interpenetrating polymer network
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Negar Abbasi Aval ◽  
Rahmatollah Emadi ◽  
Ali Valiani ◽  
Mahshid Kharaziha ◽  
Anna Finne-Wistrand

AbstractCentral nervous system (CNS) injuries such as stroke or trauma can lead to long-lasting disability, and there is no currently accepted treatment to regenerate functional CNS tissue after injury. Hydrogels can mimic the neural extracellular matrix by providing a suitable 3D structure and mechanical properties and have shown great promise in CNS tissue regeneration. Here we present successful synthesis of a thermosensitive hyaluronic acid-RADA 16 (Puramatrix™) peptide interpenetrating network (IPN) that can be applied in situ by injection.Thermosensitive hyaluronic acid (HA) was first synthesized by combining HA with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). Then, the Puramatrix™ self-assembled peptide was combined with the thermosensitive HA to produce a series of injectable thermoresponsive IPNs. The HA-Puramatrix™ IPNs formed hydrogels successfully at physiological temperature. Characterization by SEM, rheological measurements, enzymatic degradation and swelling tests was performed to select the IPN optimized for neurologic use. SEM images of the optimized dry IPNs demonstrated an aligned porous structure, and the rheological measurements showed that the hydrogels were elastic, with an elastic modulus of approximately 500 Pa, similar to that of brain tissue. An evaluation of the cell–material interactions also showed that the IPN had biological characteristics required for tissue engineering, strongly suggesting that the IPN hydrogel possessed properties beneficial for regeneration of brain tissue.

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 4372
Yu-Chi Ma ◽  
Chang-Tsung Hsieh ◽  
Yu-Hsiang Lin ◽  
Chi-An Dai ◽  
Jia-Han Li

The blindness caused by cornea diseases has exacerbated many patients all over the world. The disadvantages of using donor corneas may cause challenges to recovering eye sight. Developing artificial corneas with biocompatibility may provide another option to recover blindness. The techniques of making individual artificial corneas that fit the biometric parameters for each person can be used to help these patients effectively. In this study, artificial corneas with different shapes (spherical, aspherical, and biconic shapes) are designed and they could be made by two different hydrogel polymers that form an interpenetrating polymer network for their excellent mechanical strength. Two designed cases for the artificial corneas are considered in the simulations: to optimize the artificial cornea for patients who still wear glasses and to assume that the patient does not wear glasses after transplanting with the optimized artificial cornea. The results show that the artificial corneas can efficiently decrease the imaging blur. Increasing asphericity of the current designed artificial corneas can be helpful for the imaging corrections. The differences in the optical performance of the optimized artificial corneas by using different materials are small. It is found that the optimized artificial cornea can reduce the high order aberrations for the second case.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
Pierre C. Dromel ◽  
Deepti Singh ◽  
Eliot Andres ◽  
Molly Likes ◽  
Motoichi Kurisawa ◽  

AbstractBiomaterial-based cell replacement approaches to regenerative medicine are emerging as promising treatments for a wide array of profound clinical problems. Here we report an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) composed of gelatin-hydroxyphenyl propionic acid and hyaluronic acid tyramine that is able to enhance intravitreal retinal cell therapy. By tuning our bioinspired hydrogel to mimic the vitreous chemical composition and mechanical characteristics we were able to improve in vitro and in vivo viability of human retinal ganglion cells (hRGC) incorporated into the IPN. In vivo vitreal injections of cell-bearing IPN in rats showed extensive attachment to the inner limiting membrane of the retina, improving with hydrogels stiffness. Engrafted hRGC displayed signs of regenerating processes along the optic nerve. Of note was the decrease in the immune cell response to hRGC delivered in the gel. The findings compel further translation of the gelatin-hyaluronic acid IPN for intravitreal cell therapy.

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (22) ◽  
pp. 4000
Mona A. Aziz Aljar ◽  
Suad Rashdan ◽  
Ahmed Abd El-Fattah

Hazardous chemicals like toxic organic dyes are very harmful to the environment and their removal is quite challenging. Therefore there is a necessity to develop techniques, which are environment friendly, cost-effective and easily available in nature for water purification and remediation. The present research work is focused on the development` and characterization of the ecofriendly semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) nanocomposite hydrogels composed of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and alginate (Alg) hydrogel beads incorporating natural bentonite (Bent) clay as a beneficial adsorbent for the removal of toxic methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. PVA−Alg/Bent nanocomposite hydrogel beads with different Bent content (0, 10, 20, and 30 wt%) were synthesized via external ionic gelation method. The designed porous and steady structure beads were characterized by the use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The performance of the beads as MB adsorbents was investigated by treating aqueous solutions in batch mode. The experimental results indicated that the incorporation of Bent (30 wt%) in the nanocomposite formulation sustained the porous structure, preserved water uptake, and increased MB removal efficiency by 230% compared to empty beads. Designed beads possessed higher affinity to MB at high pH 8, 30 °C, and fitted well to pseudo-second-order kinetic model with a high correlation coefficient. Moreover, the designed beads had good stability and reusability as they exhibited excellent removal efficiency (90%) after six consecutive adsorption-desorption cycles. The adsorption process was found be combination of both monolayer adsorption on homogeneous surface and multilayer adsorption on heterogeneous surface. The maximum adsorption capacity of the designed beads system as calculated by Langmuir isotherm was found to be 51.34 mg/g, which is in good agreement with the reported clay-related adsorbents. The designed semi-IPN PVA−Alg/Bent nanocomposite hydrogel beads demonstrated good adsorbent properties and could be potentially used for MB removal from polluted water.

Gels ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 167
Muhammad Suhail ◽  
Yi-Han Hsieh ◽  
Yu-Fang Shao ◽  
Muhammad Usman Minhas ◽  
Pao-Chu Wu

Ketorolac tromethamine is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in the management of severe pain. The half-life of Ketorolac tromethamine is within the range of 2.5–4 h. Hence, repeated doses of Ketorolac tromethamine are needed in a day to maintain the therapeutic level. However, taking several doses of Ketorolac tromethamine in a day generates certain complications, such as acute renal failure and gastrointestinal ulceration. Therefore, a polymeric-controlled drug delivery system is needed that could prolong the release of Ketorolac tromethamine. Therefore, in the current study, pH-responsive carbopol 934/sodium polystyrene sulfonate-co-poly(acrylic acid) (CP/SpScPAA) hydrogels were developed by the free radical polymerization technique for the controlled release of Ketorolac tromethamine. Monomer acrylic acid was crosslinked with the polymers carbopol 934 and sodium polystyrene sulfonate by the cross-linker N′,N′-methylene bisacrylamide. Various studies were conducted to evaluate and assess the various parameters of the fabricated hydrogels. The compatibility of the constituents used in the preparation of hydrogels was confirmed by FTIR analysis, whereas the thermal stability of the unreacted polymers and developed hydrogels was analyzed by TGA and DSC, respectively. A smooth and porous surface was indicated by SEM. The crystallinity of carbopol 934, sodium polystyrene sulfonate, and the prepared hydrogels was evaluated by PXRD, which revealed a reduction in the crystallinity of reactants for the developed hydrogels. The pH sensitivity of the polymeric hydrogel networks was confirmed by dynamic swelling and in vitro release studies with two different pH media i.e., pH 1.2 and 7.4, respectively. Maximum swelling was exhibited at pH 7.4 compared to pH 1.2 and, likewise, a greater percent drug release was perceived at pH 7.4. Conclusively, we can demonstrate that the developed pH-sensitive hydrogel network could be employed as a suitable carrier for the controlled delivery of Ketorolac tromethamine.

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (18) ◽  
pp. 3197
Younghyun Shin ◽  
Dajung Kim ◽  
Yiluo Hu ◽  
Yohan Kim ◽  
In Ki Hong ◽  

Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-based hydrogels are generally superabsorbent and biocompatible, but their low mechanical strength limits their application. To overcome these drawbacks, we used bacterial succinoglycan (SG), a biocompatible natural polysaccharide, as a double crosslinking strategy to produce novel interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogels in a non-bead form. These new SG/CMC-based IPN hydrogels significantly increased the mechanical strength while maintaining the characteristic superabsorbent property of CMC-based hydrogels. The SG/CMC gels exhibited an 8.5-fold improvement in compressive stress and up to a 6.5-fold higher storage modulus (G′) at the same strain compared to the CMC alone gels. Furthermore, SG/CMC gels not only showed pH-controlled drug release for 5-fluorouracil but also did not show any cytotoxicity to HEK-293 cells. This suggests that SG/CMC hydrogels could be used as future biomedical biomaterials for drug delivery.

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (18) ◽  
pp. 3200
Minori Hatta ◽  
Akikazu Shinya ◽  
Harunori Gomi ◽  
Pekka K. Vallittu ◽  
Eija Säilynoja ◽  

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) thermoplastic resin on the flexural strength of fibre-reinforced composite (FRC) with different IPN polymer compositions. The penetration of bonding resin into semi-IPN FRC posts was also evaluated. The IPN thermoplastic resin used was UDMA-MMA monomer with either PMMA (0.5%, 2%, 5%) or PMMA-copolymer (0.5%, 2%). A no added IPN polymer resin was also made. Mixed resin was impregnated to S- and E-glass fibre rovings. These resins and resin impregnated fibres were used for flexural strength (FS) test. To evaluate the penetration of bonding resin into semi-IPN post, SEM observation was done with various impregnation time and polymerization mehods (hand-light- and oven-cure). The result of FS was recorded from 111.7 MPa (no-IPN polymer/no-fibre-reinforcement) to 543.0 MPa (5% PMMA/S-glass FRC). ANOVA showed that there were significant differences between fibre-reinforcement and no-fibre-reinforcement (p < 0.01) both in S- and E-glass fibre groups, and between 0.5% PMMA and 5% PMMA in the S-glass FRC group. SEM micrographs showed that the penetration layers of bonding resin into hand-light cured semi-IPN posts were different according to impregnation time. Fibre reinforcement is effective to improve flexural strength. The depth of penetration layer of bonding resin into semi-IPN matrix resin was improved when a hand-light cure was used.

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