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2021 ◽  
Vol 55 (4) ◽  
pp. 143-164
Gerald McDonnell ◽  
Hal Baseman ◽  
Lena Cordie-Bancroft

Abstract In the design, control, and regulation of the manufacturing and supply of microbiologically controlled devices (including sterile devices) and drug products (including cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization processing and/or aseptic process manufacturing), different terms and/or definitions are often used for similar processes or applications internationally. With product innovations (including combination products and cell-based therapy) and global regulatory influences, there is a growing need to harmonize these definitions. The objective of the Kilmer Regulatory Innovation microbiological quality and sterility assurance glossary is to clarify and harmonize the practical use of terms employed by the different parts of regulated healthcare product industries internationally and by regulators of the manufacturing and supply of microbiologically controlled healthcare products internationally. The glossary is expected to continue to evolve, and further industry, academic, and regulatory input is encouraged.

Silvana Dwi Nurherdiana

The coronavirus disease 2019 (SARS-CoV2) has attracted most interest in current years due to the worst impact for the global public health. In this situation, the whole world requires wearing face shield and mask as the personal protective equipment, especially for medical personnel. Polymer technology have been introduced as a helping tool against SARS-CoV2 by producing healthcare product such as face shield as the first line of resistance due to it was cost effectiveness, sterile nature, versatility and easy to modify. This article clarifies the discussion about face shields in the polymer technology as the point of view and aims at providing a deeper understanding about polymer, polymeric material, synthesis methodology and its application for responding SARS-CoV2 pandemic in a form of face shields. The study of the synthesis route and methodology, chemical and physical properties of the polymer for face shields have also been described.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (5) ◽  
pp. 1030
Guanyu Lu ◽  
Zhuoting Liu ◽  
Xu Wang ◽  
Chunling Wang

As an ancient Chinese herbal medicine, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (P. ginseng) has been used both as food and medicine for nutrient supplements and treatment of human diseases in China for years. Fatigue, as a complex and multi-cause symptom, harms life from all sides. Millions worldwide suffer from fatigue, mainly caused by physical labor, mental stress, and chronic diseases. Multiple medicines, especially P. ginseng, were used for many patients or sub-healthy people who suffer from fatigue as a treatment or healthcare product. This review covers the extract and major components of P. ginseng with the function of anti-fatigue and summarizes the anti-fatigue effect of P. ginseng for different types of fatigue in animal models and clinical studies. In addition, the anti-fatigue mechanism of P. ginseng associated with enhancing energy metabolism, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity is discussed.

2021 ◽  
Maheswari S ◽  
Pitchai R ◽  
Supraja P ◽  
Babu S

Abstract Guaranteeing Quality of Service (QoS) concerning web administrations is the capacity to respond to the necessities and comprehend the prerequisites according to the tendencies of a client. It is resolved subject to the non-practical properties of the web administrations. Dependent upon the conditions, administrations clients may have an extent of tendencies for the non utilitarian principles. This made a way for different QoS based web administrations assurance segments which along these lines require an evaluation plot for grasping a particular methodology. Investigation of change is a particular kind of verifiable hypothesis testing used for making decisions using data. The goal of the paper is to dismember the plans specifically Analytical Hierarchical preparing (AHP), Logical Scoring Preference (LSP) and Fuzzy Topsis reliant on extent of customer tendency norms and investigate them using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). QWS dataset has been used for exploring recently referenced three plans. Preliminary outcomes show that the Fuzzy Topsis contrive beats the other web organization assurance techniques.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Yanjun Pan ◽  
Yanan Liu ◽  
Rui Fujii ◽  
Umer Farooq ◽  
Lihong Cheng ◽  

The antiaging benzoquinone-type molecule ehretiquinone was isolated in a previous study as a leading compound from the herbal medicine Onosma bracteatum wall. This paper reports the antiaging effect and mechanism of ehretiquinone by using yeasts, mammal cells, and mice. Ehretiquinone extends not only the replicative lifespan but also the chronological lifespan of yeast and the yeast-like chronological lifespan of mammal cells. Moreover, ehretiquinone increases glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activity and reduces reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, contributing to the lifespan extension of the yeasts. Furthermore, ehretiquinone does not extend the replicative lifespan of Δsod1, Δsod2, Δuth1, Δskn7, Δgpx, Δcat, Δatg2, and Δatg32 mutants of yeast. Crucially, ehretiquinone induces autophagy in yeasts and mice, thereby providing significant evidence on the antiaging effects of the molecule in the mammalian level. Concomitantly, the silent information regulator 2 gene, which is known for its contributions in prolonging replicative lifespan, was confirmed to be involved in the chronological lifespan of yeasts and participates in the antiaging activity of ehretiquinone. These findings suggest that ehretiquinone shows an antiaging effect through antioxidative stress, autophagy, and histone deacetylase Sir2 regulation. Therefore, ehretiquinone is a promising molecule that could be developed as an antiaging drug or healthcare product.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 8-22
Ogbonnaya Ukeh Oteh ◽  
Ambrose Ogbonna Oloveze ◽  
Raymond Ozoemena Obasi ◽  
J. O. Opara

This paper discourses healthcare products that face some degree of acceptance within some societies due to specific cultural dilemmas and ethical concerns. The purpose of this paper is to assess consumer health knowledge on the cultural and ethical dilemma and norms as they affect the marketing of healthcare products. Literary sources indicate the existence of misconceptions and poor marketing performance of healthcare products within a cultural milieu in Nigeria, thus the focus is on indigenous people and their cultural backgrounds. To gain insight into consumer health knowledge, the study modelled Hofstede’s collectivism dimension following the dominant in-group cultural context of the indigenous people. The relevance of this scientific decision problem is that the result will cause an urgent policy approach, re-strategizing of approaches in communication and reach by the healthcare marketers and healthcare product producers. The research follows a survey pattern as data was collected for 4 – 5 months in year 2020 using a structured questionnaire while mean rating analysis and Pearson Coefficient correlation were used to analyze the result. The object of this research was Abia State in Nigeria, given that good numbers of the communities are notorious for the patronage of traditional healthcare products. The results proved that negligence of immunization, dependence on traditional health healers, and maintenance of ethical work environment are critical concerns that impact consumers’ health knowledge and their response to healthcare products being marketed by firms. Thus, the research makes an empirical confirmation and theoretically proves that Hofstede’s collectivism dimension appropriately profiles the dominant in-group cultural context of the indigenous people of Abia State, Nigeria. The findings of this research show its practical usefulness by identifying the need for communication, enlightenment and awareness programs, and practical demands for strategic approaches to marketing healthcare products within the communities. Policy-wise, the implication is the urgent demand to moderate beliefs and norms of the group by devising stringent measures for clinical laboratory tests of the traditional drugs and stiff penalties for defaulters of traditional healthcare product vendors and producers.

2020 ◽  
Vol 103 ◽  
pp. 264-281
Junyan Wang ◽  
Hongli Zhao ◽  
Yueming Wang ◽  
Hoching Lau ◽  
Wenhu Zhou ◽  

Shreya Joshi ◽  
Ms Bhavyaa ◽  
Suhani Gupta ◽  
Lalita Luthra

Blockchain is considered to be a disruptive core technology. Although many researchers have realized the importance of blockchain, but the research of it is still emerging. It is the record-keeping technology behind bitcoin and is one of the hottest and fastest growing skills in the IT sector today. It serves as an immutable ledger which allows transactions to take place in a decentralized man Blockchain-based applications are rising up, covering numerous fields including finance, healthcare, product management, Internet of Things (IoT), and many more. However, there are still some challenges of blockchain technology such as scalability and security problems which need to be overcome. This paper comprises of a comprehensive study of Blockchain technology. We have included here a deep dive into how blockchains work, its architecture, consensus and various applications. Furthermore, technical challenges are briefly listed.

Healthcare product development (HCPD) process is generally long and time taking process because of complex manufacturing systems. These intricacy systems, the amount of risks involved in product development is also high. It is very much essential in controlling/minimizing risk in this process. The aim of this paper is to investigate risks in an herbal soap manufacturing company under HCPD to suggest a ranked risk structure (RRS) portrayal for obtaining the subjective risk assessment to change the magnitude of risks. For transforming the linguistic data into numeric risk ratings, a fuzzy based MCDM technique is used in this paper and also computing the ‘Level of risk’ regarding crisp ratings, a method of ‘Incentre of Centroids’ for GTrFN has been used. Lastly, a structure to sort dissimilar risk factors was suggested based on the notable extent of risk ratings (crisp). Subsequently, an action strategy was proposed to provide instructions to company managers to effectively control risks. A case study tactic is employed.

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