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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 426
Giulia Brunetti ◽  
Alberto Cipriani ◽  
Martina Perazzolo Marra ◽  
Manuel De Lazzari ◽  
Barbara Bauce ◽  

Premature ventricular beats (PVBs) in athletes are not rare. The risk of PVBs depends on the presence of an underlying pathological myocardial substrate predisposing the subject to sudden cardiac death. The standard diagnostic work-up of athletes with PVBs includes an examination of family and personal history, resting electrocardiogram (ECG), 24 h ambulatory ECG (possibly with a 12-lead configuration and including a training session), maximal exercise testing and echocardiography. Despite its fundamental role in the diagnostic assessment of athletes with PVBs, echocardiography has very limited sensitivity in detecting the presence of non-ischemic left ventricular scars, which can be revealed only through more in-depth studies, particularly with the use of contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. The morphology, complexity and exercise inducibility of PVBs can help estimate the probability of an underlying heart disease. Based on these features, CMR imaging may be indicated even when echocardiography is normal. This review focuses on interpreting PVBs, and on the indication and role of CMR imaging in the diagnostic evaluation of athletes, with a special focus on non-ischemic left ventricular scars that are an emerging substrate of cardiac arrest during sport.

F1000Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
pp. 46
Amani Y. Owaidah

Background: Phlebotomy is a medical procedure that is performed frequently in the blood collection activities of medical institutions. The procedure involves close interaction with different types of patients—some of whom are cooperative and others, who, for many reasons, are not (for example, patients who have a fear of needles). Blood extraction is an essential skill in several medical specialties, such as in laboratory sciences. Lesson planning in phlebotomy education is mainly focused on procedural skills, and very little attention is given towards teaching communication skills despite the close patient interaction in phlebotomy. In this paper, I propose a lesson plan for teaching communication skills to medical laboratory sciences and nursing students based on Gagne’s instructional design. Methods: The training session included two main parts: training session using Gange’s instructional design and at the end of the session, the participants were surveyed for the effectiveness of the training session. Results: 17 participants were included in the study. Overall, the majority of the participants were highly satisfied with the effectiveness of the training session in teaching communication skills with all seven survey questions receiving a mean score of 4.58 on a Likert scale of 1-5. Conclusion: We demonstrated the effectiveness of Gange’s instructional beyond theoretical lesson planning to teach communication skills through role-play in phlebotomy education.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-23
Nurul Ain Chua ◽  
Goh Ying Soon ◽  
Mohd Yusri Ibrahim ◽  
Che Hasniza Che Noh ◽  
Noor Rohana Mansor ◽  

Background and Purpose: Pinyin is required in learning Mandarin. The challenge of Romanised Pinyin is that learners must decipher the meaning of words based on the change of tone. Communication research is often conducted without accounting for the effects of the change of tone in learning a language. With the aim of avoiding miscommunication while strengthening awareness, Campus Buddies Programme was employed to provide tone practice for learners and consequently explores the effectiveness of the intervention.   Methodology: This quantitative classroom-based research gathered information through the administration of a questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed to 32 Mandarin Level 1 learners identified through purposive sampling. The students studied five topics from the syllabus. A total of 10 native speakers who scored A in Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) mentored the learners during the programme. The participants were instructed to answer both pre- and post-tests. Part A consists of demographic details, whereas Part B focuses on the effectiveness of questions and Part C consists of 30 questions of content learned by the respondents. The data were then analysed using SPSS 26 software.   Findings: The respondents demonstrated a positive response towards the programme and suggested further improvement ideas such as prolonging the training session and adding more topics and oral activities. The results implicated the programme as a motivator for oral fluency. Many non-native speakers can benefit from conversation with Mandarin native speakers because it is a strong indicator and sound oral mastery strategy.   Contributions: This research provides insights into the effectiveness of the current programme in motivating students’ oral learning. The outcome is essential in determining the Mandarin conversation strategy. More studies adopting different variables are proposed to explore correlations from different perspectives in order to improve students’ oral learning.   Keywords: Tonal pronunciation, native speakers, non-native speakers, foreign language instruction, Mandarin conversation.   Cite as: Chua, N. A., Soon, G. Y., Ibrahim, M. Y., Che Noh, C. H., Mansor, N. R., Embong Eusoff, A. M., Abdul Rashid, R., & Shen, M. (2022). The Mandarin oral mastery programme as perceived by non-native learners.  Journal of Nusantara Studies, 7(1), 1-23.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 751
Álex Cebrián-Ponce ◽  
Manuel V. Garnacho-Castaño ◽  
Mercè Castellano-Fàbrega ◽  
Jorge Castizo-Olier ◽  
Marta Carrasco-Marginet ◽  

This study aimed to analyze anthropometric and whole-body/muscle-localized bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) adaptations and their relation to creatine kinase (CK) as a biomarker of muscle damage in a group of seven male players in the maximum category of professional rink hockey. There were three checkpoint assessments in relation to a high-intensity training session: pre-session (PRE), post-session (POST), and 24 h-post-session (POST24H). The resistance, reactance, and impedance module were adjusted by height (R/h, Xc/h, and Z/h, respectively). The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the data at baseline and follow-up, while Spearman correlation was used to explore the relationship between CK and the rest of the parameters. The results registered a decrease in body mass at POST (p = 0.03) and a reestablishment at POST24H (p = 0.02). Whole-body BIVA registered a significant increase in R/h between PRE–to–POST (p = 0.02) and returned to baseline values at POST24H (p = 0.02), which was expected since this parameter is related to hydration processes. Muscle-localized BIVA in the rectus femoris muscle showed an increase in both Xc/h and phase angle in POST (p = 0.04 and p = 0.03, respectively) and a decrease in Xc/h at POST24H (p = 0.02). CK correlated with R/h in the rectus femoris at all the checkpoints (PRE–to–POST: r = 0.75, p = 0.05; PRE–to–POST24H: r = 0.81, p = 0.03; POST–to–POST24H: r = 0.82, p = 0.02). Our results indicate that BIVA is a sensitive methodology to assess general and muscle-localized hydration induced by a high-intensity training session in rink hockey players. A correlation between BIVA and CK was also reported.

2022 ◽  
Fredericus HJ Van Loon ◽  
Harm J Scholten ◽  
Hendrikus HM Korsten ◽  
Angelique TM Dierick - van Daele ◽  
Arthur RA Bouwman

Aims: To lower the threshold for applying ultrasound (US) guidance during peripheral intravenous cannulation, nurses need to be trained and gain experience in using this technique. The primary outcome was to quantify the number of procedures novices require to perform before competency in US-guided peripheral intravenous cannulation was achieved. Materials and methods: A multicenter prospective observational study, divided into two phases after a theoretical training session: a hands-on training session and a supervised life-case training session. The number of US-guided peripheral intravenous cannulations a participant needed to perform in the life-case setting to become competent was the outcome of interest. Cusum analysis was used to determine the learning curve of each individual participant. Results: Forty-nine practitioners participated and performed 1855 procedures. First attempt cannulation success was 73% during the first procedure, but increased to 98% on the fortieth attempt (p<0.001). The overall first attempt success rate during this study was 93%. The cusum learning curve for each practitioner showed that a mean number of 34 procedures was required to achieve competency. Time needed to perform a procedure successfully decreased when more experience was achieved by the practitioner, from 14±3 minutes on first proce-dure to 3±1 minutes during the fortieth procedure (p<0.001). Conclusions: Competency in US-guided peripheral intravenous cannulation can be gained after following a fixed educational curriculum, resulting in an increased first attempt cannulation success as the number of performed procedures increased.

Guilherme de Sousa Pinheiro ◽  
Roberto Chiari Quintão ◽  
Vitor Bertoli Nascimento ◽  
João Gustavo Claudino ◽  
Adriano Lima Alves ◽  

This study investigated the differences in external and internal load during pre-season training sessions carried out with different SSGs and a friendly match in top-class professional football players. The study was conducted over a full pre-season. Participants were 9 male top-class professional football players (25 ± 5 years; 74 ± 8 kg; 177 ± 8 cm). The following variables were measured: training session duration (min), average heart rate (bpm), total distance (m), distance covered per minute (m/min), the total number of accelerations > 2.5 m/s2, number of accelerations > 2.5 m/s2 per minute, average distance of accelerations (m), the average value of acceleration (m/s2). One-way ANOVA was performed to analyze the variance of all evaluated variables. No differences were found in the average accelerations (m/s2) (0.128) among all the training formats. Moderate differences were found in number of accelerations > 2.5 m/s2 per minute (η2 = 0.396, moderate effect) and average distance of accelerations (η2 = 0.545). Strong differences were found in HR (η2 = 0.788, large effect), total distance (η2 = 0.797, strong effect), distance per minute (η2 = 0.775 strong effect), total number of accelerations > 2.5 m/s2 (η2 = 0.699 strong effect). Significant correlations were found just for the number of accelerations > 2.5 m/s2 and the number of accelerations > 2.5 m/s2 per minute with the 4v4, 8v8 and the FM (r = 0.828–0.890, r2 = 69% – 79%; p < 0.01). External and internal loads differ across different SSGs and a FM during the pre-season training sessions.

2022 ◽  
Simon Geirnaert ◽  
Tom Francart ◽  
Alexander Bertrand

The goal of auditory attention decoding (AAD) is to determine to which speaker out of multiple competing speakers a listener is attending based on the brain signals recorded via, e.g., electroencephalography (EEG). AAD algorithms are a fundamental building block of so-called neuro-steered hearing devices that would allow identifying the speaker that should be amplified based on the brain activity. A common approach is to train a subject-specific decoder that reconstructs the amplitude envelope of the attended speech signal. However, training this decoder requires a dedicated 'ground-truth' EEG recording of the subject under test, during which the attended speaker is known. Furthermore, this decoder remains fixed during operation and can thus not adapt to changing conditions and situations. Therefore, we propose an online time-adaptive unsupervised stimulus reconstruction method that continuously and automatically adapts over time when new EEG and audio data are streaming in. The adaptive decoder does not require ground-truth attention labels obtained from a training session with the end-user, and instead can be initialized with a generic subject-independent decoder or even completely random values. We propose two different implementations: a sliding window and recursive implementation, which we extensively validate based on multiple performance metrics on three independent datasets. We show that the proposed time-adaptive unsupervised decoder outperforms a time-invariant supervised decoder, representing an important step towards practically applicable AAD algorithms for neuro-steered hearing devices.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Andrzej Szopa ◽  
Małgorzata Domagalska-Szopa ◽  
Aleksandra Urbańska ◽  
Monika Grygorowicz

AbstractThe aim of the study was to recognise what participant-, training- and post-injury-related factors are associated with an injury and re-injury occurrence in female pole dancers (PDs). 320 female PDs fulfilled a custom survey. 1050 injuries were reported by 276 PDs, 59% of injuries were related to lower extremity, 39% to upper extremity and 10% to spine and trunk. 156 PDs reported sustaining a re-injury, and overall, 628 re-injuries were reported. The median weekly pole-specific training session volume was 90 min and 240 min in the low and high qualified group, respectively. The total training volume was 180 min in the low qualified PDs and 240 min in the high qualified group. PDs with higher height and spending more time on pole-specific training in studio and on other forms of training have higher odds of sustaining an injury. PDs with lower level of experience in training, who sustained an injury, and who had a shorter pause between the moment of injury and the return to performance, and thus who did not fully recover, have higher odds of sustaining a re-injury. Sport-specific injury prevention strategies should be developed and implemented in this cohort, since over 85% of pole dancers reported sustaining some kind of injury.

Michael A. Kreiser ◽  
Brieanna Hill ◽  
Dikchhya Karki ◽  
Elke Wood ◽  
Ryan Shelton ◽  

Abstract Aim: Paramedics received training in point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) to assess for cardiac contractility during management of medical out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The primary outcome was the percentage of adequate POCUS video acquisition and accurate video interpretation during OHCA resuscitations. Secondary outcomes included POCUS impact on patient management and resuscitation protocol adherence. Methods: A prospective, observational cohort study of paramedics was performed following a four-hour training session, which included a didactic lecture and hands-on POCUS instruction. The Prehospital Echocardiogram in Cardiac Arrest (PECA) protocol was developed and integrated into the resuscitation algorithm for medical non-shockable OHCA. The ultrasound (US) images were reviewed by a single POCUS expert investigator to determine the adequacy of the POCUS video acquisition and accuracy of the video interpretation. Change in patient management and resuscitation protocol adherence data, including end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) monitoring following advanced airway placement, adrenaline administration, and compression pauses under ten seconds, were queried from the prehospital electronic health record (EHR). Results: Captured images were deemed adequate in 42/49 (85.7%) scans and paramedic interpretation of sonography was accurate in 43/49 (87.7%) scans. The POCUS results altered patient management in 14/49 (28.6%) cases. Paramedics adhered to EtCO2 monitoring in 36/36 (100.0%) patients with an advanced airway, adrenaline administration for 38/38 (100.0%) patients, and compression pauses under ten seconds for 36/38 (94.7%) patients. Conclusion: Paramedics were able to accurately obtain and interpret cardiac POCUS videos during medical OHCA while adhering to a resuscitation protocol. These findings suggest that POCUS can be effectively integrated into paramedic protocols for medical OHCA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Zhi-Ming Tang ◽  
Yutaka Oouchida ◽  
Meng-Xin Wang ◽  
Zu-Lin Dou ◽  
Shin-Ichi Izumi

Abstract Background Imitative learning is highly effective from infancy to old age; however, little is known about the effects of observing errors during imitative learning. This study aimed to examine how observing errors affected imitative learning performance to maximize its effect. Methods In the pre-training session, participants were instructed to pinch at a target force (8 N) with auditory feedback regarding generated force while they watched videos of someone pinching a sponge at the target force. In the pre-test, participants pinched at the target force and did not view a model or receive auditory feedback. In Experiment 1, in the main training session, participants imitated models while they watched videos of pinching at either the incorrect force (error-mixed condition) or target force (correct condition). Then, the exact force generated was measured without receiving auditory feedback or viewing a model. In Experiment 2, using the same procedures, newly recruited participants watched videos of pinching at incorrect forces (4 and 24 N) as the error condition and the correct force as the correct condition. Results In Experiment 1, the average force was closer to the target force in the error-mixed condition than in the correct condition. In Experiment 2, the average force in the correct condition was closer to the target force than in the error condition. Conclusion Our findings indicated that observing error actions combined with correct actions affected imitation motor learning positively as error actions contained information on things to avoid in the target action. It provides further information to enhance imitative learning in mixed conditions compared to that with correct action alone.

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