Pale Pink
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yunlin Cao ◽  
Huimin Jia ◽  
Mengyun Xing ◽  
Rong Jin ◽  
Donald Grierson ◽  

Chinese bayberry (Morella rubra), the most economically important fruit tree in the Myricaceae family, is a rich source of natural flavonoids. Recently the Chinese bayberry genome has been sequenced, and this provides an opportunity to investigate the organization and evolutionary characteristics of MrMYB genes from a whole genome view. In the present study, we performed the genome-wide analysis of MYB genes in Chinese bayberry and identified 174 MrMYB transcription factors (TFs), including 122 R2R3-MYBs, 43 1R-MYBs, two 3R-MYBs, one 4R-MYB, and six atypical MYBs. Collinearity analysis indicated that both syntenic and tandem duplications contributed to expansion of the MrMYB gene family. Analysis of transcript levels revealed the distinct expression patterns of different MrMYB genes, and those which may play important roles in leaf and flower development. Through phylogenetic analysis and correlation analyses, nine MrMYB TFs were selected as candidates regulating flavonoid biosynthesis. By using dual-luciferase assays, MrMYB12 was shown to trans-activate the MrFLS1 promoter, and MrMYB39 and MrMYB58a trans-activated the MrLAR1 promoter. In addition, overexpression of 35S:MrMYB12 caused a significant increase in flavonol contents and induced the expression of NtCHS, NtF3H, and NtFLS in transgenic tobacco leaves and flowers and significantly reduced anthocyanin accumulation, resulting in pale-pink or pure white flowers. This indicates that MrMYB12 redirected the flux away from anthocyanin biosynthesis resulting in higher flavonol content. The present study provides valuable information for understanding the classification, gene and motif structure, evolution and predicted functions of the MrMYB gene family and identifies MYBs regulating different aspects of flavonoid biosynthesis in Chinese bayberry.

2021 ◽  
Un-Hyang Ho ◽  
Jong-Hyang Ri ◽  
Chol-Jun Ri

Abstract Garden stock (Matthiola incana R. Br.) is a commercially important horticultural crop owing to its ornamental effect. There are different stock cultivars varied in color and shape, especially flowered phenotype is an essential index evaluating its commercial value, because double flowered cultivars have more brilliant flowers compared to single flowered one. The present work aimed: (1) to make superior cultivars with different colors, high fertility, being capable of early selecting only double flowered seedlings by leaf color and to investigate morphological characteristics and (2) to select RAPD and ISSR primers for the cultivar certification and identification to culture and produce good commercial stock cultivars. Here we obtained new double flowered stock cultivars with different colors including pink, pale pink and white, through outcrossing between “white” cultivar (high fertile but unable to select double flower phenotype) and “pink” cultivar (vice. versa). Among newly obtained stock cultivars, single and double flower seedlings are distinguishable from each other by leaf color, having about 70% of fertility. Moreover RAPD and ISSR markers selected in this study can be applied to identify different stock cultivars in seed production, culture and to establish cultivar certification system.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1-2) ◽  
Deepti Agarwal

ABSTRACT Nature has plentiful plant sources to fulfil the needs of human beings in terms of food and medicines. Rhododendron tree is one of them. The literature reviewed from online resources suggests that Rhododendron arboretum belongs to family Ericaceae and bears pale pink to deep red colour flowers. It is a national flower of Nepal and a state flower of Uttarakhand. The flowers generally blossom in the months of March to April and June to September. Rhododendron contains significant amount of minerals and many phytochemicals and secondary metabolites like alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, tannins and steroids. Rhododendron arboreum has various therapeutic properties like anti-diabetic property, anti- inflammatory property, antioxidant property, anti-hyperlipidemic property, anti-cancerous property, cardio protective properties. People of India use it in preparation of many valued products like jellies, squashes, ready to serve drinks etc. But their commercialized value added products are not available. This study suggests for more extensive studies on development of commercial product for utilization of its nutritional and therapeutic value.

Acarologia ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 61 (2) ◽  
pp. 412-431
Andrey B. Shatrov ◽  
Anastasia A. Antonovskaia

Stylostome and skin inflammatory reaction during feeding of Neotrombicula talmiensis (Schluger, 1955) (Acariformes, Trombiculidae) larvae on the naturally infected host animals – voles Myodes rufocanus Sundevall, 1846 and Asian chipmunk Tamias sibiricus (Laxmann, 1769) were studied by histological methods. In addition, larvae were studied in scanning electron microscope (SEM). The apical hypostomal portions form a temporal sucker, which applies to the host skin during feeding. Larval feeding on both naturally infected voles and chipmunks causes an epidermal hyperkeratosis and a permanent delayed inflammation with predominance of neutrophil leukocytes, dilation of dermal capillaries and local hemorrhages. Larvae tend to feed in tight groups and may attach themselves to both ‘living’ epidermis and hypertrophic stratum corneum. The stylostome is organized nearly identically in the two host species, which points to the species-specific character of the feeding tube in trombiculid larvae. The stylostome does not penetrate the epidermis through, so it may be classified as belonging to the epidermal type. The stylostome is produced by a solidifying larval secretion and composed of the proximal eosinophil cone and the main stylostome tube, both pale-pink in azure-II-eosin with a greyish peripheral portion more pronounced in voles. No longitudinal and transverse stratification is found in the stylostome composition. In contrast with other trombiculid larvae studied so far, larvae of N. talmiensis also ingest, besides liquefied nutrients, a pure blood that reveals a possibility for trombiculid larvae to be natural bloodsuckers.

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (2) ◽  
pp. 126-133
N. S. Anikina ◽  
N. V. Gnilomedova ◽  
S. N. Cherviak ◽  
A. V. Vesiutova ◽  

The problem of wine color adulteration is relevant all over the world, and, therefore, establishing or refuting the fact of the colorant presence is an integral part of the techno-chemical control. There are many methods for determining artificial colorants (AC) in the alcoholic beverages with various levels of sensitivity and selectivity of detection as well as the promptness in generating the results and the cost of studying one sample. Current work is devoted to the development of a rapid test for detecting the artificial colorants in wines. It is based on the method of the International Organization of Vine and Wine, the principle of which is to fixate the acidic artificial colorants on a specially prepared woolen thread when boiling the sample of wine. The modification of analytical procedure included the reduction of the test sample aliquot, the number of operations and the examination time without compromising the reliability of the conclusion. In order to imitate the color of red wines, Azorubine (E122), Allura Red AC (E129) and Indigo Carmine (E132) food colorants were used. The objects of the research were: model systems based on wine, white and red wines, counterfeit wines provided by the controlling authorities, and concentrated grape must. It was shown that in the genuine wines, depending on the color saturation of the test sample caused by natural anthocyanins, the woolen thread was discoloring from light to dark beige; its color was enhancing from pale pink to deep ruby with the increase in the content of AC in wine. The sensitivity of the proposed method made it possible to determine the presence of AC at the rate of 0.1-0.2 mg/dm3 in wines. The method did not require expensive equipment and could be used in the laboratories of winemaking industry or by the controlling authorities for establishing the fact of adulteration of alcoholic and juice products.

ZooKeys ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 965 ◽  
pp. 85-101
Dinh Tao Nguyen ◽  
Anh Tuan Ho ◽  
Ngoc Thao Hoang ◽  
Hua Wu ◽  
E Zhang

‘Henicorhynchus’thaituisp. nov. is described from a subterranean stream in a karst cave in Phong Nha Ke Bang National Park, Quang Binh Province, Central Vietnam. It differs from all congeners in having a pale pink body in life, smaller eyes with diameter less than the maxillary barbel length, and two pairs of barbels, the maxillary barbel being much longer than the rostral barbel.

2020 ◽  
Vol 28 (2) ◽  
pp. 93-98
Dong-Chun Cheong ◽  
Jin-Jae Lee ◽  
Chang-Hak Choi ◽  
Hee-Jun Kim

2020 ◽  
Vol 32 (3) ◽  
pp. 373-385
Anthony R. Kampf ◽  
Barbara P. Nash ◽  
Jakub Plášil ◽  
Jason B. Smith ◽  
Mark N. Feinglos

Abstract. Niasite (IMA2019-105) and johanngeorgenstadtite (IMA2019-122) are Ni4.52+(AsO4)3 dimorphs from Johanngeorgenstadt, Saxony, Germany. The two new minerals occur in association with one another and with aerugite, bunsenite, quartz, rooseveltite and xanthiosite. This mineral assemblage is apparently secondary in origin and most likely formed from the breakdown of primary nickeline under dry (low relative humidity) and oxidizing (high oxygen fugacity) conditions. Both minerals are found in sugary aggregates of irregular, rounded grains or short prisms. Niasite properties are as follows: colour violet-red to red-orange; streak pale pink; transparent; resinous to subadamantine lustre; brittle tenacity; no cleavage; conchoidal fracture; Mohs hardness ∼4; densitycalc 5.222 g cm−3; optically uniaxial (–), ω 1.925(5) and ε 1.855(5) (white light), pleochroism O beige, E deep pink (O<E). Johanngeorgenstadtite properties are as follows: colour pink-orange; streak pale pink; transparent; resinous to subadamantine lustre; brittle tenacity; {010}, {110} and {1−10} cleavage; curved and stepped fracture; Mohs hardness ∼5; densitycalc 4.801 g cm−3; optically biaxial (–), α 1.83(1), β 1.86(1), γ 1.88(1) (white light), 2Vmeas 78(1)∘, pleochroism X violet, Y light olive, Z yellow (X>Y>Z). Raman spectra of both minerals are dominated by the stretching vibrations of AsO4 tetrahedra and confirm that both minerals are anhydrous. Electron microprobe analyses give the empirical formulas (Ni3.692+Co0.662+Fe0.032+Al0.02Na0.02Cu0.012+)Σ4.43As3.03O12 and (Ni3.562+Co0.752+Cu0.132+)Σ4.44As3.02O12 for niasite and johanngeorgenstadtite, respectively. Niasite is tetragonal, I4¯2d, with a=6.8046(8), c=18.6190(13) Å, V=862.1(2) Å3 and Z=4. Johanngeorgenstadtite is monoclinic, C2∕c, with a=11.933(3), b=12.753(3), c=6.6956(17) Å, β=113.302(8)∘, V=935.9(4) Å3 and Z=4. The structure of niasite (R1=0.0226 for 471 Io>2σI reflections) is the same as that of jeffbenite, as well as those of several garnet-like synthetic phases. Johanngeorgenstadtite (R1=0.0375 for 355 Io>2σI reflections) has an unprotonated alluaudite structure.

2020 ◽  
Vol 123 ◽  
pp. 103287
Héctor Asael De León-Martínez ◽  
J. Rafael Molina-Contreras ◽  
Luis Alberto Escalera-Velasco ◽  
Christian Geovanni Hernández-Murillo ◽  
Hector Rene Vega-Carrillo ◽  

2020 ◽  
Vol 180 (4) ◽  
pp. 141-147
L. D. Komar-Tyomnaya ◽  
G. P. Zaitsev

Background. Ornamental peaches are flowering trees with petals ranging in color from white and pale pink to purplered. Because peach suffers from fungal infections, Prunus mira Koehne is often used in breeding programs as a donor of resistance. It also impacts on other traits, including flower color. The aim of this work was to study the composition of flavonoid pigments in the flowers of parent plants and new ornamental peach cultivars originated from P. mira.Objects and methods. Four new cultivars developed at the Nikita Botanical Gardens and their parental forms – P. mira and 4 cultivars with the P. persica morphotype – were included in the study. Pigments were extracted with acidified ethyl alcohol from fresh petals and identified by HPLC analysis.Results. Twelve glycosides of cyanidin and peonidin in different combinations and 8 glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin were found in the petal samples. Among colored plants, the highest amount of flavonols (114 mg g-1) and the lowest amount of anthocyanins (0.46 mg g-1) were found in P. mira petals. Anthocyanins predominate in cultivars with purple-red petals (16 mg g-1). Much more flavonols (55– 88 mg g-1) and little anthocyanins (1.2–3.4 mg g-1) were accumulated in the purple-pink flowers of hybrid cultivars. This trend persisted in the cultivars from crosses with a white-flowered parent. Conclusion. The ratio of anthocyanins and flavonols in the peach flowers depends on the plant species and determines the petals’ intermediate colors and half-tones. Using P. mira in breeding programs provides opportunities for the development of cultivars with new shades of flower color.

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