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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
E. Madrigal-Bujaidar ◽  
P. Gómez-González ◽  
S. Camacho-Cantera ◽  
J. A. Morales-González ◽  
E. Madrigal-Santillán ◽  

Abstract The present research was made to determine the micronuclei and cytotoxic capacity of the antidepressant venlafaxine in an in vivo acute and subchronic assays in mouse. In the first study, we administered once 5, 50, and 250 mg/kg of the drug, and included a negative and a daunorubicin treated group. Observations were daily made during four days. The subchronic assay lasted 5 weeks with daily administration of venlafaxine (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg) plus a negative and an imipramine administered groups. Observations were made each week. In the first assay results showed no micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE) increase, except with the high dose at 72 h. The strongest cytotoxic effect was found with 250 mg/kg at 72 h (a 51% cytotoxic effect in comparison with the mean control level). In the subchronic assay no MNPE increase was found; however, with the highest dose a significant increase of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes was observed in the last three weeks (a mean of 51% respect to the mean control value). A cytotoxic effect with the two high doses in the last two weeks was observed (a polychromatic erythrocyte mean decrease of 52% respect to the mean control value). Results suggest caution with venlafaxine.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Men Thi Ngo ◽  
Minh Van Nguyen ◽  
Jae Woo Han ◽  
Bomin Kim ◽  
Yun Kyung Kim ◽  

Microbial metabolites have been recognized as an important source for the discovery of new antifungal agents because of their diverse chemical structures with novel modes of action. In the course of our screening for new antifungal agents from microbes, we found that culture filtrates of two fungal species Aspergillus candidus SFC20200425-M11 and Aspergillus montenegroi SFC20200425-M27 have the potentials to reduce the development of fungal plant diseases such as tomato late blight and wheat leaf rust. From these two Aspergillus spp., we isolated a total of seven active compounds, including two new compounds (4 and 6), and identified their chemical structures based on the NMR spectral analyses: sphaeropsidin A (1), (R)-formosusin A (2), (R)-variotin (3), candidusin (4), asperlin (5), montenegrol (6), and protulactone A (7). Based on the results of the in vitro bioassays of 11 plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria, sphaeropsidin A (1), (R)-formosusin A (2), (R)-variotin (3), and asperlin (5) exhibited a wide range of antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, when plants were treated with sphaeropsidin A (1) and (R)-formosusin A (2) at a concentration of 500 μg/ml, sphaeropsidin A (1) exhibited an efficacy disease control value of 96 and 90% compared to non-treated control against tomato late blight and wheat leaf rust, and (R)-formosusin A (2) strongly reduced the development of tomato gray mold by 82%. Asperlin (5) at a concentration of 500 μg/ml effectively controlled the development of tomato late blight and wheat leaf rust with a disease control value of 95%. Given that culture filtrates and active compounds derived from two Aspergillus spp. exhibited disease control efficacies, our results suggest that the Aspergillus-produced antifungal compounds could be useful for the development of new natural fungicides.

2021 ◽  
Yayi Yi

Summary Background The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has swept the whole world with high mortality. Since aerosol transmission is the main route of transmission, wearing a mask serves as a crucial preventive measure. An important parameter to evaluate the performance of a mask is the bacteria filtration efficiency (BFE). Aerosol mean particle size (MPS) and positive quality control value are two key indexes of BFE system. Aim To study the major influence factors of the mean particle size of bacterial aerosols and positive quality control value of BFE system. Method and Results In this study, we investigated the influence of Anderson sampler, spray flow, medium thickness, and peristaltic pump flow on the MPS of bacterial aerosols and positive quality control value of BFE system, respectively. The results show that the machining accuracy of Anderson sampler has great influence on aerosol MPS and positive quality control value. With the increase of aerosol spray flow rate, the positive quality control value will increase gradually, but the effect on aerosol MPS is not a simple linear relationship. As the agar medium thickness increased, the positive quality control value and aerosol MPS increased gradually. With the increase of peristaltic pump flow, the positive quality control value increased gradually, while the aerosol MPS was basically in a downward trend. When the peristatic pump flow rate was 0.1mL/min, the spray flow rate was 7.2L/min, the agar plate thickness was 27mL, and the Anderson sampler of Beijing Mingjie was used for the experiment, the aerosol MPS and positive quality control value were both within the acceptable range and were the optimal parameters. Conclusions This study provides guidance for the manufacturers of the BFE system and improves the protective performance of masks, which is important for the human health, especially during the occurrence of viral pandemics such as "COVID-19".

Ashraf M Zenkour ◽  
Hela D El-Shahrany

The current study presents a vibration investigation of a laminated plate considering a viscoelastic core with embedded magnetostrictive layers. The simply-supported plate is supported via Pasternak’s substrate medium. Based on different plate theories and employing Hamilton’s principle, the system of governing differential equations is derived. The mechanical properties of the viscoelastic core are described depend on the time varies based on Kelvin–Voigt model. Actuating magnetostrictive layers are utilized to control the vibration damping process of the system with the assistance of feedback and constant gain distributed control. The analytical solution is obtained to investigate the influence of half wave numbers, thickness ratios, core thickness, aspect ratios, lamination schemes, elastic foundation parameters, damping coefficient, feedback coefficient magnitude, magnetostrictive layers location, on the vibrational behavior of laminated plate. Some observations about the vibration damping process of the present plate are displayed. The results refer to that the vibration suppression rate depends on the thickness of the plate, the feedback control value, the foundation constants, and the viscoelastic structural damping significantly. Moreover, the study can be providing benchmark tests to validate future contributions on the viscoelastic smart structural issues and developing the design of smart viscoelastic structures and control of their vibrations.

A. F. Popov ◽  
E. V. Markelova ◽  
I. A. Komarova ◽  
A. V. Kosciuszko ◽  
M. Yu. Shchelkanov

The effect of the antiviral drug Kagocel on the levels of metalloproteinases MMP-8 and MMP-9 and their tissue inhibitors TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in induced sputum in the treatment of community-acquired viral-bacterial pneumonia was analyzed. 60 adult patients with a confirmed diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia and viral-bacterial etiology were included in the follow-up research work. Materials and methods. All patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: 1 group (comparison group) included 30 patients receiving Ceftriaxone monotherapy; in the 2nd group (main) - 30 people who were prescribed Ceftriaxone and the antiviral drug Kagocel as etiotropic treatment. Both groups were comparable in terms of gender, age and time of admission to the hospital. Results. During hospitalization, patients in both groups had elevated levels of MMP-8, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in induced sputum compared to the reference values. By 7 days of inpatient treatment, the level of MMP-8 continued to be significantly higher than the reference values ​​in both groups, and in patients of the 2nd group there was a decrease compared to baseline values, and in patients in the 1st group at the same time. The activity of MMP-9 during hospitalization was also high in patients of both groups compared with the level of these enzymes in healthy people. By the 7th day of therapy various indicators' changes were recorded. The level of MMP-9 in patients of the 1st group increased, and in patients of the 2nd group - on the contrary - decreased. The level of TIMP-1 decreased in patients of the 1st group below the control value, and in patients of the 2nd group - reached the reference values. The level of TIMP-2 decreased in both groups and reached the level of control values. Conclusion. Inclusion in the standard antibacterial regimen of community-acquired viral-bacterial pneumonia of the antiviral drug Kagocel reduces the level of MMR-9 and reduces the severity of the imbalance in the MMP and TIMP system by 7 days of therapy, which leads to a faster clinical recovery of patients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Robbert Smit ◽  
Florian Rietz ◽  
Nicolas Robin

Dynamic structural equation modeling was applied to examine feelings of competence and in the moment motivation among pre-service science teachers (N = 101) enrolled in a course on practical biology during their second semester. The student teachers completed a short questionnaire 18 times, and the interaction between their feelings of competence and momentary motivation over time was examined in relation to control-value theory. The autoregressive values of both variables were significant, and a pattern was observed of low competence at the beginning of the course session, combined with low motivation in the moment. Feelings of competence increased by the end of each course session but returned to a low level at the beginning of the next session. Momentary motivation followed this back-and-forth shifting somewhat but showed more carryover effects. The student teachers’ motivation depended on their feelings of competence from the previous moment in the biology course session, but feelings of competence did not depend on their motivation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 37 (6) ◽  
pp. 580-595
Min Jeong Kim ◽  
Chang Ki Shim ◽  
Jong-Ho Park

Although late blight is an important disease in eco-friendly potato cultivation in Korea, it is highly dependent on the use of eco-friendly agricultural materials and the development of biological control technology is low. It is a necessary to develop an effective biocontrol agent to inactivate late blight in the field. AFB2-2 strain is a gram-positive with peritrichous flagella. It can utilize 20 types of carbon sources, like L-arabinose, and D-trehalose at 35°C. The optimal growth temperature of the strain is 37°C. It can survive at 20-50°C in tryptic soy broth. The maximum salt concentration tolerated by AFB2-2 strain is 7.5% NaCl. AFB2-2 strain inhibited the mycelial growth of seven plant pathogens by an average inhibitory zone of 10.2 mm or more. Among the concentrations of AFB2-2, 107 cfu/ml showed the highest control value of 85.7% in the greenhouse. Among the three concentrations of AFB2-2, the disease incidence and severity of potato late blight at 107 cfu/ml was lowest at 0.07 and 6.7, respectively. The nucleotide sequences of AFB2-2 strain were searched in the NCBI GenBank; Bacillus siamensis strain KCTC 13613, Bacillus velezensis strain CR-502, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain DSM7 were found to have a genetic similarity of 99.7%, 99.7%, and 99.5%, respectively. The AFB2-2 strain was found to harbor the biosynthetic genes for bacillomycin D, iturin, and surfactin. Obtained data recommended that the B. velezensis AFB2-2 strain could be considered as a promising biocontrol agent for P. infestans in the field.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2481
Dahae Lee ◽  
Seoung Rak Lee ◽  
Bang Ju Park ◽  
Ji Hoon Song ◽  
Jung Kyu Kim ◽  

The aim of this study was to explore the protective effects of bioactive compounds from the fruit of the mulberry tree (Morus alba L.) against cisplatin-induced apoptosis in LLC-PK1 pig kidney epithelial cells. Morus alba fruit is a well-known edible fruit commonly used in traditional folk medicine. Chemical investigation of M. alba fruit resulted in the isolation and identification of six phytosterols (1–6). Their structures were determined as 7-ketositosterol (1), stigmast-4-en-3β-ol-6-one (2), (3β,6α)-stigmast-4-ene-3,6-diol (3), stigmast-4-ene-3β,6β-diol (4), 7β-hydroxysitosterol 3-O-β-d-glucoside (5), and 7α-hydroxysitosterol 3-O-β-d-glucoside (6) by analyzing their physical and spectroscopic data as well as liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry data. All compounds displayed protective effects against cisplatin-induced LLC-PK1 cell damage, improving cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity to more than 80% of the control value. Compound 1 displayed the best effect at a relatively low concentration by inhibiting the percentage of apoptotic cells following cisplatin treatment. Its molecular mechanisms were identified using Western blot assays. Treatment of LLC-PK1 cells with compound 1 decreased the upregulated phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) following cisplatin treatment. In addition, compound 1 significantly suppressed cleaved caspase-3 in cisplatin-induced LLC-PK1 cells. Taken together, these findings indicated that cisplatin-induced apoptosis was significantly inhibited by compound 1 in LLC-PK1 cells, thereby supporting the potential of 7-ketositosterol (1) as an adjuvant candidate for treating cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

Patrick N. Beymer ◽  
Kristy A. Robinson ◽  
Jennifer A. Schmidt

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Changcheng Wu ◽  
Xue Gong ◽  
Li Luo ◽  
Qingling Zhao ◽  
Shan Hu ◽  

Academic emotions refer to the emotions related to achievement activities or outcomes. Academic emotions are directly related to learning performance and have been recognized as critical to learners’ learning satisfaction and learning effectiveness in the online learning context. This study aimed to explore the relationship between academic emotions and learning satisfaction and their underlying mechanisms in massive open online courses (MOOCs) learning context using mediation models. This study adhered to the theoretical frameworks of the control-value theory (CVT) and the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT). Participants were 283 pre-service teachers who volunteered from a normal university in Southwestern China. Results revealed that: (a) academic emotions did not predict learning satisfaction; (b) learning interest and technology acceptance fully mediated the influence of academic emotions on learning satisfaction; (c) the four dimensions of technology acceptance did not mediate the relationship between academic emotions and learning satisfaction. This study integrated CVT and UTAUT models, and the results emphasized the importance of academic emotions and learning satisfaction in CVT and provision of additional support for UTAUT. Therefore, these findings have significant implications for improving the quality of MOOCs in the post-pandemic era.

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