Osteosarcoma Cell
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Author(s):  
Enrica Urciuoli ◽  
Valentina D’Oria ◽  
Stefania Petrini ◽  
Barbara Peruzzi

Besides its structural properties in the nucleoskeleton, Lamin A/C is a mechanosensor protein involved in perceiving the elasticity of the extracellular matrix. In this study we provide evidence about Lamin A/C-mediated regulation of osteosarcoma cell adhesion and spreading on substrates with tissue-specific elasticities. Our working hypothesis is based on the observation that low-aggressive and bone-resident SaOS-2 osteosarcoma cells express high level of Lamin A/C in comparison to highly metastatic, preferentially to the lung, osteosarcoma 143B cells, thereby suggesting a role for Lamin A/C in tumor cell tropism. Specifically, LMNA gene over-expression in 143B cells induced a reduction in tumor cell aggressiveness in comparison to parental cells, with decreased proliferation rate and reduced migration capability. Furthermore, LMNA reintegration into 143B cells changed the adhesion properties of tumor cells, from a preferential tropism toward the 1.5 kPa PDMS substrate (resembling normal lung parenchyma) to the 28 kPa (resembling pre-mineralized bone osteoid matrix). Our study suggests that Lamin A/C expression could be involved in the organ tropism of tumor cells, thereby providing a rationale for further studies focused on the definition of cancer mechanism of metastatization.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (9) ◽  
pp. e003114
Author(s):  
Tsung-Yi Lin ◽  
Jeong A Park ◽  
Alan Long ◽  
Hong-Fen Guo ◽  
Nai-Kong V Cheung

BackgroundThe prognosis for metastatic Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (EFT) is still poor despite high-dose chemotherapy and radiation treatment. Immunotherapies hold promise, but cancer antigen-targeting immunotherapies have largely failed to induce effective T cell receptor-mediated antitumor response. However, T cell-engaging bispecific antibodies (T-BsAbs) have yet to be adequately explored.MethodsRehumanized STEAP1-IgG was used to build T-BsAb (named BC261) using the 2+2 IgG-[L]-scFv platform carrying the anti-CD3 huOKT3 scFv as the second specificity. Its binding epitope mapping, species cross-reactivity, tumor cell line staining, and in vitro cytotoxicity were investigated thoroughly. Its potency in driving tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) was quantified using bioluminescence, correlated with in vivo antitumor response against cell line-derived or patient-derived xenografts (CDXs or PDXs) and compared with anti-STEAP1 T-BsAbs built on representative antibody platforms.ResultsBC261 binding epitope was mapped to its second extracellular domain of STEAP1 shared among canine and primate orthologs. BC261 induced potent cytotoxicity against panels of EFT, prostate cancer, and canine osteosarcoma cell lines despite their low antigen density. BC261 drove significantly more TILs into tumors (30-fold) and exerted superior antitumor effects compared with the other standard BsAb platforms. The antitumor efficacy of BC261 was consistent against EFT and prostate cancer CDXs and PDXs.ConclusionsBC261 was highly efficient in driving T cell infiltration and tumor ablation. Either as stand-alone therapeutics or for ex vivo armed T cells, this novel anti-STEAP1 T-BsAb BC261 has therapeutic potential.


Author(s):  
Songou Zhang ◽  
Lei He ◽  
Jinxiang Shang ◽  
Long Chen ◽  
Yifan Xu ◽  
...  

Background: Carvacrol is a monoterpenic phenol extracted from traditional Chinese herbs, including oregano and thyme. Currently, carvacrol has been widely studied for its therapeutic role in central nervous system diseases, liver diseases and digestive system cancer. Objective: However, the role of carvacrol in osteosarcoma and its underlying molecular mechanism remain elusive. Here, we aimed to examine the anticancer effects of carvacrol on osteosarcoma. Methods: The effects of carvacrol on the osteosarcoma proliferation capacity were revealed by CCK-8 and colony formation assays. Flow cytometry and Hoechst assays were used to determine the effects of carvacrol on osteosarcoma cell apoptosis. The effect of carvacrol on migration and invasion of osteosarcoma cells was determined by wound healing and transwell tests. Protein expression was evaluated by WB assays. The suppressive effects of carvacrol on osteosarcoma in vivo were examined by a xenograft animal model, immunohistochemistry and HE staining. Results: We demonstrated that carvacrol treatment reduced viability and inhibited the colony formation of U2OS and 143B cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Apoptotic cell number increased after exposure to carvacrol. Meanwhile, the expression of Bax increased, and that of Bcl-2 decreased by carvacrol treatment. In addition, the MMP-9 expression and migration and invasion of 143B and U2OS cells were inhibited by carvacrol. We also found that these carvacrol-induced effects on osteosarcoma are associated with the regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that carvacrol suppresses proliferation, migration, invasion and promotes apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells, in part by regulating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.


Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 2268
Author(s):  
Mélanie Lavaud ◽  
Mathilde Mullard ◽  
Robel Tesfaye ◽  
Jérôme Amiaud ◽  
Mélanie Legrand ◽  
...  

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and teenagers. In many cases, such as poor response to treatment or the presence of metastases at diagnosis, the survival rate of patients remains very low. Although in the literature, more and more studies are emerging on the role of Ubiquitin-Specific Proteases (USPs) in the development of many cancers, few data exist regarding OS. In this context, RNA-sequencing analysis of OS cells and mesenchymal stem cells differentiated or not differentiated into osteoblasts reveals increased expression of four USPs in OS tumor cells: USP6, USP27x, USP41 and USP43. Tissue microarray analysis of patient biopsies demonstrates the nucleic and/or cytoplasmic expression of these four USPs at the protein level. Interestingly, Kaplan–Meyer analysis shows that the expression of two USPs, USP6 and USP41, is correlated with patient survival. In vivo experiments using a preclinical OS model, finally demonstrate that PR619, a USP inhibitor able to enhance protein ubiquitination in OS cell lines, reduces primary OS tumor growth and the development of lung metastases. In this context, in vitro experiments show that PR619 decreases the viability of OS cells, mainly by inducing a caspase3/7-dependent cell apoptosis. Overall, these results demonstrate the relevance of targeting USPs in OS.


PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e12072
Author(s):  
Yufan Zhu ◽  
Zhiqiang Yang ◽  
Yuanlong Xie ◽  
Min Yang ◽  
Yufeng Zhang ◽  
...  

Objective This study aims to explore the effect of daidzein, which is a natural isoflavone compound mainly extracted from soybeans, on osteosarcoma and the potential molecular mechanism. Material and Methods 143B and U2OS osteosarcoma cells were treated with gradient concentrations of daidzein, and MTT assay was used to determine the cell proliferation capacity and IC50. Hoechst 33342 staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI detection were used to determine apoptosis. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry, and migration ability were detected by transwell assays and scratch wound assay. An osteosarcoma xenograft mice model was applied to investigate the effect of daidzein on osteosarcoma in vivo. Systematic pharmacology and molecular modeling analysis were applied to predict the target of daidzein to osteosarcoma, and the target Src was verified by western blotting. We also observed the effect of daidzein on cell proliferation and apoptosis of Src-overexpressing osteosarcoma cells. Results In vitro, daidzein significantly inhibited 143B and U2OS osteosarcoma cell proliferation and migration, and induced cell cycle arrest. In vivo, daidzein exerts antitumor effects in osteosarcoma xenograft mice. After systematic screening and analysis, Src-MAPK signaling pathway was predicted as the highest-ranked pathway. Western blot demonstrated that daidzein inhibited phosphorylation of the Src-ERK pathway in osteosarcoma cells. Also, overexpression of Src could partially reverse the inhibitory effects of daidzein on osteosarcoma cell proliferation. Conclusion Daidzein exerts an antitumor effect on osteosarcoma, and the mechanism may be through the Src-ERK pathway.


2021 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Author(s):  
Jian Zhou ◽  
Zhen-yu Tang ◽  
Xiao-liang Sun

The PI3K/AKT pathway plays an important role in the development of osteosarcoma. RNF38 interferes with activation of the AKT pathway. Cryptochrome1 (CRY1) inhibits osteosarcoma proliferation through the AKT pathway. We aimed to clarify whether RNF38 affects the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells by regulating the PI3K/AKT pathway through its interaction with CRY1. The mRNA levels of RNF38 were determined using qRT-PCR. Protein levels of RNF38, p-p70S6, p70S6, +p-AKT, AKT, p-mTOR, mTOR, and CRY1 were detected by western blotting. The proliferation of osteosarcoma cells was detected using CCK-8 and colony formation assays. The interaction between CRY1 and RNF38 was detected by co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays. RNF38 expression was higher in Saos-2 and U20S cells than in hFOB cells. Overexpression of RNF38 promoted the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells, the number of colonies, and p-AKT and p-mTOR levels, suggesting that overexpression of RNF38 activated the PI3K/AKT pathway. In addition, RNF38 directly binds to the N-terminal of CRY1. The simultaneous knockdown of RNF38 and CRY1 restored the level of p-AKT, which was reduced by RNF38 knockdown alone. RNF38 affects the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells by regulating the PI3K/AKT pathway through its interaction with CRY1.


Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (16) ◽  
pp. 4805
Author(s):  
Ana S. Martins ◽  
Ana L. M. Batista de Carvalho ◽  
Maria P. M. Marques ◽  
Ana M. Gil

This paper reports the first metabolomics study of the impact of new chelates Pt2Spm and Pd2Spm (Spm = Spermine) on human osteosarcoma cellular metabolism, compared to the conventional platinum drugs cisplatin and oxaliplatin, in order to investigate the effects of different metal centers and ligands. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance metabolomics was used to identify meaningful metabolite variations in polar cell extracts collected during exposure to each of the four chelates. Cisplatin and oxaliplatin induced similar metabolic fingerprints of changing metabolite levels (affecting many amino acids, organic acids, nucleotides, choline compounds and other compounds), thus suggesting similar mechanisms of action. For these platinum drugs, a consistent uptake of amino acids is noted, along with an increase in nucleotides and derivatives, namely involved in glycosylation pathways. The Spm chelates elicit a markedly distinct metabolic signature, where inverse features are observed particularly for amino acids and nucleotides. Furthermore, Pd2Spm prompts a weaker response from osteosarcoma cells as compared to its platinum analogue, which is interesting as the palladium chelate exhibits higher cytotoxicity. Putative suggestions are discussed as to the affected cellular pathways and the origins of the distinct responses. This work demonstrates the value of untargeted metabolomics in measuring the response of cancer cells to either conventional or potential new drugs, seeking further understanding (or possible markers) of drug performance at the molecular level.


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