in vitro release
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Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 250
Evren Gundogdu ◽  
Emine-Selin Demir ◽  
Meliha Ekinci ◽  
Emre Ozgenc ◽  
Derya Ilem-Ozdemir ◽  

Imatinib (IMT) is a tyrosine kinase enzyme inhibitor and extensively used for the treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). A nanostructured lipid carrier system (NLCS) containing IMT was developed by using emulsification–sonication methods. The characterization of the developed formulation was performed in terms of its particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, loading capacity, sterility, syringeability, stability, in vitro release kinetics with mathematical models, cellular uptake studies with flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy and cytotoxicity for CRL-1739 cells. The particle size, PDI, loading capacity and zeta potential of selected NLCS (F16-IMT) were found to be 96.63 ± 1.87 nm, 0.27 ± 0.15, 96.49 ± 1.46% and −32.7 ± 2.48 mV, respectively. F16-IMT was found to be stable, thermodynamic, sterile and syringeable through an 18 gauze needle. The formulation revealed a Korsmeyer–Peppas drug release model of 53% at 8 h, above 90% of cell viability, 23.61 µM of IC50 and induction of apoptosis in CRL-1739 cell lines. In the future, F16-IMT can be employed to treat GISTs. A small amount of IMT loaded into the NLCSs will be better than IMT alone for therapy for GISTs. Consequently, F16-IMT could prove to be useful for effective GIST treatment.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 185
Maria Inês Teixeira ◽  
Carla Martins Lopes ◽  
Hugo Gonçalves ◽  
José Catita ◽  
Ana Margarida Silva ◽  

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease with a very poor prognosis. Its treatment is hindered by a lack of new therapeutic alternatives and the existence of the blood–brain barrier (BBB), which restricts the access of drugs commonly used in ALS, such as riluzole, to the brain. To overcome these limitations and increase brain targeting, riluzole-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) were prepared and functionalized with lactoferrin (Lf), facilitating transport across the BBB by interacting with Lf receptors expressed in the brain endothelium. NLC were characterized with respect to their physicochemical properties (size, zeta potential, polydispersity index) as well as their stability, encapsulation efficiency, morphology, in vitro release profile, and biocompatibility. Moreover, crystallinity and melting behavior were assessed by DSC and PXRD. Nanoparticles exhibited initial mean diameters between 180 and 220 nm and a polydispersity index below 0.3, indicating a narrow size distribution. NLC remained stable over at least 3 months. Riluzole encapsulation efficiency was very high, around 94–98%. FTIR and protein quantification studies confirmed the conjugation of Lf on the surface of the nanocarriers, with TEM images showing that the functionalized NLC presented a smooth surface and uniform spherical shape. An MTT assay revealed that the nanocarriers developed in this study did not cause a substantial reduction in the viability of NSC-34 and hCMEC/D3 cells at a riluzole concentration up to 10 μM, being therefore biocompatible. The results suggest that Lf-functionalized NLC are a suitable and promising delivery system to target riluzole to the brain.

Jamal Ali Ashoor ◽  
Jinan M. Mohsin ◽  
Hussein Mohammed Mohsin ◽  
Basam W. Mahde ◽  
Mowafaq M. Gareeb

Abstract Objective: the idea of this study to improve transdermal permeability of Methotrexate using eucalyptus oil, olive oil and peppermint oil as enhancers.Method: eucalyptus oil (2% and 4%), peppermint oil (2% and 4%) and olive oil (2% and 4%) all used as natural enhancers to develop transdermal permeability of Methotrexate via gel formulation. The gel was subjected to many physiochemical properties tests. In-vitro release and permeability studies for the drug were done by Franz cell diffusion across synthetic membrane, kinetic model was studied via korsmeyer- peppas equation.Result: the results demonstrate that safe, nonirritant or cause necrosis to rats' skin and stable till 60 days gel was successfully formulated.Methotrexate penetration alone without enhancer is only about 20%, while using enhancers reach to 85%, 99% and 90% with eucalyptus oil 4%, peppermint oil 4% and olive oil 4% respectively after 24 hours.Conclusion: Methotrexate transdermal gel was prepared and evaluated fruitfully in-vitro with a good permeation across semipermeable membrane. The results indicated that using of peppermint oil as enhancer have superiority to enhance the transdermal permeation of the Methotrexate.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 182
Minaxi Sharma ◽  
Baskaran Stephen Inbaraj ◽  
Praveen Kumar Dikkala ◽  
Kandi Sridhar ◽  
Arjun Naik Mude ◽  

Curcumin has been demonstrated to have biological activities and its fortification in food products is an important strategy to deliver bioactive ingredients at target sites. However, studies have documented a curcumin low bioavailability and low intake. Hence, combining functional ingredients with food should be needed to prevent widespread nutrient intake shortfalls and associated deficiencies. Thus, curcumin was encapsulated in calcium-alginate and their characteristics as well as in vitro release behavior of curcumin hydrogel beads (CHBs) was studied. Moreover, CHBs were fortified in development of functional Kulfi and their quality characteristics were studied. The encapsulation efficiency was up to 95.04%, indicating that most of the curcumin was entrapped. FTIR shifts in the bands were due to the replacement of sodium ions to the calcium ions. In vitro release (%) for CHBs was found to be 67.15% after 2 h, which increased slightly up to 67.88% after 4 h. The average swelling index of CHBs was found to be 10.21 to 37.92 from 2 to 12 h in PBS (pH 7.40). Control and Kulfi fortified with CHBs showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) in colour (L = 73.03 and 75.88) and the melting rate (0.88 mL/min and 0.63 mL/min), respectively. Standard plate count was reduced in the Kulfi fortified with CHBs (13.77 × 104 CFU/mL) with high sensory score for overall acceptability (8.56) compared to the control (154.70 × 104 CFU/mL). These findings suggested the feasibility of developing CHBs to mask the bitterness, enhance the solubility, and increase the bioavailability in gastrointestinal conditions. Additionally, Kulfi could be a suitable dairy delivery system for curcumin bioactive compounds.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Muhammad H. Sultan ◽  
Sivakumar S. Moni ◽  
Osama A. Madkhali ◽  
Mohammed Ali Bakkari ◽  
Saeed Alshahrani ◽  

AbstractThe present study was carried out to develop cisplatin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CCNP) and cisplatin-loaded chitosan nanoparticle surface linked to rituximab (mAbCCNP) as targeted delivery formulations. The two formulations (CCNP and mAbCCNP) exhibited significant physicochemical properties. The zetapotential (ZP) values of CCNP and mAbCCNP were 30.50 ± 5.64 and 26.90 ± 9.09 mV, respectively; while their particle sizes were 308.10 ± 1.10 and 349.40 ± 3.20 z.d.nm, respectively. The poly dispersity index (PDI) of CCNP was 0.257 ± 0.030 (66.6% PDI), while that of mAbCCNP was 0.444 ± 0.007 (57.60% PDI). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) revealed that CCNP had endothermic peaks at temperatures ranging from 135.50 to 157.69 °C. A sharp exothermic peak was observed at 95.79 °C, and an endothermic peak was observed at 166.60 °C. The XRD study on CCNP and mAbCCNP revealed distinct peaks at 2θ. Four peaks at 35.38°, 37.47°, 49.29°, and 59.94° corresponded to CCNP, while three distinct peaks at 36.6°, 49.12°, and 55.08° corresponded to mAbCCNP. The in vitro release of cisplatin from nanoparticles followed zero order kinetics in both CCNP and mAbCCNP. The profile for CCNP showed 43.80% release of cisplatin in 6 h (R2 = 0.9322), indicating linearity of release with minimal deviation. However, the release profile of mAbCCNP showed 22.52% release in 4 h (R2 = 0.9416), indicating linearity with sustained release. In vitro cytotoxicity studies on MCF-7 ATCC human breast cancer cell line showed that CCNP exerted good cytotoxicity, with IC50 of 4.085 ± 0.065 µg/mL. However, mAbCCNP did not elicit any cytotoxic effect. At a dose of 4.00 µg/mL cisplatin induced early apoptosis and late apoptosis, chromatin condensation, while it produced secondary necrosis at a dose of 8.00 µg/mL. Potential delivery system for cisplatin CCNP and mAbCCNP were successfully formulated. The results indicated that CCNP was a more successful formulation than mAbCCNP due to lack of specificity of rituximab against MCF-7 ATCC human breast cancer cells.

Sema Arisoy ◽  
Tansel Comoglu

Levodopa is used for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD) for the last few decades. However, adverse reactions such as dyskinesia, somnolence, nausea, itching, rash, as well as the need for frequent dosing and low bioavailability problems affect the success of the treatment. To prevent side effects caused by conventional therapy, a nanoparticular drug delivery system has been developed, in which receptors are constantly stimulated, and the frequency of dosing is reduced. In this study, levodopa was loaded in Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NP) which modified with Wheat Germ Agglutinin (WGA) To increase the effectiveness of levodopa, reduce its side effects and apply to the nasal area which is an alternative way for brain targeting with lower doses. To obtain the optimum levodopa loaded PLGA nanoparticles, the effect of some formulation variables such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) concentration, homogenization speed, polymer amount and molecular weight, and levodopa content on the entrapment efficiency (EE) and particle size of the nanoparticles were investigated. Besides these variables, the effect of different parameters on the WGA binding constant was also searched. In addition to in vitro release studies, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FT-IR), and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis were used in the characterization of nanoparticles. Among all formulations, A2 and A8a which was produced with different molcular weights of PLGA, different added levodopa amounts and with different homogenization speeds were chosen as optimum formulations due to their sustained release properties and the ability to release 80 % of their drug content.WGA binding constant was found 78.20 % for A8a-1 and 95 % for A2-1. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of different formulation parameters on the development of levodopa loaded and WGA grafted PLGA nanoparticles and on the quality characteristics of nanoparticle formulations such as particle size, zeta potential, and EE. In this paper, our results are demonstrated for a better understanding of the effect of process parameters on the development of nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems by using the double-emulsion solvent evaporation technique and on WGA binding of drug-loaded PLGA nanoparticles.


Objective: The study's main goal is to develop a suitable niosomes (NS) encapsulated drug for anti-inflammatory effects such as diacerein (DC) and to evaluate the system's vesicle size (VS), entrapment efficiency (EE %), physical stability and in vitro release. Methods: Tween (40 and 60), cholesterol, and stearylamine were used in a 1:1:0.1 molar ratios as non-ionic surfactants. Thin film hydration was used to create the NS. Results: The higher EE% was observed with NS (F11) prepared from tween 60, cholesterol and 2.5 min sonication. These formulations' release patterns were Higuchi diffusion and first order. For the stability study, NS formulations were stored at temperature between 2-8 °C for 60 d retains the most drugs when compared to room and high temperature conditions. Conclusion: The findings of this study have conclusively shown that after NS encapsulation of DC, drug release is prolonged at a constant and controlled rate.

2022 ◽  
pp. 088532822110539
Bi Wu ◽  
Yang Li ◽  
Yuan Y Li ◽  
Zhi H Shi ◽  
Xiao H Bian ◽  

The aim of this study was to develop nanostructured-lipid carriers (NLC) encapsulated by Chitosan hydrogel beads for the efficient topical carrier. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) were conducted to study the influence of the encapsulation on the characteristic of resveratrol-loaded NLC, and the results showed that there was no impact on resveratrol-loaded NLC. Chitosan hydrogel beads could significantly improve the physical stability of resveratrol-loaded NLC. In vitro release study revealed that resveratrol-loaded NLC-Chitosan hydrogel beads had a more significant sustained-release effect on resveratrol. In vitro transdermal studies suggested that the skin permeation of resveratrol was promoted by the effect of Chitosan hydrogel beads and increased resveratrol distribution in the skin. In vitro cytotoxicity showed that resveratrol-loaded NLC-Chitosan hydrogel beads did not exert a hazardous effect on L929 cells. Hence, NLC-Chitosan hydrogel beads might be a promising method for topical applications of resveratrol.

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