antitumor effects
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
N. N. H. Shosha ◽  
S. Elmasry ◽  
M. Moawad ◽  
S. H. Ismail ◽  
M. Elsayed

Abstract Nanoparticles are considered viable options in the treatment of cancer. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) and magnetite folate core shell (MFCS) on leukemic and hepatocarcinoma cell cultures as well as their effect on the animal model of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML). Through current study nanoparticles were synthesized, characterized by various techniques, and their properties were studied to confirm their nanostructure. Invivo study, nanoparticles were evaluated to inspect their cytotoxic activity against SNU-182 (human hepatocellular carcinoma), K562 (human leukemia), and THLE2 (human normal epithelial liver) cells via MTT test. Apoptotic signaling proteins Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 expression were inspected through RT-PCR method. A cytotoxic effect of MNPs and MFCS was detected in previous cell cultures. Moreover, the apoptosis was identified through significant up-regulation of caspase-3, with Bcl-2 down-regulation. Invitro study, AML was induced in rats by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea followed by oral treatment with MNPS and MFCS. Biochemical indices such as aspartate and alanine amino transferases, and lactate dehydrogenase activities, uric acid, complete blood count, and Beta -2-microglubulin were assessed in serum. Immunophenotyping for CD34 and CD38 detection was performed. Liver, kidney, and bone marrow were microscopically examined. Bcl-2 promoter methylation, and mRNA levels were examined. Although, both MNPs and MFCS depict amelioration in biochemical parameters, MFCS alleviated them toward normal control. Anticancer activity of MNPs and MFCS was approved especially for AML. Whenever, administration of MFCS was more effective than MNPs. The present work is one of few studies used MFCS as anticancer agent.

Tao Yang ◽  
Zhengdong Deng ◽  
Lei Xu ◽  
Xiangyu Li ◽  
Tan Yang ◽  

Abstract Background Recent data indicated that macrophages may mutually interact with cancer cells to promote tumor progression and chemoresistance, but the interaction in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is obscure. Methods 10x Genomics single-cell sequencing technology was used to identified the role of macrophages in CCA. Then, we measured the expression and prognostic role of macrophage markers and aPKCɩ in 70 human CCA tissues. Moreover, we constructed monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) generated from peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) and polarized them into M1/M2 macrophages. A co-culture assay of the human CCA cell lines (TFK-1, EGI-1) and differentiated PBMCs-macrophages was established, and functional studies in vitro and in vivo was performed to explore the interaction between cancer cells and M2 macrophages. Furthermore, we established the cationic liposome-mediated co-delivery of gemcitabine and aPKCɩ-siRNA and detect the antitumor effects in CCA. Results M2 macrophage showed tumor-promoting properties in CCA. High levels of aPKCɩ expression and M2 macrophage infiltration were associated with metastasis and poor prognosis in CCA patients. Moreover, CCA patients with low M2 macrophages infiltration or low aPKCɩ expression benefited from postoperative gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. Further studies showed that M2 macrophages-derived TGFβ1 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and gemcitabine resistance in CCA cells through aPKCɩ-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway. Reciprocally, CCL5 was secreted more by CCA cells undergoing aPKCɩ-induced EMT and consequently modulated macrophage recruitment and polarization. Furthermore, the cationic liposome-mediated co-delivery of GEM and aPKCɩ-siRNA significantly inhibited macrophages infiltration and CCA progression. Conclusion our study demonstrates the role of Macrophages-aPKCɩ-CCL5 Feedback Loop in CCA, and proposes a novel therapeutic strategy of aPKCɩ-siRNA and GEM co-delivered by liposomes for CCA.

Ricardo Romero-Arguelles ◽  
César Iván Romo-Sáenz ◽  
Karla Morán-Santibáñez ◽  
Patricia Tamez-Guerra ◽  
Ramiro Quintanilla-Licea ◽  

Plant-associated microorganisms represent a potential source of new antitumor compounds. The aim of the present study was to isolate endophytic and rhizosphere Gram-positive bacteria from Ibervillea sonorae and produce extracts with antitumor activity. Methanol and ethyl acetate extracts were obtained from 28 d bacterial fermentation, after which murine L5178Y-R lymphoma cells growth inhibition was evaluated at concentrations ranging from 15.62 µg/mL to 500 µg/mL by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide reduction colorimetric assay. IC50 and the selectivity index (SI) were calculated and compared with healthy control human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Identification of the isolated strains was performed using the 16S ribosomal gene and by MALDI-TOF MS mass spectrometry. The endophytic and rhizosphere bacterial extracts from strains ISE-B22, ISE-B26, ISE-B27, ISS-A01, ISS-A06, and ISS-A16 showed significant (p < 0.05) L5178Y-R cell growth inhibition, compared with an untreated control. The rhizosphere Micromonospora echinospora isolate ISS-A16 showed the highest (90.48%) percentage of lymphoma cells growth inhibition and SI (19.1) for PBMC, whereas the Bacillus subtilis ISE-B26 isolate caused significant (p < 0.01) growth inhibition (84.32%) and a SI of 5.2. Taken together, results of the present study evidenced antitumor effects by I. sonorae endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria culture extracts. Further research will involve the elucidation of the compounds that exert the antitumor activity and their evaluation in pre-clinical studies.

Kishor Pant ◽  
Seth Richard ◽  
Sergio A. Gradilone

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a deadly form of liver cancer with limited therapeutic approaches. The pathogenesis of CCA involves the loss of primary cilia in cholangiocytes, an important organelle that regulates several key cellular functions including the regulation of cell polarity, growth, and differentiation, by a mechanism involving increased expression of deacetylases like HDAC6 and SIRT1. Therefore, cilia restoration may represent an alternative and novel therapeutic approach against CCA. Butyrate is produced by bacterial fermentation of fibers in the intestine and has been shown to inhibit SIRT1, showing antitumor effects on various cancers. Herein, we investigated the role of butyrate on CCA cell proliferation, migration, and EMT and evaluated the synergistic effects with specific HDAC6 inhibition. When CCA cells, including HuCCT1 and KMCH, were treated with butyrate, the cilia formation and acetylated-tubulin levels were increased, while no significant effects were observed in normal human cholangiocytes. Butyrate treatment also depicted reduced cell proliferation in HuCCT1 and KMCH cells, but on the other hand, it affected cell growth of the normal cholangiocytes only at high concentrations. In HuCCT1 cells, spheroid formation and cell migration were also halted by butyrate treatment. Furthermore, we found that butyrate augmented the previously described effects of HDAC6 inhibitors on CCA cell proliferation and migration by reducing the expression of CD44, cyclin D1, PCNA, Zeb1, and Vimentin. In summary, butyrate targets cancer cell growth and migration and enhances the anti-cancer effects of HDAC6 inhibitors in CCA cells, suggesting that butyrate may have therapeutic effects in CCA and other ciliopathies.

2022 ◽  
Ningning Chen ◽  
Yifang Jiang ◽  
Yi Yang ◽  
Ziyi Zhao ◽  
Chong Xiao ◽  

Abstract Objective: Combinatorial natural products have high application potential for treatment of complex diseases owing to their synergistic effects and multi-targeting effect. However, studies have not explored the therapeutic effect and the synergetic mechanisms of action combinations of natural products. The present study aimed sought to evaluate the synergistic antitumor effects of a combination of Berberine and Evodiamine, and explore the drug effect on proliferation, migration, invasion of HCT116 and RKO human colorectal cancer cells. Results: The effect of berberine and evodiamine at a specific paired dose (BER30μM, EVO 0.8μM) was explored. A combination of berberine and evodiamine had no effect on activity and proliferation of HCT116 and RKO cells. The combination regulates the cell cycle of HCT116 and RKO cells at different cell phases. Berberine mainly blocked the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase, whereas evodiamine induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. The results showed that the combined effect of berberine and evodiamine does not offset each other, but plays a synergistic role in regulation of colon cancer cell cycle. Western blot analysis showed that the combination of berberine and evodiamine regulated cell cycle by downregulating expression of cdc25c and upregulating expression of p21. The combination significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion by regulating EMT related proteins, upregulating expression of E-cadherin and downregulating expression of N-cadherin. The combination of berberine and evodiamine significantly inhibited phosphorylation of P38 MAPK in HCT116 and RKO cells, and further inhibited phosphorylation of the downstream MAPKAPK2 and HSP27, thus playing a synergistic anti-colon cancer role.Conclusion: Berberine and Evodiamine exhibit synergistic antitumor effects by suppressing cell proliferation, inducing cell cycle arrest and inhibiting EMT by modulating P38MAPK /MAPKAPK2/HSP27 pathway.Significance of the study: To illustrate the potential mechanism of formula-based combination of natural products, and explore the potential applications of the combination and possible antitumor therapeutic targets.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 724
Agata Gurba ◽  
Przemysław Taciak ◽  
Mariusz Sacharczuk ◽  
Izabela Młynarczuk-Biały ◽  
Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrożny ◽  

Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer in men and the second in women. Standard patterns of antitumor therapy, including cisplatin, are ineffective due to their lack of specificity for tumor cells, development of drug resistance, and severe side effects. For this reason, new methods and strategies for CRC treatment are urgently needed. Current research includes novel platinum (Pt)- and other metal-based drugs such as gold (Au), silver (Ag), iridium (Ir), or ruthenium (Ru). Au(III) compounds are promising drug candidates for CRC treatment due to their structural similarity to Pt(II). Their advantage is their relatively good solubility in water, but their disadvantage is an unsatisfactory stability under physiological conditions. Due to these limitations, work is still underway to improve the formula of Au(III) complexes by combining with various types of ligands capable of stabilizing the Au(III) cation and preventing its reduction under physiological conditions. This review summarizes the achievements in the field of stable Au(III) complexes with potential cytotoxic activity restricted to cancer cells. Moreover, it has been shown that not nucleic acids but various protein structures such as thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) mediate the antitumor effects of Au derivatives. The state of the art of the in vivo studies so far conducted is also described.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 730
Marina Filimonova ◽  
Anna Shitova ◽  
Olga Soldatova ◽  
Ljudmila Shevchenko ◽  
Alina Saburova ◽  

We have previously demonstrated a high antitumor potential of NOS inhibitor T1023 (1-isobutanoyl-2-isopropylisothiourea hydrobromide): antitumor antiangiogenic activity in several animal tumor models and its ability to synergistically enhance the antitumor effects of bevacizumab, cyclophosphamide and γ-radiation. At the same time, rather rapid adaptation of experimental neoplasias to T1023 treatment was often observed. We attempted to enhance the antitumor activity of this NOS inhibitor by supplementing its molecular structure with a PDK-inhibiting fragment, dichloroacetate (DCA), which is capable of hypoxia-oriented toxic effects. We synthesized compound T1084 (1-isobutanoyl-2-isopropylisothiourea dichloroacetate). Its toxic properties, NOS-inhibiting and PDK-inhibiting activity in vivo, and antitumor activity on the mouse Ehrlich carcinoma model (SEC) were investigated in compare with T1023 and Na-DCA. We found that the change of the salt-forming acid from HBr to DCA does not increase the toxicity of 1-isobutanoyl-2-isopropylisothiourea salts, but significantly expands the biochemical and anti-tumor activity. New compound T1084 realizes in vivo NOS-inhibiting and PDK-inhibiting activity, quantitatively, at the level of the previous compounds, T1023 and Na-DCA. In two independent experiments on SEC model, a pronounced synergistic antitumor effect of T1084 was observed in compare with T1023 and Na-DCA at equimolar doses. There were no signs of SEC adaptation to T1084 treatment, while experimental neoplasia rapidly desensitized to the separate treatment of both T1023 and Na-DCA. The totality of the data obtained indicates that the combination of antiangiogenic and hypoxia-oriented toxic effects (in this case, within the molecular structure of the active substance) can increase the antitumor effect and suppress the development of hypoxic resistance of neoplasias. In general, the proposed approach can be used for the design of new anticancer agents.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 329
Kaoru Shibata ◽  
Nozomi Nishijima ◽  
Kaho Hirai ◽  
Saiichiro Watanabe ◽  
Tsuyoshi Yamanaka ◽  

Background: Despite recent advances in the early detection and treatment of TSCC patients, recurrence rates and survival rates have not improved. The high frequency of lymph node metastasis is one of the causes, and the drug development of new therapeutic mechanisms such as metastasis control is desired. Choline transporter-like protein 1 (CTL1) has attracted attention as a target molecule in cancer therapy. In this study, we examined the antitumor effects of Amb544925, a plant-derived CTL1 inhibitor. Methods: The TSCC cell line HSC-3 was used to measure [3H]choline uptake, cell survival, caspase activity, and cell migration. Xenograft model mice were prepared to verify the antitumor effect of Amb544925. Results: Amb544925 inhibited cell viability and increased caspase-3/7 activity at concentrations that inhibited choline uptake. Amb544925 and ceramide increased SMPD4 expression and suppressed surivivin expression. Furthermore, Amb544925 and ceramide inhibited the migration of HSC-3 cells. In the xenograft model mice, Amb544925 suppressed tumor growth and CTL1 mRNA expression. Conclusions: The plant-derived CTL1 inhibitor Amb544925 is a lead compound of a new anticancer agent exhibiting antitumor effects and inhibition of cell migration through the ceramide/survivin pathway.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Yanning Xu ◽  
Said M. Afify ◽  
Juan Du ◽  
Bingbing Liu ◽  
Ghmkin Hassan ◽  

AbstractCancer stem cells (CSCs) are capable of continuous proliferation, self-renewal and are proposed to play significant roles in oncogenesis, tumor growth, metastasis and cancer recurrence. We have established a model of CSCs that was originally developed from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (miPSCs) by proposing miPSCs to the conditioned medium (CM) of cancer derived cells, which is a mimic of carcinoma microenvironment. Further research found that not only PI3K-Akt but also EGFR signaling pathway was activated during converting miPSCs into CSCs. In this study, we tried to observe both of PI3Kγ inhibitor Eganelisib and EGFR inhibitor Gefitinib antitumor effects on the models of CSCs derived from miPSCs (miPS-CSC) in vitro and in vivo. As the results, targeting these two pathways exhibited significant inhibition of cell proliferation, self-renewal, migration and invasion abilities in vitro. Both Eganelisib and Gefitinib showed antitumor effects in vivo while Eganelisib displayed more significant therapeutic efficacy and less side effects than Gefitinib on all miPS-CSC models. Thus, these data suggest that the inhibitiors of PI3K and EGFR, especially PI3Kγ, might be a promising therapeutic strategy against CSCs defeating cancer in the near future.

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 97
Olaia Martínez-Iglesias ◽  
Ivan Carrera ◽  
Vinogran Naidoo ◽  
Ramón Cacabelos

Novel and effective chemotherapeutic agents are needed to improve cancer treatment. Epidrugs are currently used for cancer therapy but also exhibit toxicity. Targeting the epigenetic apparatus with bioproducts may aid cancer prevention and treatment. To determine whether the lipoprotein marine extract AntiGan shows epigenetic and antitumor effects, cultured HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma) and HCT116 (colorectal carcinoma) cell lines were treated with AntiGan (10, 50, 100, and to 500 µg/mL) for 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. AntiGan (10 µg/mL) reduced cell viability after 48 h and increased Bax expression; AntiGan (10 and 50 µg/mL) increased caspase-3 immunoreactivity in HepG2 and HCT116 cells. AntiGan (10 and 50 µg/mL) attenuated COX-2 and IL-17 expression in both cell lines. AntiGan (10 µg/mL) increased 5mC levels in both cell types and reduced DNMT1 and DNMT3a expression in these cells. AntiGan (10 and 50 µg/mL) promoted DNMT3a immunoreactivity and reduced SIRT1 mRNA expression in both cell types. In HCT116 cells treated with AntiGan (10 µg/mL), SIRT1 immunoreactivity localized to nuclei and the cytoplasm; AntiGan (50 µg/mL) increased cytoplasmic SIRT1 localization in HCT116 cells. AntiGan is a novel antitumoral bioproduct with epigenetic properties (epinutraceutical) for treating liver and colorectal cancer.

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