intensity training
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 751
Álex Cebrián-Ponce ◽  
Manuel V. Garnacho-Castaño ◽  
Mercè Castellano-Fàbrega ◽  
Jorge Castizo-Olier ◽  
Marta Carrasco-Marginet ◽  

This study aimed to analyze anthropometric and whole-body/muscle-localized bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) adaptations and their relation to creatine kinase (CK) as a biomarker of muscle damage in a group of seven male players in the maximum category of professional rink hockey. There were three checkpoint assessments in relation to a high-intensity training session: pre-session (PRE), post-session (POST), and 24 h-post-session (POST24H). The resistance, reactance, and impedance module were adjusted by height (R/h, Xc/h, and Z/h, respectively). The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the data at baseline and follow-up, while Spearman correlation was used to explore the relationship between CK and the rest of the parameters. The results registered a decrease in body mass at POST (p = 0.03) and a reestablishment at POST24H (p = 0.02). Whole-body BIVA registered a significant increase in R/h between PRE–to–POST (p = 0.02) and returned to baseline values at POST24H (p = 0.02), which was expected since this parameter is related to hydration processes. Muscle-localized BIVA in the rectus femoris muscle showed an increase in both Xc/h and phase angle in POST (p = 0.04 and p = 0.03, respectively) and a decrease in Xc/h at POST24H (p = 0.02). CK correlated with R/h in the rectus femoris at all the checkpoints (PRE–to–POST: r = 0.75, p = 0.05; PRE–to–POST24H: r = 0.81, p = 0.03; POST–to–POST24H: r = 0.82, p = 0.02). Our results indicate that BIVA is a sensitive methodology to assess general and muscle-localized hydration induced by a high-intensity training session in rink hockey players. A correlation between BIVA and CK was also reported.

Saeid Emamdoost ◽  
Asieh Abbassi Daloii ◽  
Alireza Barari ◽  
Ayoub Saeidi

Obesity and associated chronic inflammation lead to insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of varying intensity circuit resistance training on metabolic and inflammatory markers in obese men. In a semi-experimental trial, 44 obese men were selected and randomly divided into four groups, including 1) Control (n=11), 2) Low-intensity circuit resistance training (n=11), 3) Moderate-intensity circuit resistance training (n=11), and 4) High-intensity circuit resistance training (n=11). Resistance training was performed at different intensities, including 1) High-intensity circuit resistance training (80% 1RM), 2) Moderate-intensity circuit resistance (60% 1RM), and 3) Low-intensity circuit resistance training (40% 1RM), three sessions per week for 12 weeks. Serum levels of Dectin-1, TLR2, TLR4, MyD88 were measured using an ELISA kit. Data were analyzed with covariance analysis at P<0.05. Twelve weeks of moderate and high-intensity circuit resistance training significantly reduced weight, body mass index, serum levels of Dectin-1, TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, and HOMA-IR (P=0.001). The reduction of weight, body mass index, serum levels of Dectin-1, TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, and HOMA-IR were significant in obese men in the high-intensity training group compared to low-intensity training (P=0.001). It seems that circuit resistance training, especially high-intensity circuit resistance training, can be used as an option to reduce the inflammatory and metabolic complications associated with obesity.  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Kirstie Jodie Turner ◽  
David Bruce Pyne ◽  
Julien D. Périard ◽  
Anthony John Rice

Purpose: The effects of two different high-intensity training methods on 2,000 m rowing ergometer performance were examined in a feasibility study of 24 national-level rowers aged 18–27 years (17 males, 2,000 m ergometer time trial 6:21.7 ± 0:14.6 (min:s) and seven females, 2,000 m ergometer 7:20.3 ± 0:12.1. Habitual training for all participants was ~12–16 h per week).Methods: 16 high-intensity ergometer sessions were completed across two 3-week periods. Participants were allocated into two groups according to baseline 2,000 m time. High-intensity interval session-sprint-interval session (HIIT-SIT) completed eight HIIT (8 × 2.5 min intervals; 95% of 2,000 m wattage) followed by eight SIT (three sets of 7 × 30 s intervals; maximum effort). SIT-HIIT completed eight SIT sessions followed by eight HIIT sessions. Both a 2,000-m time trial and a progressive incremental test finishing with 4 min “all-out” performance were completed before and after each 3-week phase.Results: Both groups showed similar improvements in 2,000 m time and 4 min “all-out” distance after the first 3 weeks (2,000 m time: HIIT-SIT: −2.0 ± 0.6%, mean ± 90% CL, p = 0.01; SIT-HIIT: −1.5 ± 0.3%, p = 0.01) with no significant difference between groups. HIIT-SIT demonstrated the greatest improvements in submaximal heart rate (HR) during the progressive incremental test with eight sessions of HIIT showing a greater reduction in submaximal HR than eight sessions of SIT. The net improvement of 16 high-intensity sessions on 2,000 m time was −2.5% for HIIT-SIT (−10.6 ± 3.9 s, p = 0.01) and − 2.2% for SIT-HIIT (−9.0 ± 5.7 s, p = 0.01) and for 4 min “all-out” performance was 3.1% for HIIT-SIT (36 ± 25 m, p = 0.01) and 2.8% for SIT-HIIT (33 ± 27 m, p = 0.01).Conclusion: Eight sessions of high-intensity training can improve 2,000 m ergometer rowing performance in national-level rowers, with a further eight sessions producing minimal additional improvement. The method of high-intensity training appears less important than the dose.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Mohammad Soltani ◽  
Masoud Jokar Baluchi ◽  
Daniel Boullosa ◽  
Ali Daraei ◽  
Patricia K. Doyle-Baker ◽  

Background: It is well known that exercise training has positive effects on both cardiac autonomic function and arterial stiffness (AS). However, it is not clear that which exercise training variables, intensity or volume, or both, play a crucial role in this regard. This study investigates the chronic effects of high-volume moderate-intensity training (HVMIT) and low-volume high-intensity training (LVHIT) on heart rate variability (HRV) and AS in sedentary adult men.Materials and Methods: Notably, 45 males (age: 42 ± 5.7 years) were randomly assigned to a control (n = 15), HVMIT (n = 15), or LVHIT (n = 15). The HVMIT group ran three times per week on a treadmill at 50–60% of VO2max for 45–60 min, while the LVHIT trained at 70–85% of VO2max for 25–40 min. Both training protocols were equated by caloric expenditure. HRV, pulse wave velocity (PWV), hemodynamic variables, and body composition were measured before and after 12 weeks.Results: Both protocols (i.e., HVMIT and LVHIT) significantly increased the SD of normal sinus beat intervals (SDNN) and high-frequency (HF) bands (p &lt; 0.05) after 12 weeks. Whereas the low-frequency (LF)-HF ratio decreased significantly in both training protocols (p &lt; 0.05); however, these changes were significantly greater in the LVHIT protocol (p &lt; 0.05). Furthermore, the root mean square of successive RR interval differences (RMSSD) significantly increased only in the LVHIT (p &lt; 0.05). Moreover, a significant decrease in LF and PWV was only observed following the LVHIT protocol (p &lt; 0.05). Some measures of HRV and PWV were significantly correlated (r = 0.275–0.559; p &lt; 0.05).Conclusion: These results show that the LVHIT protocol was more efficient for improving HRV variables and PWV than the HVMIT protocol after 12 weeks of continuous running training. Interestingly, changes in some HRV parameters were related to changes in PWV. Further studies should elaborate on the link between central and peripheral cardiovascular adaptations after continuous and intermittent training regimens differing in intensity.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0260959
Samuel Bennett ◽  
Eve Tiollier ◽  
Franck Brocherie ◽  
Daniel J. Owens ◽  
James P. Morton ◽  

Background “Sleep Low-Train Low” is a training-nutrition strategy intended to purposefully reduce muscle glycogen availability around specific exercise sessions, potentially amplifying the training stimulus via augmented cell signalling. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a 3-week home-based “sleep low-train low” programme and its effects on cycling performance in trained athletes. Methods Fifty-five trained athletes (Functional Threshold Power [FTP]: 258 ± 52W) completed a home-based cycling training program consisting of evening high-intensity training (6 × 5 min at 105% FTP), followed by low-intensity training (1 hr at 75% FTP) the next morning, three times weekly for three consecutive weeks. Participant’s daily carbohydrate (CHO) intake (6 g·kg-1·d-1) was matched but timed differently to manipulate CHO availability around exercise: no CHO consumption post- HIT until post-LIT sessions [Sleep Low (SL), n = 28] or CHO consumption evenly distributed throughout the day [Control (CON), n = 27]. Sessions were monitored remotely via power data uploaded to an online training platform, with performance tests conducted pre-, post-intervention. Results LIT exercise intensity reduced by 3% across week 1, 3 and 2% in week 2 (P < 0.01) with elevated RPE in SL vs. CON (P < 0.01). SL enhanced FTP by +5.5% vs. +1.2% in CON (P < 0.01). Comparable increases in 5-min peak power output (PPO) were observed between groups (P < 0.01) with +2.3% and +2.7% in SL and CON, respectively (P = 0.77). SL 1-min PPO was unchanged (+0.8%) whilst CON improved by +3.9% (P = 0.0144). Conclusion Despite reduced relative training intensity, our data demonstrate short-term “sleep low-train low” intervention improves FTP compared with typically “normal” CHO availability during exercise. Importantly, training was completed unsupervised at home (during the COVID-19 pandemic), thus demonstrating the feasibility of completing a “sleep low-train low” protocol under non-laboratory conditions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Cesare Granata ◽  
Nikeisha J. Caruana ◽  
Javier Botella ◽  
Nicholas A. Jamnick ◽  
Kevin Huynh ◽  

AbstractMitochondrial defects are implicated in multiple diseases and aging. Exercise training is an accessible, inexpensive therapeutic intervention that can improve mitochondrial bioenergetics and quality of life. By combining multiple omics techniques with biochemical and in silico normalisation, we removed the bias arising from the training-induced increase in mitochondrial content to unearth an intricate and previously undemonstrated network of differentially prioritised mitochondrial adaptations. We show that changes in hundreds of transcripts, proteins, and lipids are not stoichiometrically linked to the overall increase in mitochondrial content. Our findings suggest enhancing electron flow to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is more important to improve ATP generation than increasing the abundance of the OXPHOS machinery, and do not support the hypothesis that training-induced supercomplex formation enhances mitochondrial bioenergetics. Our study provides an analytical approach allowing unbiased and in-depth investigations of training-induced mitochondrial adaptations, challenging our current understanding, and calling for careful reinterpretation of previous findings.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (23) ◽  
Kazutaka Mukai ◽  
Yu Kitaoka ◽  
Yuji Takahashi ◽  
Toshiyuki Takahashi ◽  
Kenya Takahashi ◽  

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (11) ◽  
pp. 4073
Haresh T. Suppiah ◽  
Ee Ling Ng ◽  
Jericho Wee ◽  
Bernadette Cherianne Taim ◽  
Minh Huynh ◽  

There are limited data on the fluid balance characteristics and fluid replenishment behaviors of high-performance adolescent athletes. The heterogeneity of hydration status and practices of adolescent athletes warrant efficient approaches to individualizing hydration strategies. This study aimed to evaluate and characterize the hydration status and fluid balance characteristics of high-performance adolescent athletes and examine the differences in fluid consumption behaviors during training. In total, 105 high-performance adolescent athletes (male: 66, female: 39; age 14.1 ± 1.0 y) across 11 sports had their hydration status assessed on three separate occasions—upon rising and before a low and a high-intensity training session (pre-training). The results showed that 20–44% of athletes were identified as hypohydrated, with 21–44% and 15–34% of athletes commencing low- and high-intensity training in a hypohydrated state, respectively. Linear mixed model (LMM) analyses revealed that athletes who were hypohydrated consumed more fluid (F (1.183.85)) = 5.91, (p = 0.016). Additional K-means cluster analyses performed highlighted three clusters: “Heavy sweaters with sufficient compensatory hydration habits,” “Heavy sweaters with insufficient compensatory hydration habits” and “Light sweaters with sufficient compensatory hydration habits”. Our results highlight that high-performance adolescent athletes with ad libitum drinking have compensatory mechanisms to replenish fluids lost from training. The approach to distinguish athletes by hydration characteristics could assist practitioners in prioritizing future hydration intervention protocols.

Seyedeh Fatemeh Fatemi ◽  
Seyed Abdollah Hashemvarzi ◽  
Amin Farzaneh Hesari

Introduction: Diabetes is a common metabolic disease, which leads to diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral neuron damage result in Nav1.3 elevations. Exercise training has beneficial role in diabetes management and peripheral neuropathy. Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is a powerful biological antioxidant. However, the role of exercise training and ALA on Nav1.3 are not well understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of training with different intensity and Alpha lipoic acid supplement on soleus muscle Nav1.3 protein in rats with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-five male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups: healthy control, diabetic, complementary diabetic, intensive exercise diabetic, moderate exercise diabetic, intensive exercise + supplemental diabetic, moderate exercise + complementary diabetic. Methods: In this experimental study, 35 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups: healthy control, diabetic (D), complementary (alpha lipoic acid) diabetic (ALA), diabetic high intensity training (HIT), diabetic moderate intensity training (MIT), diabetes HIT+ALA (ALA + HIT), diabetic MIT + ALA (ALA + MIT). Rats were diabetic by intra-peritoneal injection of STZ. The HIT and MIT protocols were performed five days a week for six weeks. HIIT included 10 bouts of four minutes (running at 85–90% of maximum speed) and MIT 13 bouts of four minutes (running at 65–70% of maximum speed). ALA was administered orally 20 mg/kg once a day by gavage. Nav1.3 protein levels were measured by immunohistochemistry method. Statistical operations were performed with SPSS version 16 software. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey were used to analyze the data. Results: The level of Nav1.3 increased significantly in diabetic group compared to the control (p≤0.0001). Moreover, HIT (p=0.0015), MIT p=0.0056), ALA+HIT (p≤0.0001) and ALA+MIT (p≤0.0001) decreased significantly Nav1.3 compared to the diabetic group. Conclusion: HIT and MIT can reduce the expression of NaV1.3 in soleus muscle in diabetic rats. ALA combined with exercise training can be more effective to reduce diabetic neuropathy.

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