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2022 ◽  
Vol 176 ◽  
pp. 114335
Juan Yu ◽  
Xiao-dan Dong ◽  
Jian-shuang Jiao ◽  
Sha-sha Yu ◽  
Hai-yu Ji ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xuguang Zhang ◽  
Yuxin Zhang ◽  
Mingyan Zhou ◽  
Yiqiang Xie ◽  
Xiujuan Dong ◽  

(R)-5-hydroxy-1,7-diphenyl-3-heptanone (DPHC) from the natural plant Alpinia officinarum has been reported to have antioxidation and antidiabetic effects. In this study, the therapeutic effect and molecular mechanism of DPHC on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were investigated based on the regulation of oxidative stress and insulin resistance (IR) in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, the fasting blood glucose (FBG) level of db/db mice was significantly reduced with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity after 8 weeks of treatment with DPHC. In vitro, DPHC ameliorated IR because of its increasing glucose consumption and glucose uptake of IR-HepG2 cells induced by high glucose. In addition, in vitro and in vivo experiments showed that DPHC could regulate the antioxidant enzyme levels including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), thereby reducing the occurrence of oxidative stress and improving insulin resistance. Western blotting and polymerase chain reaction results showed that DPHC could promote the expressions of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), protein kinase B (AKT), and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), and reduced the phosphorylation levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) on Ser307 both in vivo and in vitro. These findings verified that DPHC has the potential to relieve oxidative stress and IR to cure T2DM by activating Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway in db/db mice and IR-HepG2 cells.

Fermentation ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 34
Ji Yeon Lee ◽  
Hye Min Park ◽  
Chang-Ho Kang

In this study, the antioxidant mechanism of Astragalus membranaceus fermented by Lactiplantibacillusplantarum MG5276 (MG5276F-AM) was evaluated in HepG2 cells and in an animal model. HPLC analysis was performed to confirm the bioconversion of the bioactive compounds in A. membranaceus by fermentation. Calycosin and formononetin, which were not detected before fermentation (NF-AM), were detected after fermentation (MG5276F-AM), and its glycoside was not observed in MG5276F-AM. In HepG2 cells, MG5276F-AM alleviated H2O2-induced oxidative stress by mediating lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels, and upregulated antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). In the tBHP-injected mouse model, administration of MG5276F-AM reduced hepatic aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and lipid peroxidation. MG5276F-AM also modulated antioxidant enzymes as well as HepG2 cells. Thus, fermentation of A. membranaceus with L. plantarum MG5276 elevated the isoflavonoid aglycone by hydrolysis of its glycosides, and this bioconversion enhanced antioxidant activity both in vitro and in vivo.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 288
Tomohiro Ibata ◽  
Jingya Lyu ◽  
Hitomi Imachi ◽  
Kensaku Fukunaga ◽  
Seisuke Sato ◽  

ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a key regulator of lipid efflux, and the absence of ABCA1 induces hepatic lipid accumulation, which is one of the major causes of fatty liver. 2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME2) has been demonstrated to protect against fatty liver. In this study, we investigated the effects of 2-ME2 on the hepatic lipid content and ABCA1 expression. We found that 2-ME2 dose-dependently increased ABCA1 expression, and therefore, the lipid content was significantly decreased in HepG2 cells. 2-ME2 enhanced the ABCA1 promoter activity; however, this effect was reduced after the inhibition of the PI3K pathway. The overexpression of Akt or p110 induced ABCA1 promoter activity, while dominant-negative Akt diminished the ability of 2-ME2 on ABCA1 promoter activity. Further, 2-ME2 stimulated the rapid phosphorylation of Akt and FoxO1 and reduced the nuclear accumulation of FoxO1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed that FoxO1 bonded to the ABCA1 promoter region. The binding was reduced by 2-ME2, which facilitated ABCA1 gene transcription. Furthermore, mutating FoxO1-binding sites in the ABCA1 promoter region or treatment with FoxO1-specific siRNA disrupted the effect of 2-ME2 on ABCA1 expression. All of our results demonstrated that 2-ME2 might upregulate ABCA1 expression via the PI3K/Akt/FoxO1 pathway, which thus reduces the lipid content in hepatocytes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 ◽  
Vivian Cordeiro Rodrigues ◽  
William Queiroz Felippe ◽  
Carla Marins Goulart ◽  
Aurea Echevarria ◽  
Ana Paula Pereira da Silva

Background: Chalcones are open-chain flavonoids especially attractive to medicinal chemistry due to their easy synthesis and the possibility of structural modifications. Objective: Evaluate the in vitro anticancer activity of a series of hybrids chalcones-thiosemicarbazones against the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HepG2. Methods: Seven hybrid chalcones-thiosemicarbazones (CTs), 3-(4’-X-phenyl)-1-phenylprop-2-en-1-one thiosemicarbazone, where X=H (CT-H), CH3 (CT-CH3), NO2 (CT-NO2), Cl (CT-Cl), CN (CT-CN), F (CT-F) and Br (CT-Br), were synthesized and their effects on cells viability and mitochondrial oxygen consumption were accessed. Results: Incubation with CTs caused a decrease in HepG2 cells viability in a time-concentration-dependent manner. The most effective compounds in inhibiting cell viability, after 24 hours of treatment, were CT-Cl and CT-CH3 (IC50 20.9 and 23.63 μM, respectively). In addition, using 10 M and only 1 hour of pre-incubation, CT-CH3 caused a reduction in basal respiration (-37%), oxygen consumption coupled with ATP synthesis (-60%) and maximum oxygen consumption (-54%). These alterations in respiratory parameters may be involved with the inhibitory effects of CT-CH3, since significant changes in oxygen consumption rates were observed in a condition that anticipates more significant losses of cell viability. The ADME parameters and the no violation of Lipinski Rule of Five showed that all compounds are safe. Conclusion: These results may contribute to the knowledge about the effects of CTs on these cells and the development of new treatments against HCCs.

F1000Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 842
Minshan Hu

Backgroundː Numerous in vivo human cohort studies have suggested that the apolipoprotein B100/apolipoprotein AI (ApoB100/ApoAI) ratio might be a risk factor in coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to measure ApoB100/ApoAI ratio changes in cell secretions by incubating HepG2 cells with various amounts of glucose in vitro. Methods ː HepG2 cells were cultured in low-, normal- or high-glucose Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) (1, 4.5 and 10g/L, respectively). Levels of ApoAI and ApoB100 were measured with commercial sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits (cat#: H0123 and H0124) from ShangHai MEIXUAN Biological Science and Technology Ltd (Shanghai, China). Experiments were repeated six times for each assay. Resultsː The results showed that ApoB100/ApoAI ratio have positive correlations with the glucose concentration increase. Conclusionsː A higher concentration of glucose induced an undesirable ApoB100/ApoAI ratio change, which suggests a new regulatory pathway in lipoprotein catabolism and provides a cell model for further mechanism study. This finding may lead to novel therapeutic ways for diagnosis and treatment for coronary artery disease.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 195
Quaiser Saquib ◽  
Abdullah M. Al-Salem ◽  
Maqsood A. Siddiqui ◽  
Sabiha M. Ansari ◽  
Xiaowei Zhang ◽  

Tris(1,3-Dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCPP) is an organophosphorus flame retardant (OPFR) widely used in a variety of consumer products (plastics, furniture, paints, foams, and electronics). Scientific evidence has affirmed the toxicological effects of TDCPP in in vitro and in vivo test models; however, its genotoxicity and carcinogenic effects in human cells are still obscure. Herein, we present genotoxic and carcinogenic properties of TDCPP in human liver cells (HepG2). 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and neutral red uptake (NRU) assays demonstrated survival reduction in HepG2 cells after 3 days of exposure at higher concentrations (100–400 μM) of TDCPP. Comet assay and flow cytometric cell cycle experiments showed DNA damage and apoptosis in HepG2 cells after 3 days of TDCPP exposure. TDCPP treatment incremented the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), Ca2+ influx, and esterase level in exposed cells. HepG2 mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) significantly declined and cytoplasmic localization of P53, caspase 3, and caspase 9 increased after TDCPP exposure. qPCR array quantification of the human cancer pathway revealed the upregulation of 11 genes and downregulation of two genes in TDCPP-exposed HepG2 cells. Overall, this is the first study to explicitly validate the fact that TDCPP bears the genotoxic, hepatotoxic, and carcinogenic potential, which may jeopardize human health.

Ang Hu ◽  
Zeming Hu ◽  
Jianming Ye ◽  
Yuwen Liu ◽  
Zhonghong Lai ◽  

Metformin, a traditional first-line pharmacologic treatment for type 2 diabetes, has recently been shown to impart anti-cancer effects on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the molecular mechanism of metformin on its antitumor activity is still not completely clear. The Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway is closely associated with the initiation and progression of HCC. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of metformin on the biological behavior of HCC and the underlying functional mechanism of metformin on the Shh pathway. The HCC cellular was induced in HepG2 cells by recombinant human Shh (rhShh). The effects of metformin on proliferation and metastasis were evaluated by proliferation, wound healing and invasion assays in vitro. The mRNA and protein expression levels of proteins related to the Shh pathway were measured by western blotting, quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence staining. Metformin inhibited rhShh-induced proliferation and metastasis. Furthermore, metformin decreased mRNA and protein expression of components of the Shh pathway including Shh, Ptch, Smo and Gli-1. Silencing of AMPK in the presence of metformin revealed that metformin could exert its inhibitory effect via AMPK. Our findings demonstrate that metformin can suppress the migration and invasion of HepG2 cells via AMPK-mediated inhibition of the Shh pathway.

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