Pathway Inhibition
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Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 81
Author(s):  
Csongor G. Lengyel ◽  
Sadaqat Hussain ◽  
Andreas Seeber ◽  
Sara Jamil Nidhamalddin ◽  
Dario Trapani ◽  
...  

Gastric cancer (GC) is the third leading cause of cancer-associated death worldwide. The majority of patients are diagnosed at an advanced/metastatic stage of disease due to a lack of specific symptoms and lack of screening programs, especially in Western countries. Thus, despite the improvement in GC therapeutic opportunities, the survival is disappointing, and the definition of the optimal treatment is still an unmet need. Novel diagnostic techniques were developed in clinical trials in order to characterize the genetic profile of GCs and new potential molecular pathways, such as the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) pathway, were identified in order to improve patient’s survival by using target therapies. The aim of this review is to summarize the role and the impact of FGFR signaling in GC and to provide an overview regarding the potential effectiveness of anti-FGFR agents in GC treatment in the context of precision medicine.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Patricia Dias Carvalho ◽  
Flavia Martins ◽  
Joana Carvalho ◽  
Maria Jose Oliveira ◽  
Sergia Velho

KRAS signaling has been extensively studied, yet the clarification between KRAS-autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms are still less explored. Understanding how KRAS signaling and effects are affected by exogenous stimuli can provide valuable insights not only to understand resistance mechanisms that justify pathway inhibition failure, but also to uncover novel therapeutic targets for mutant KRAS patients. Hence, aiming at understanding KRAS-autonomous versus non autonomous mechanisms, we studied the response of two mutant KRAS colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT116 and LS174T) - control and KRAS silenced- to TGFβ1-activated fibroblasts secretome. By performing a total proteome analysis, we observed that TGFβ1-activated fibroblast-secreted factors triggered cell line-specific proteome alterations and that mutant KRAS governs approximately 1/3 of those alterations. Moreover, the analysis of the impact of exogenous factors on the modulation of KRAS proteome revealed that, in both cell lines, more than 2/3 of the KRAS-associated proteome is controlled in a KRAS-non-autonomous manner and dependent on the exogenous factors. This work highlights the context-dependency of KRAS-associated signaling and reinforces the importance of establishing more integrative models resembling the complexity of the tumor microenvironment to study KRAS-associated signals.


2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (1) ◽  
pp. e2110812119
Author(s):  
Nasiha S. Ahmed ◽  
Jovylyn Gatchalian ◽  
Josephine Ho ◽  
Mannix J. Burns ◽  
Nasun Hah ◽  
...  

Macrophages induce a number of inflammatory response genes in response to stimulation with microbial ligands. In response to endotoxin Lipid A, a gene-activation cascade of primary followed by secondary-response genes is induced. Epigenetic state is an important regulator of the kinetics, specificity, and mechanism of gene activation of these two classes. In particular, SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes are required for the induction of secondary-response genes, but not primary-response genes, which generally exhibit open chromatin. Here, we show that a recently discovered variant of the SWI/SNF complex, the noncanonical BAF complex (ncBAF), regulates secondary-response genes in the interferon (IFN) response pathway. Inhibition of bromodomain-containing protein 9 (BRD9), a subunit of the ncBAF complex, with BRD9 bromodomain inhibitors (BRD9i) or a degrader (dBRD9) led to reduction in a number of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) following stimulation with endotoxin lipid A. BRD9-dependent genes overlapped highly with a subset of genes differentially regulated by BET protein inhibition with JQ1 following endotoxin stimulation. We find that the BET protein BRD4 is cobound with BRD9 in unstimulated macrophages and corecruited upon stimulation to ISG promoters along with STAT1, STAT2, and IRF9, components of the ISGF3 complex activated downstream of IFN-alpha receptor stimulation. In the presence of BRD9i or dBRD9, STAT1-, STAT2-, and IRF9-binding is reduced, in some cases with reduced binding of BRD4. These results demonstrate a specific role for BRD9 and the ncBAF complex in ISG activation and identify an activity for BRD9 inhibitors and degraders in dampening endotoxin- and IFN-dependent gene expression.


Author(s):  
Mattia Galli ◽  
Francesco Franchi ◽  
Fabiana Rollini ◽  
Latonya Been ◽  
Patrick Abou Jaoude ◽  
...  

Aim: Inhibition of thrombin-mediated signaling processes using a vascular dose of rivaroxaban in adjunct to antiplatelet therapy, known as dual-pathway inhibition (DPI), reduces atherothrombotic events in patients with stable atherosclerotic disease. However, there are limited data on the pharmacodynamic (PD) effects of this strategy. Methods and Results: This investigation was conducted in selected cohorts of patients (n=40) with stable atherosclerotic disease enrolled within a larger prospective PD study who were treated with either aspirin plus clopidogrel (DAPT), aspirin plus rivaroxaban 2.5 mg/bid (DPI) or DAPT plus rivaroxaban 2.5 mg/bid. Multiple PD assays assessing of markers of thrombosis were used. PD endpoints included platelet-mediated global thrombogenicity measured by light transmittance aggregometry (LTA) following stimuli with CATF [collagen‐related peptide +adenosine diphosphate (ADP) +tissue factor (TF)], markers of P2Y12 reactivity, markers of platelet aggregation using LTA following several stimuli (arachidonic acid, ADP, collagen, TF, and TRAP), thrombin generation and thrombus formation. There was no difference in platelet-mediated global thrombogenicity between groups. Rivaroxaban significantly reduced thrombin generation and was associated with a trend towards reduced TF-induced platelet aggregation. Clopidogrel-based treatments reduced markers of P2Y12 signaling and TRAP‐induced platelet aggregation. There were no differences between groups on markers of cyclooxygenase‐1 mediated activity. Conclusions: Compared with DAPT, DPI does not result in any differences in platelet-mediated global thrombogenicity, but reduces thrombin generation. These PD observations support that modulating thrombin generation by means of factor Xa inhibition in adjunct to antiplatelet therapy provides effective antithrombotic effects, supporting the efficacy and safety findings of DPI observed in clinical


Author(s):  
Tammy K. Truong ◽  
Rida A. Malik ◽  
Xintong Yao ◽  
James C. Fredenburgh ◽  
Alan R. Stafford ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Author(s):  
Shengbiao Li ◽  
Yuping He ◽  
Kexin Chen ◽  
Jiaojiao Sun ◽  
Lulu Zhang ◽  
...  

Glioblastoma, the most aggressive form of malignant glioma, is very difficult to treat because of its aggressively invasive nature and high recurrence rates. RAS-selective lethal 3 (RSL3), a well-known inhibitor of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), could effectively induce oxidative cell death in glioblastoma cells through ferroptosis, and several signaling pathways are involved in this process. However, the role of the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) pathway in glioblastoma cell ferroptosis has not yet been investigated. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the underlying mechanism of the NF-κB pathway in RSL3-induced ferroptosis in glioblastoma cells. We found that RSL3 led to an increase in lipid ROS concentration and downregulation of ferroptosis-related proteins such as GPX4, ATF4, and SLC7A11 (xCT) in glioblastoma cells. Additionally, the NF-κB pathway was activated by RSL3, and its inhibition by BAY 11-7082 could alleviate ferroptosis. The murine xenograft tumor model indicated that NF-κB pathway inhibition could mitigate the antitumor effects of RSL3 in vivo. Furthermore, we found that GPX4 knockdown could not effectively induce ferroptosis. However, NF-κB pathway activation coupled with GPX4 silencing induced ferroptosis. Additionally, ATF4 and xCT expression might be regulated by the NF-κB pathway. Collectively, our results revealed that the NF-κB pathway plays a novel role in RSL3-induced ferroptosis in glioblastoma cells and provides a new therapeutic strategy for glioblastoma treatment.


Biomedicines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 28
Author(s):  
Gerardo Della Sala ◽  
Consiglia Pacelli ◽  
Francesca Agriesti ◽  
Ilaria Laurenzana ◽  
Francesco Tucci ◽  
...  

Defining the metabolic phenotypes of cancer-initiating cells or cancer stem cells and of their differentiated counterparts might provide fundamental knowledge for improving or developing more effective therapies. In this context we extensively characterized the metabolic profiles of two osteosarcoma-derived cell lines, the 3AB-OS cancer stem cells and the parental MG-63 cells. To this aim Seahorse methodology-based metabolic flux analysis under a variety of conditions complemented with real time monitoring of cell growth by impedentiometric technique and confocal imaging were carried out. The results attained by selective substrate deprivation or metabolic pathway inhibition clearly show reliance of 3AB-OS on glycolysis and of MG-63 on glutamine oxidation. Treatment of the osteosarcoma cell lines with cisplatin resulted in additive inhibitory effects in MG-63 cells depleted of glutamine whereas it antagonized under selective withdrawal of glucose in 3AB-OS cells thereby manifesting a paradoxical pro-survival, cell-cycle arrest in S phase and antioxidant outcome. All together the results of this study highlight that the efficacy of specific metabolite starvation combined with chemotherapeutic drugs depends on the cancer compartment and suggest cautions in using it as a generalizable curative strategy.


Author(s):  
Lucile Hoch ◽  
Nathalie Bourg ◽  
Fanny Degrugillier ◽  
Céline Bruge ◽  
Manon Benabides ◽  
...  

Background and Purpose: Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type R3 (LGMD R3) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by a progressive proximal muscle weakness and caused by mutations in the SGCA gene encoding alpha-sarcoglycan (α-SG). Here, we report the results of a mechanistic screening ascertaining the molecular mechanisms involved in the degradation of the most prevalent misfolded R77C-α-SG protein. Experimental Approach: We performed a combinatorial study to identify drugs potentializing the effect of a low dose of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib on the R77C-α-SG degradation inhibition. Key Results: Analysis of the screening associated to artificial intelligence-based predictive ADMET characterization of the hits led to identification of the HDAC inhibitor givinostat as potential therapeutical candidate. Functional characterization revealed that givinostat effect was related to autophagic pathway inhibition, unveiling new theories concerning degradation pathways of misfolded SG proteins. Conclusion and Implications: Beyond the identification of a new therapeutic option for LGMD R3 patients, our results shed light on the potential repurposing of givinostat for the treatment of other genetic diseases sharing similar protein degradation defects such as LGMD R5 and cystic fibrosis.


Hematology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (1) ◽  
pp. 76-84
Author(s):  
Jori E. May ◽  
Stephan Moll

Abstract Arterial thrombotic events in younger patients without a readily apparent etiology present significant diagnostic and management challenges. We present a structured approach to diagnosis with consideration of common causes, including atherosclerosis and embolism, as well as uncommon causes, including medications and substances, vascular and anatomic abnormalities, systemic disorders, and thrombophilias. We highlight areas of management that have evolved within the past 5 years, including the use of dual-pathway inhibition in atherosclerotic disease, antithrombotic therapy selection in embolic stroke of undetermined source and left ventricular thrombus, the role of closure of patent foramen ovale for secondary stroke prevention, and the thrombotic potential of coronavirus disease 2019 infection and vaccination. We conclude with a representative case to illustrate the application of the diagnostic framework and discuss the importance of consideration of bleeding risk and patient preference in determining the appropriate management plan.


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