusions: Significant improvements in health insurance benefit packages are necessary to ensure universal, affordable and patient-centered health coverage for cancer patients in China.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 104-117
Joanna Marie V. Manrique ◽  
Gabriel Masangkay ◽  
Nicasio Angelo J. Agustin

This study mainly aims to determine whether public health expenditures have been effective in reducing malnutrition among children aged below five in the Philippines. The researchers construct a Grossman (1972) model-based health production function, which treats economic, social, and environmental factors as determinants of nutritional status. OLS estimates show that an increase in food security rates, a decrease in poverty incidence rates, and an increase in the level of urbanization significantly reduce stunting rates. However, no statistically significant relationship exists between the aforementioned independent variables and underweight and wasting rates (aside from the level of urbanization and wasting). In all regression models, the coefficient estimate for public health expenditure is valued near zero and is statistically insignificant, implying that government spending on health has been insubstantial and ineffective in reducing malnutrition prevalence.

Ahmad Fasseeh ◽  
Baher ElEzbawy ◽  
Wessam Adly ◽  
Rawda ElShahawy ◽  
Mohsen George ◽  

Abstract Background The Egyptian healthcare system has multiple stakeholders, including a wide range of public and private healthcare providers and several financing agents. This study sheds light on the healthcare system’s financing mechanisms and the flow of funds in Egypt. It also explores the expected challenges facing the system with the upcoming changes. Methods We conducted a systematic review of relevant papers through the PubMed and Scopus search engines, in addition to searching gray literature through the ISPOR presentations database and the Google search engine. Articles related to Egypt’s healthcare system financing from 2009 to 2019 were chosen for full-text review. Data were aggregated to estimate budgets and financing routes. Results We analyzed the data of 56 out of 454 identified records. Governmental health expenditure represented approximately one-third of the total health expenditure (THE). Total health expenditure as a percent of gross domestic product (GDP) was almost stagnant in the last 12 years, with a median of 5.5%. The primary healthcare financing source is out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure, representing more than 60% of THE, followed by government spending through the Ministry of Finance, around 37% of THE. The pharmaceutical expenditure as a percent of THE ranged from 26.0 to 37.0%. Conclusions Although THE as an absolute number is increasing, total health expenditure as a percentage of GDP is declining. The Egyptian healthcare market is based mainly on OOP expenditures and the next period anticipates a shift toward more public spending after Universal Health Insurance gets implemented.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Wilfried Guets ◽  
Deepak Kumar Behera

Abstract Background In the last few years, there has been a worldwide commitment to protect the vulnerable individuals from higher financial risk through out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditure. This study examines the influence of disability and socio-demographic factors on households’ health financial risks in Uganda. Methods We used nationally representative cross-sectional data from the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) collected in 2016 by the Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS) in Uganda. We measured financial risk (households’ health expenditure) by money paid for health care services. We estimated the “probit” model to investigate the effect of disability on health financial risk. Results A total of 19,305 households were included in this study. Almost 32% of households paid money for health care services access, among which 32% paid through out-of-pocket. Almost 41% of household heads were affected by disability. The majority (73%) of families went to the public sector for health care services. The mean age was 45 years (SD ± 15). We find that disability is significantly associated with the household financial risk (p < 0.01). The private sector’s choice for health care services is likely to positively affect the financial risk compared to the public sector (p < 0.01). The wealthier the household was, the more money paid for health service was (p < 0.01). Conclusion Our results indicated that disability and household socio-demographic characteristics were associated with health financial risk in Uganda. Identifying families with disability and experiencing difficult living conditions constitute an entry point for health authorities to enhance health coverage progress in low and middle-income countries.

Kate Kenny ◽  
Marianna Fotaki

AbstractWhistleblowers are a vital means of protecting society because they provide information about serious wrongdoing. And yet, people who speak up can suffer. Even so, debates on whistleblowing focus on compelling employees to come forward, often overlooking the risk involved. Theoretical understanding of whistleblowers’ post-disclosure experience is weak because tangible and material impacts are poorly understood due partly to a lack of empirical detail on the financial costs of speaking out. To address this, we present findings from a novel empirical study surveying whistleblowers. We demonstrate how whistleblowers who leave their role as a result of speaking out can lose both the financial and temporal resources necessary to redevelop their livelihoods post-disclosure. We also show how associated costs involving significant legal and health expenditure can rise. Based on these insights, our first contribution is to present a new conceptual framing of post-disclosure experiences, drawing on feminist theory, that emphasizes the bodily vulnerability of whistleblowers and their families. Our second contribution repositions whistleblowing as a form of labour defending against precarity, which involves new expenses, takes significant time, and often must be carried out with depleted income. Bringing forth the intersubjective aspect of the whistleblowing experience, our study shows how both the post-disclosure survival of whistleblowers, and their capacity to speak, depend on institutional supports or, in their absence, on personal networks. By reconceptualizing post-disclosure experiences in this way—as material, embodied and intersubjective—practical implications for whistleblower advocacy and policy emerge, alongside contributions to theoretical debates. Reversing typical formulations in business ethics, we turn extant debates on the ethical duty of employees to speak up against wrongdoing on their heads. We argue instead for a responsibility to protect whistleblowers exposed to vulnerability, a duty owed by those upon whose behalf they speak.

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