polymer network
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Michael Bojdys

Silicon-based anodes with lithium ions as charge carriers have the highest predicted theoretical specific capacity of 3579 mA h g (for LiSi). Contemporary electrodes do not achieve this theoretical value largely because conventional production paradigms rely on the mixing of weakly coordinated components. In this paper, a semi-conductive triazine-based graphdiyne polymer network is grown around silicon nanoparticles directly on the current collector, a copper sheet. The porous, semi-conducting organic framework (i) adheres to the current collector on which it grows via cooperative van der Waals interactions, (ii) acts effectively as conductor for electrical charges and binder of silicon nanoparticles via conjugated, covalent bonds, and (iii) enables selective transport of electrolyte and Li-ions through pores of defined size. The resulting anode shows extraordinarily high capacity at the theoretical limit of fully lithiated silicon. Finally, we combine our anodes in proof-of-concept battery assemblies using a conventional layered Ni-rich oxide cathode.

2022 ◽  
pp. 088532822110527
Piotr Gadziński ◽  
Tomasz Zbigniew Osmałek ◽  
Anna Froelich ◽  
Oliwia Wilmańska ◽  
Agata Nowak ◽  

Purpose. In the performed study, the rheological and textural parameters of gellan-based hydrogels were investigated and their dependence on three factors was taken into consideration: ( i) The presence of the model drug, ( ii) The presence and type of the ionic crosslinking agent, and ( iii) the composition of the polymer network. The objective was to compare two analytical methods, regarded as complementary, and define to what extent the obtained results correlate with each other. Methods. The hydrogels contained low-acyl gellan gum or its mixtures with hydroxyethyl cellulose or κ-carrageenan. CaCl2 and MgCl2 were used as gelling agents. Mesalazine was used as a model drug. The rheological analysis included oscillatory stress and frequency sweeping. The texture profile analysis was performed to calculate texture parameters. Results. Placebo gels without the addition of gelling agents had the weakest structure. The drug had the strongest ability to increase the stiffness of the polymer network. The weakest structure revealed the placebo samples without the addition of gelling agents. Texture analysis revealed no significant influence of the drug on the strength of the gels, while rheological measurements indicated clear differences. Conclusions. It can be concluded that in the case of some parameters methods correlate, that is, the effect related to gelling ions. However, the rheological analysis seems to be more precise and sensitive to some changes in the mechanical properties of the gels.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Yanbo Wang ◽  
Ailian Liu ◽  
Weixiang Ding ◽  
Fangping Rao ◽  
Jun Yuan ◽  

This research explores the effects of using waste engine oil bottom on physical, rheological properties and composite modification mechanism of SBS-modified asphalt. The SBS asphalt binder was modified by WEOB with different concentrations (2, 4, and 6 wt%). The GC-MS and FTIR spectrometry were conducted to evaluate the chemical compositions of WEOB- and WEOB-modified asphalt. RV, DSR, and BBR were tested to evaluate high- and low-temperature pavement performance. Fluorescence microscope (FM) test, bar thin layer chromatograph (BTLC) test, and AFM test were performed to evaluate the micromorphologies and modification mechanism. The test results showed that a new characteristic peak appeared in the infrared spectrum of the WEOB-modified SBS asphalt, indicating a chemical reaction in the modification process. Incorporation of WEOB improves both the high-temperature and low-temperature properties of the SBS asphalt binder. It was confirmed that with the increase of WEOB concentration, the content of colloid gradually increases, which promotes the swelling and compaction of SBS polymer network structure. Furthermore, WEOB promotes the polarity of SBS and forms graft product MAH-g-SBS with asphalt, thus inhibiting the thermal movement of asphalt molecules. On the contrary, light components have a good correlation with the surface roughness of modified asphalt; the results show that the modified asphalt has good rutting resistance.

R.A. Shulen ◽  
D.S. Kazybayeva ◽  

The work is devoted to the synthesis and characterization of gels based on the monomers pentaerythritol triaacrylate (PETriA) and 2,2 '-(ethylenedioxy)diethanethiol (EDODET) by thiol-ene "click" polymerization. The properties of the obtained gels were investigated by IR, Raman spectroscopy, mechanical analysis. Sol-gel analysis of obtained networks was carried out and the degradability was investigated. The results of IR spectroscopy confirmed the presence of -C = O and -C-O-C- groups in the composition of the obtained gels. The presence of unreacted C = C bonds conjugated with C = O, as well as thiol groups, varies depending on the composition of the initial monomer mixture (IMM). Raman spectroscopy results correlate well with IR data. Raman spectra also show C-S, S-S and SH characteristic bands that are difficult to identify by IR spectroscopy. It was found that the composition of MM affects the physicochemical properties of the synthesized gels. The highest yield of the gel fraction of obtained polymers was found in samples with an equimolar composition of IMM. The analysis of mechanical properties showed that gels with an excess of PETriA exhibit more elastic properties, and an excess of EDODET leads to the formation of networks with a higher crosslinking density. The study of the ability of obtained PETria-EDODET gels to degrade in a 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide showed that the polymer network degrades by 12% within 60 days. This property of the obtained gels can find application in the creation of targeted drug delivery systems with their prolonged release.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 184
Katarzyna Walkowiak ◽  
Krzysztof Przybył ◽  
Hanna Maria Baranowska ◽  
Krzysztof Koszela ◽  
Łukasz Masewicz ◽  

Currently, society expects convenience food, which is healthy, safe, and easy to prepare and eat in all conditions. On account of the increasing popularity of modified potato starch in food industry and its increasing scope of use, this study focused on improving the physical modification of native starch with temperature changes. As a result, it was found that the suggested method of starch modification with the use of microwave power of 150 W/h had an impact on the change in starch granules. The LF-NMR method determined the whole range of temperatures in which the creation of a starch polymer network occurs. Therefore, the applied LF-NMR technique is a highly promising, noninvasive physical method, which allows obtaining a better-quality structure of potato starch gels.

Negar Abbasi Aval ◽  
Rahmatollah Emadi ◽  
Ali Valiani ◽  
Mahshid Kharaziha ◽  
Anna Finne-Wistrand

AbstractCentral nervous system (CNS) injuries such as stroke or trauma can lead to long-lasting disability, and there is no currently accepted treatment to regenerate functional CNS tissue after injury. Hydrogels can mimic the neural extracellular matrix by providing a suitable 3D structure and mechanical properties and have shown great promise in CNS tissue regeneration. Here we present successful synthesis of a thermosensitive hyaluronic acid-RADA 16 (Puramatrix™) peptide interpenetrating network (IPN) that can be applied in situ by injection.Thermosensitive hyaluronic acid (HA) was first synthesized by combining HA with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). Then, the Puramatrix™ self-assembled peptide was combined with the thermosensitive HA to produce a series of injectable thermoresponsive IPNs. The HA-Puramatrix™ IPNs formed hydrogels successfully at physiological temperature. Characterization by SEM, rheological measurements, enzymatic degradation and swelling tests was performed to select the IPN optimized for neurologic use. SEM images of the optimized dry IPNs demonstrated an aligned porous structure, and the rheological measurements showed that the hydrogels were elastic, with an elastic modulus of approximately 500 Pa, similar to that of brain tissue. An evaluation of the cell–material interactions also showed that the IPN had biological characteristics required for tissue engineering, strongly suggesting that the IPN hydrogel possessed properties beneficial for regeneration of brain tissue.

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