Intramolecular Hydrogen
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Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (18) ◽  
pp. 5642
Karol Kułacz ◽  
Michał Pocheć ◽  
Aneta Jezierska ◽  
Jarosław J. Panek

Our long-term investigations have been devoted the characterization of intramolecular hydrogen bonds in cyclic compounds. Our previous work covers naphthazarin, the parent compound of two systems discussed in the current work: 2,3-dimethylnaphthazarin (1) and 2,3-dimethoxy-6-methylnaphthazarin (2). Intramolecular hydrogen bonds and substituent effects in these compounds were analyzed on the basis of Density Functional Theory (DFT), Møller–Plesset second-order perturbation theory (MP2), Coupled Clusters with Singles and Doubles (CCSD) and Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics (CPMD). The simulations were carried out in the gas and crystalline phases. The nuclear quantum effects were incorporated a posteriori using the snapshots taken from ab initio trajectories. Further, they were used to solve a vibrational Schrödinger equation. The proton reaction path was studied using B3LYP, ωB97XD and PBE functionals with a 6-311++G(2d,2p) basis set. Two energy minima (deep and shallow) were found, indicating that the proton transfer phenomena could occur in the electronic ground state. Next, the electronic structure and topology were examined in the molecular and proton transferred (PT) forms. The Atoms In Molecules (AIM) theory was employed for this purpose. It was found that the hydrogen bond is stronger in the proton transferred (PT) forms. In order to estimate the dimers’ stabilization and forces responsible for it, the Symmetry-Adapted Perturbation Theory (SAPT) was applied. The energy decomposition revealed that dispersion is the primary factor stabilizing the dimeric forms and crystal structure of both compounds. The CPMD results showed that the proton transfer phenomena occurred in both studied compounds, as well as in both phases. In the case of compound 2, the proton transfer events are more frequent in the solid state, indicating an influence of the environmental effects on the bridged proton dynamics. Finally, the vibrational signatures were computed for both compounds using the CPMD trajectories. The Fourier transformation of the autocorrelation function of atomic velocity was applied to obtain the power spectra. The IR spectra show very broad absorption regions between 700 cm−1–1700 cm−1 and 2300 cm−1–3400 cm−1 in the gas phase and 600 cm−1–1800 cm−1 and 2200 cm−1–3400 cm−1 in the solid state for compound 1. The absorption regions for compound 2 were found as follows: 700 cm−1–1700 cm−1 and 2300 cm−1–3300 cm−1 for the gas phase and one broad absorption region in the solid state between 700 cm−1 and 3100 cm−1. The obtained spectroscopic features confirmed a strong mobility of the bridged protons. The inclusion of nuclear quantum effects showed a stronger delocalization of the bridged protons.

2021 ◽  
Mannkyu Hong ◽  
Mingeun Kim ◽  
Jiwon Yoon ◽  
Seung-Hee Lee ◽  
Mu-Hyun Baik ◽  

Designing new chromophores by tuning their molecular structures and optimizing their photophysical properties leads to suitable photochromic features. Herein, we report a series of anthraquinone (AQ)-based photosensitizers that undergoes excited-state intramolecular hydrogen transfer and effectively oxidizes amyloidogenic peptides, which significantly affects the subsequent aggregation pathways. DFT calculations showed that the appropriate position of the hydroxyl groups in the AQ backbone and the consequent intramolecular hydrogen transfer can facilitate the energy transfer to triplet oxygen. Biochemical and biophysical investigations confirmed that these photoactive chemical reagents are able to oxidatively modify both metal-free amyloid-β (Aβ) and metal-bound Aβ, thereby redirecting their on-pathway aggregation into off-pathway as well as disassembling their pre-formed aggregates. Moreover, the in vivo histochemical analysis of Aβ species produced upon photoactivation of the most promising candidate demonstrated that they do not aggregate into toxic oligomeric or fibrillar aggregates in the brain. Overall, our combined computational and experimental studies validate a light-based approach for designing small molecules as chemical reagents targeting and controlling amyloidogenic peptides associated with neurodegenerative disorders.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (16) ◽  
pp. 4790
Ashley E. Williams ◽  
Nathan I. Hammer ◽  
Ryan C. Fortenberry ◽  
Dana N. Reinemann

The E-hook of β-tubulin plays instrumental roles in cytoskeletal regulation and function. The last six C-terminal residues of the βII isotype, a peptide of amino acid sequence EGEDEA, extend from the microtubule surface and have eluded characterization with classic X-ray crystallographic techniques. The band position of the characteristic amide I vibration of small peptide fragments is heavily dependent on the length of the peptide chain, the extent of intramolecular hydrogen bonding, and the overall polarity of the fragment. The dependence of the E residue’s amide I ν(C=O) and the αCOO− terminal ν(C=O) bands on the neighboring side chain, the length of the peptide fragment, and the extent of intramolecular hydrogen bonding in the structure are investigated here via the EGEDEA peptide. The hexapeptide is broken down into fragments increasing in size from dipeptides to hexapeptides, including EG, ED, EA, EGE, EDE, DEA, EGED, EDEA, EGEDE, GEDEA, and, finally, EGEDEA, which are investigated with experimental Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) computations to model the zwitterionic crystalline solids (in vacuo). The molecular geometries and Boltzmann sum of the simulated Raman spectra for a set of energetic minima corresponding to each peptide fragment are computed with full geometry optimizations and corresponding harmonic vibrational frequency computations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(2df,2pd) level of theory. In absence of the crystal structure, geometry sampling is performed to approximate solid phase behavior. Natural bond order (NBO) analyses are performed on each energetic minimum to quantify the magnitude of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The extent of the intramolecular charge transfer is dependent on the overall polarity of the fragment considered, with larger and more polar fragments exhibiting the greatest extent of intramolecular charge transfer. A steady blue shift arises when considering the amide I band position moving linearly from ED to EDE to EDEA to GEDEA and, finally, to EGEDEA. However, little variation is observed in the αCOO− ν(C=O) band position in this family of fragments.

Physchem ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 189-201
Vesselina Paskaleva ◽  
Stefan Dobrev ◽  
Nikolay Kochev ◽  
Silvia Angelova ◽  
Liudmil Antonov

Тhe adequacy of chemical property predictions strongly depends on the structure representation, including the proper treatment of the tautomeric and isomeric forms. A combination of an in-house developed open-source tool for automatic generation of tautomers, Ambit-Tautomer, based on H-atom shift rules and standard quantum chemical (DFT) calculations is used for a detailed investigation of the possible geometric isomers, conformers and tautomers of unsubstituted and para-substituted phenylhydrazones, systems with experimentally observed unusual para-substituent effects on the intramolecular hydrogen bond (IMHB) for E-isomers of the compounds. The computational results show that the energetically preferred E-isomers are characterized by stronger IMHBs than the corresponding Z-isomers. The HN–N=C–C=N molecular fragment in the E-configurations is less sensitive to the substitution effect than the HN–N=C–C=O fragment in the isomers with Z-configuration. A probable reason for this decreased sensitivity of E-isomers to phenyl ring substitution is the more efficient conjugation and charge distribution in the HN–N=C–C=N fragment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 513 ◽  
pp. 111822
Wenjing Dong ◽  
Jingde Li ◽  
Chengkuan Shi ◽  
Dongsheng Zhang ◽  
Yanji Wang

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