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Author(s):  
Soroush Sharghi ◽  
Reza Kerachian

Abstract This paper presents a new water market mechanism, which can be used for selecting the best trading policy by incorporating the uncertainties of total annual available water and wholesale price of agricultural products. In this mechanism, water users are asked to submit bid packages via a web-based platform. A bid package represents the real values that a user puts on different quantities of withdrawn groundwater considering its quality. Then, the most reliable water trading policy as well as the price of water are calculated by taking the market endogenous and exogenous uncertainties into account using the regret theory. The results show that by applying the proposed uncertainty-based smart groundwater market mechanisms to the Nough Plain in Iran, the average productivity of water users increases about 18% compared to the status quo condition. Furthermore, based on the outputs of the proposed market model, groundwater is finally distributed to agricultural users almost proportional to their farms area.


Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (22) ◽  
pp. 7709
Author(s):  
Günter Müller-Czygan ◽  
Viktoriya Tarasyuk ◽  
Christian Wagner ◽  
Manuela Wimmer

Water is increasingly taking center stage when it comes to coping with climate change. Especially in urban areas, negative consequences from heavy rainfall events and prolonged dry periods are rising worldwide. In the past, the various tasks of urban water management were performed by different departments that often did not cooperate with each other (water supply, wastewater disposal, green space irrigation, etc.), as the required water supply was not a question of available water volumes. This is already changing with climate change, in some cases even dramatically. More and more, it is necessary to consider how to distribute available water resources in urban areas, especially during dry periods, since wastewater treatment is also becoming more complex and costly. In the future, urban water management will examine water use in terms of its various objectives, and will need to provide alternative water resources for these different purposes (groundwater, river water, storm water, treated wastewater, etc.). The necessary technological interconnection requires intelligent digital systems. Furthermore, the water industry must also play its role in global CO2 reduction and make its procedural treatment processes more efficient; this will also only succeed with adequate digital systems. Although digitization has experienced an enormous surge in development over the last five years and numerous solutions are available to address the challenges described previously, there is still a large gap between the scope of offerings and their implementation. Researchers at Hof University of Applied Sciences have investigated the reasons for this imbalance as part of WaterExe4.0, the first meta-study on digitization in the German-speaking water industry, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Only 11% of roughly 700 identified products, projects and studies relate to real applications. For example, the surveyed experts of the water sector stated that everyday problems are considered too little or hardly at all in new solutions, which greatly overburdens users. Furthermore, they see no adequate possibility for a systematic analysis of new ideas to identify significant obstacles and to find the best way to start and implement a digitization project. The results from four methodologically different sub-surveys (literature and market research, survey, expert interviews and workshops) provide a reliable overview of the current situation in the German-speaking water industry and its expectations for the future. The results are also transferable to other countries.


2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (4) ◽  
pp. 1282-1296
Author(s):  
Koffi Bertin Yao ◽  
Kouassi Joseph Kouakou ◽  
Koffi Adjoumani ◽  
Kouadio Laurent Kossonou ◽  
Tanoh Hilaire Kouakou

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a plant of great importance for food, agriculture, economy and medicine. This importance explains its high demand, intensified by its cultivation conditions, particularly the growing rarity of fertile land and available water. To contribute to this species yield optimization, the effects of fertilizers type [chemical: NPK (12-22-22) and organic: Agribionate] and a control (C) combined to two watering modes (traditional sprinkler and bottle drip) on plants growth and yield have been studied from sowing to harvest. Plant growth (stem length and diameter at the collar, number of leaves and flowers per plant, leaf area) and yield (fruit weight, diameter and length, yield) were assessed. ANOVA2 tests revealed that fertilization (NPK and agribionate) favored plant growth (respectively 34.20 and 37.32 cm in height against 6.67 cm) and increased yield (7498, 66 and 6600.46 Kg/ha against 1558 Kg/ha) with the largest and heaviest fruits (145.69 and 142.80 g) compared to the control (C) that produced the smallest ones (59.35 g). About watering, the bottle drip mode was more beneficial than traditional sprinkler one for cucumber organ growth and plant yield. The interaction (fertilizer type × watering mode) indicated that the best results were obtained with the Agribionate fertilizer watered with the bottle drip method.


Author(s):  
Ifie-emi Francis Oseke ◽  
Geophery Kwame Anornu ◽  
Kwaku Amaning Adjei ◽  
Martin Obada Eduvie

Abstract. The strategies and actions in the management of African River Basins in a warming climate environment have been studied. Using the Gurara Reservoir Catchment in North-West Nigeria as a case study, summations were proposed using hypothetical climate scenarios considering the Global Climate Models prediction and linear trend of the data. Four (4) proposed scenarios of temperature increase (1 % and 2 %) coupled with a decrease in precipitation of (−5 % and −10 %) were combined and applied for the study area. The Water Evaluation and Planning Tool was used to model and evaluates the impact of the earth's rising temperature and declining rainfall on the hydrology and availability of water by investigating its resilience to climate change. Modelling results indicate a reduction in available water within the study area from 4.3 % to 3.5 % compared to the baseline with no climate change scenario, revealing the current water management strategy as not sustainable, uncoordinated, and resulting in overexploitation. The findings could assist in managing future water resources in the catchment by accentuating the need to put in place appropriate adaptation measures to foster resilience to climate change. Practically, it is pertinent to shape more effective policies and regulations within catchments for effective water resources management in reducing water shortage as well as achieving downstream water needs and power benefit in thefuture, while also allowing flexibility in the operation of a reservoir with the ultimate goal of adapting to climate change.


OENO One ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 55 (4) ◽  
pp. 115-127
Author(s):  
Eve Laroche Pinel ◽  
Sylvie Duthoit ◽  
Anne D. Costard ◽  
Jacques Rousseau ◽  
Jérome Hourdel ◽  
...  

The wine industry must face many challenges because of climate change. One of them is the increase in temperatures and droughts events. These changes sometimes lead to yield losses and can also impact the quality of the wine produced (e.g., increased alcohol content). The management of available water is also a sensitive issue as water requirements for vineyard irrigation are quickly increasing in the south of France. In this context, there is a need for a decision tool that can help evaluate the vine water status through the entire growth season at a large scale. To address this issue, we have previously developed a model (see Laroche-Pinel et al. 2021a) which predicts the vine Stem Water Potential (Ψstem) using Sentinel-2 (S2) images. This model was developed based on a field campaign over three years. The present study now aims to investigate the feedback of winegrowers on the outputs of our model. Therefore, it was applied on the plots of five wine estates that do not belong to the set used in the initial paper. The qualitative results show interesting spatial and temporal consistency in accordance with winegrower knowledge, irrigation data, and weather forecast. The predicted Ψstemhighlights spatial variability in vine fields where a water source emerges and reflects the differences between vine fields with a drip or sparkling irrigation or without an irrigation system. The predicted Ψstem also clearly reacts to a peak in temperature. According to their feedback, three of the five winegrowers would be glad to use this service in the years to come.


Agriculture ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 1089
Author(s):  
Antonio A. Pinto ◽  
Susana Fischer ◽  
Rosemarie Wilckens ◽  
Luis Bustamante ◽  
Marisol T. Berti

The increasing water scarcity affects the agricultural sector, and it is a significant constraining factor for crop production in many areas of the world. Water resource management and use related to crop productivity is the most important factor in many crops. Since consumer demands healthy food, the nutritive quality and the active ingredient need to be considered within the productive issue. The objective of this study was to determine water technical efficiency related to seed yield and seed protein content and composition in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) under water stress using data envelopment analysis (DEA). The study was conducted in Chillan, Chile in two growing seasons. As water availability increased, seed yield, globulin, and albumin yield increased, particularly in the genotype Cahuil. The higher average efficiency levels for the DEA were 46.7% and 39.2% in Cahuil in both seasons at 20% available water (AW). The highest average efficiency of globulin yield was recorded in the same genotype (Cahuil). The highest multi-product technical efficiency levels in all input and output included in this study were observed in Cahuil, Regalona, and Morado under water scarcity in both seasons. In future studies related to crop management, DEA provides a good framework for estimating efficiency under restricted factors and multi-product results.


Author(s):  
Reza Iranmanesh ◽  
Navid Jalalkamali ◽  
Omid Tayari

Abstract The comprehensive large-scale assessment of future available water resources is crucial for food security in countries dealing with water shortages like Iran. Kerman province, located in the south east of Iran, is an agricultural hub and has vital importance for food security. This study attempts to project the impact of climate change on available water resources of this province and then, by defining different scenarios, to determine the amount of necessary reduction in cultivation areas to achieve water balance over the province. The GFDL-ESM2M climate change model, RCP scenarios, and the CCT (Climate Change Toolkit) were used to project changes in climatic variables, and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used for hydrological simulation. The future period for which forecasts are made is 2020–2050. Based on the coefficient of determination (R2) and Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient, the CCT demonstrates good performance in data downscaling. The results show that under all climate change scenarios, most parts of the province are likely to experience an increase in precipitation yet to achieve water balance a 10% decrease in the cultivation area is necessary under the RCP8.5 scenario. The results of the SWAT model show that green water storage in central and western parts of the province is higher than that in other parts.


2021 ◽  
Vol 1197 (1) ◽  
pp. 012009
Author(s):  
Lini R Chandran ◽  
V Ardra ◽  
Y MuhammedIrfan ◽  
M S Sruthy ◽  
V S UnniNair

Abstract Groundwater is considered as a precious natural resource which serves as the main source of agriculture and domestic purposes. Kerala state is blessed with around 3000mm rainfall annually because of two prominent monsoon. But the available water is insufficient to meet the demand of people. Increase in population and water demand cause threat to overall water balance. Ground water resource must be managed well to overcome these problems. Ground water recharging is a major requirement for sustainable utilization of water resources. It also becomes highly relevant to assess the water recharge zones and to preserve water quality. This study proposes identification of suitable water recharge sites in Karamana river basin, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. Karamana river supplies majority of drinking water in Thiruvananthapuram district. Since its quality is deteriorating day by day, appropriate locations for recharging groundwater is identified using GIS technique. Various thematic maps like soil, slope, drainage, geomorphology and land utilization that affect the groundwater recharge is integrated and weighted overlay analysis is adopted to find the groundwater recharge potential map. Weights are assigned using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) by constructing a pairwise comparison matrix. The result depicts the groundwater recharge potential zones which is divided into very high, high, moderate, low and very low potential areas.


2021 ◽  
Vol 904 (1) ◽  
pp. 012010
Author(s):  
Z A Abdulhamed ◽  
S A Abas ◽  
A H Noaman ◽  
N M Abood

Abstract Stress is any physiological, physical or chemical change that leads to disturbance and imbalance in the plant. Water stress is one of the most important environmental stresses affecting plant growth and production. It is also known as the lack of available water in the soil to be absorbed by the plant at a stage of its growth, or the inability of the plant. On the absorption of water even if it is naturally present in the root environment due to the force affecting the holding of water molecules, as it was described as the state in which the amount of water absorbed by the roots is less than the water lost through transpiration from the vegetative system, meaning that it is the state in which the effort The water content of the plant and the fullness of its cells is low to a degree that affects the conduct of vital and physiological processes. During the occurrence of water stress, as the term “drought” is not accurate in the sense used, but it is sometimes expressed as the phenomenon of water shortage as a result of climatic elements of multiple weather conditions, As for the agricultural concept of drought (Agricultural Drought), it is according to the growth and formation of the crop, and it is assumed that it begins when the ready water is drained from the root zone, plant goes through three stages: First stage increases the water loss and the transpiration process until it reaches a point where the amount of water lost by transpiration exceeds the amount of water absorbed by the roots. On the water balance between these two processes in adaptation, and when the water stress intensifies, the plant moves to the third stage, after which the plants lose a large part of the water through transpiration, the stomata are closed and the photosynthesis process stops. Therefore water stress (drought) alone is one of the most influential environmental stresses in reducing maize productivity, Therefore, the role of the plant breeder came through the implementation of breeding programs for hybridization and selection until it obtains a plant adapted to drought through the occurrence of morphological changes that make plants phenotypically adaptable to conditions of lack of water and includes an increase in root size and reduction of leaf area.


Land ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 1151
Author(s):  
Jaeyoung Song ◽  
Sungbo Shim ◽  
Ji-Sun Kim ◽  
Jae-Hee Lee ◽  
Young-Hwa Byun ◽  
...  

Land surface processes are rarely studied in Detection and Attribution Model Inter-comparison Project (DAMIP) experiments on climate change. We analyzed a CMIP6 DAMIP historical experiment by using multi-linear regression (MLRM) and analysis of variance methods. We focused on energy and water budgets, including gross primary productivity (GPP). In MLRM, we estimated each forcing’s contribution and identified the role of natural forcing, which is usually ignored. Contributions of the forcing factors varied by region, and high-ranked variables such as net radiation could receive multiple influences. Greenhouse gases (GHG) accelerated energy and water cycles over the global land surface, including evapotranspiration, runoff, GPP, and water-use efficiency. Aerosol (AER) forcing displayed the opposite characteristics, and natural forcing accounted for short-term changes. A long-term analysis of total soil moisture and water budget indicated that as the AER increases, the available water on the global land increases continuously. In the recent past, an increase in net radiation (i.e., a lowered AER) reduced surface moisture and hastened surface water cycle (GHG effect). The results imply that aerosol emission and its counterbalance to GHG are essential to most land surface processes. The exception to this is GPP, which was overdominated by GHG effects.


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