Hemolysin Gene
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2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Kiandokht Babolhavaeji ◽  
Leili Shokoohizadeh ◽  
Morteza Yavari ◽  
Abbas Moradi ◽  
Mohammad Yousef Alikhani

Background. The aims of the current study are the identification of O157 and non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups isolated from fresh raw beef meat samples in an industrial slaughterhouse, determination of antimicrobial resistance patterns, and genetic linkage of STEC isolates. Materials and Methods. A total of 110 beef samples were collected from the depth of the rump of cattle slaughtered at Hamadan industrial slaughterhouse. After detection of E. coli isolates, STEC strains were identified according to PCR for stx1, stx2, eaeA, and hlyA virulence genes, and STEC serogroups (O157 and non-O157) were identified by PCR. The genetic linkage of STEC isolates was analyzed by the ERIC- (Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus-) PCR method. The antimicrobial susceptibility of STEC isolates was detected by the disk diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. Results. Among 110 collected beef samples, 77 (70%) were positive for E. coli. The prevalence of STEC in E. coli isolates was 8 (10.4%). The overall prevalence of O157 and non-O157 STEC isolates was 12.5% (one isolate) and 87.5% (7 isolates), respectively. The hemolysin gene was detected in 25% (2 isolates) of STEC strains. Evaluation of antibiotic resistance indicated that 100% of STEC isolates were resistant to ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and cefazolin. Resistance to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin was detected in 62.5% and 12.5% of isolates, respectively. The analysis of the ERIC-PCR results showed five different ERIC types among the STEC isolates. Conclusion. The isolation of different clones STECs from beef and the presence of antibiotic-resistant isolates indicate that more attention should be paid to the hygiene of slaughterhouses.

2021 ◽  
Olivia D. Nigro ◽  
La'Toya I. James-Davis ◽  
Eric Heinen De Carlo ◽  
Yuan-Hui Li ◽  
Grieg F Steward

To better understand the controls on the opportunistic human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus in warm tropical waters, we conducted a year-long investigation in the Ala Wai Canal, a channelized estuary in Honolulu, HI. The abundance of V. vulnificus as determined by qPCR of the hemolysin gene (vvhA), varied spatially and temporally over four orders of magnitude (≤ 3 to 14,000 mL-1). Unlike in temperate and subtropical systems, temperatures were persistently warm (19–31°C) and explained little of the variability in V. vulnificus abundance. Salinity (1–36 ppt) had a significant, but non-linear, relationship with V. vulnificus abundance with highest abundances (> 2,500 mL-1) observed only at salinities from 7 to 22 ppt. V. vulnificus abundances were lower on average in the summer dry season when waters were warmer but more saline. Highest canal-wide average abundances were observed during a time of modest rainfall when moderate salinities and elevated concentrations of reduced nitrogen species and silica suggested a groundwater influence. Distinguishing the abundances of two genotypes of V. vulnificus (C-type and E-type) suggest that C-type strains, which are responsible for most human infections, were usually less abundant (25% on average), but their relative contribution was greater at higher salinities, suggesting a broader salinity tolerance. Generalized regression models suggested up to 67% of sample-to-sample variation in log-transformed V. vulnificus abundance was explained (n = 202) using the measured environmental variables, and up to 97% of the monthly variation in canal-wide average concentrations (n = 13) was explained with the best subset of four variables.

2021 ◽  
Akihiro SAKATOKU ◽  
Kaito Hatano ◽  
Shoki Tanaka ◽  
Tadashi Isshiki

Abstract In the summers of 2019 and 2020, a previously undescribed disease occurred in both juvenile and adult shellfish, causing mass mortalities in cultured pearl production, characterized by the major symptom of extreme atrophy of the soft tissues, including the mantle. However, the causative organism was uncertain. We isolated Vibrio sp. strain MA3 from the mantles of diseased pearl oysters Pinctada fucata. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene and DNA gyrase sequence homologies and its biochemical and morphological characteristics suggested that strain MA3 is a new strain of Vibrio alginolyticus. In addition, a hemolysin gene (Vhe1) of strain MA3 was detected as one of the virulence factors, and the complete sequence was determined. BLAST searches showed that Vhe1 shares 99.8% nucleotide sequence identity with Vibrio alginolyticus strain A056 lecithin-dependent hemolysin (ldh) gene, complete cds. Experimental infection of healthy oysters via injection with strain MA3 indicated it could cause high mortalities of the typically affected oysters from which the strain was isolated. These results suggest that the newly isolated Vibrio sp. strain MA3 is a putative causal agent of the recent disease outbreaks in Akoya pearl oysters.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (6) ◽  
pp. 1220
Nawaporn Jingjit ◽  
Sutima Preeprem ◽  
Komwit Surachat ◽  
Pimonsri Mittraparp-arthorn

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the significant seafood-borne pathogens causing gastroenteritis in humans. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are commonly detected in the genomes of V. parahaemolyticus and the polymorphism of CRISPR patterns has been applied as a genetic marker for tracking its evolution. In this work, a total of 15 pandemic and 36 non-pandemic V. parahaemolyticus isolates obtained from seafood between 2000 and 2012 were characterized based on hemolytic activity, antimicrobial susceptibility, and CRISPR elements. The results showed that 15/17 of the V. parahaemolyticus seafood isolates carrying the thermostable direct hemolysin gene (tdh+) were Kanagawa phenomenon (KP) positive. The Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index ranged between 0.1 and 0.4, and 45% of the isolates have an MAR index ≥ 0.2. A total of 19 isolates were positive for CRISPR detection, including all tdh+ trh− isolates, two of tdh− trh+, and each of tdh+ trh+ and tdh− trh−. Four spacer types (Sp1 to Sp4) were identified, and CRISPR-positive isolates had at least one type of spacer homolog to the region of Vibrio alginolyticus megaplasmid. It is of interest that a specific CRISPR profile and spacer sequence type was observed with correlations to the hemolysin genotype (tdh/trh). Thus, these provide essential data on the exposure of foreign genetic elements and indicate shared ancestry within different genotypes of V. parahaemolyticus isolates.

Marine Drugs ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (6) ◽  
pp. 301
Yong-Guy Kim ◽  
Jin-Hyung Lee ◽  
Sangbum Lee ◽  
Young-Kyung Lee ◽  
Buyng Su Hwang ◽  

Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus plays a critical role in the persistence of chronic infections due to its tolerance against antimicrobial agents. Here, we investigated the antibiofilm efficacy of six phorbaketals: phorbaketal A (1), phorbaketal A acetate (2), phorbaketal B (3), phorbaketal B acetate (4), phorbaketal C (5), and phorbaketal C acetate (6), isolated from the Korean marine sponge Phorbas sp. Of these six compounds, 3 and 5 were found to be effective inhibitors of biofilm formation by two S. aureus strains, which included a methicillin-resistant S. aureus. In addition, 3 also inhibited the production of staphyloxanthin, which protects microbes from reactive oxygen species generated by neutrophils and macrophages. Transcriptional analyses showed that 3 and 5 inhibited the expression of the biofilm-related hemolysin gene hla and the nuclease gene nuc1.

2021 ◽  
Vol 30 (4) ◽  
pp. 20-26
Le Thanh Huong ◽  
Ha Thi Phuong Mai ◽  
Hoang Thi Thu Ha ◽  
Nguyen Dong Tu ◽  
Bui Tien Sy ◽  

Listeria monocytogenes is widely present in the natural environment. This bacteria can cause infections in both humans and animals. In humans, the most vulnerable groups to be infected with L. monocytogenes are the elderly, people with an impaired immune system and chronically illness, pregnant women, and newborn babies. The aim of this study was to develop a multiplex PCR assay for the rapid detection of L. monocytogenes in mock clinical samples. A pair of primers were designed for detection of L. monocytogenes based on prs, a Listeria genus specific gene, and hly, a hemolysin gene. The specificity of the primers were tested by using different L. monocytogenes strains and other common pathogenic bacteria. The results showed that L. monocytogenes strains were positive in the detection and other tested strains were negative in mock (spiked) clinical samples. The sensitivity of multiplex PCR assay was 102 CFU/ml per reaction. The specificity and sensitivity of multiplex PCR technology for detecting L. monocytogenes in mock (spiked) clinical samples were high, and the assay could be completed within 1.5 hours. Therefore, this established multiplex PCR provides a rapid and reliable method and will be useful for the detection of L. monocytogenes in mock clinical samples.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (4) ◽  
pp. 986-995
Heba Roshdy ◽  
Azhar G. Shalaby ◽  
Ahmed Abd Elhalem Mohamed ◽  
Heba Badr

Background and Aim: Rabbits are a highly sensitive species and susceptible to various bacterial pathogens that may be causative agents for early embryonic death. This study aimed to explore the administration of different bacterial agents in does suffering from early embryonic death. Furthermore, identification of genes associated with virulence was performed to identify the phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance patterns that may increase the virulence of pathogens and lead to early embryonic death. Materials and Methods: We isolated and identified bacterial agents in 106 samples from live and dead female rabbits that had undergone early embryonic death, including liver and intestine tissue, aborted fetuses, discharges, and vaginal swabs. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted to confirm the identity of the isolated bacterial strains and their virulence. Moreover, antibiotic resistance was studied phenotypically and genotypically. Results: We isolated Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Pasteurella multocida, and Listeria monocytogenes. PCR confirmed typical identification except in P. multocida, which was confirmed as Gallibacterium spp. in some cases. The final percentage of detection was 34%, 30.2%, 16.9%, 13.2%, and 11.3%, respectively. Virulence properties were investigated using different designated genes. All Salmonella strains harbored invA, stn, avrA, and ompf genes, while the sopE gene was identified in 31.25%. E. coli strains harboring the iss gene lacked the shiga toxin (stx1) gene. L. monocytogenes and S. aureus strains harbored the hemolysin gene (66.7% and 33.4%, respectively). Multidrug resistance was detected phenotypically and genotypically in most strains. Each bacterial pathogen had a different antibiotic resistance profile. Conclusion: Multiple bacterial species may contribute to early embryonic death in does. Furthermore, the combined infection could be the main cause of early embryonic death. Thus, monitoring programs should bear this in mind and focus on the early detection of these bacterial agents in female rabbits to avoid embryonic death.

2020 ◽  
Vol 92 (suppl 1) ◽  

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