ubiquitin ligase
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2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1010204
Jiacheng Lin ◽  
Limin Yin ◽  
Xia-Zhen Xu ◽  
He-Chen Sun ◽  
Zhi-Hua Huang ◽  

The hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (HBc) functions in multiple steps of the viral life cycle. Heteroaryldihydropyrimidine compounds (HAPs) such as Bay41-4109 are capsid protein allosteric modulators that accelerate HBc degradation and inhibit the virion secretion of HBV, specifically by misleading HBc assembly into aberrant non-capsid polymers. However, the subsequent cellular fates of these HAP-induced aberrant non-capsid polymers are not well understood. Here, we discovered that that the chaperone-binding E3 ubiquitin ligase protein STUB1 is required for the removal of Bay41-4109-induced aberrant non-capsid polymers from HepAD38 cells. Specifically, STUB1 recruits BAG3 to transport Bay41-4109-induced aberrant non-capsid polymers to the perinuclear region of cells, thereby initiating p62-mediated macroautophagy and lysosomal degradation. We also demonstrate that elevating the STUB1 level enhances the inhibitory effect of Bay41-4109 on the production of HBeAg and HBV virions in HepAD38 cells, in HBV-infected HepG2-NTCP cells, and in HBV transgenic mice. STUB1 overexpression also facilitates the inhibition of Bay41-4109 on the cccDNA formation in de novo infection of HBV. Understanding these molecular details paves the way for applying HAPs as a potentially curative regimen (or a component of a combination treatment) for eradicating HBV from hepatocytes of chronic infection patients.

2022 ◽  
Ben F Brian ◽  
Frances V Sjaastad ◽  
Tanya S Freedman

The kinase Csk is the primary negative regulator of the Src-family kinases (SFKs, i.e., Lck, Fyn, Lyn, Hck, Fgr, Blk, Src, Yes), phosphorylating a tyrosine on the SFK C-terminal tail that nucleates an autoinhibitory complex. Csk also binds phosphatases, including PTPN12 (PTP-PEST) and immune-cell PTPN22 (Pep/LYP), which dephosphorylate the SFK activation loop to promote autoinhibition. High local concentrations of Csk are required to promote its negative-regulatory function, and Csk-binding proteins (e.g., CBP/PAG1) oligomerize within membrane microdomains. Purified Csk also homodimerizes in solution through an interface that overlaps the phosphatase binding site. Here we demonstrate that Csk can homodimerize in Jurkat T cells, in competition with PTPN22 binding. We designed SH3-domain mutations in Csk that selectively impair homodimerization (H21I) or PTPN22 binding (K43D) and verified their kinase activity in solution. Csk W47A, an SH3-domain mutant commonly used to block PTPN22 binding, also impairs homodimerization. Csk H21I and K43D will be useful tools for dissecting the protein-specific drivers of autoimmunity mediated by the human polymorphism PTPN22 R620W, which impairs interaction with both Csk and with the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAF3. Future investigations of Csk homodimer activity and phosphatase interactions may reveal new facets of SFK regulation in hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells.

Minghuan Mao ◽  
Liang Yang ◽  
Jingyao Hu ◽  
Bing Liu ◽  
Xiling Zhang ◽  

AbstractThe neuronally expressed developmentally downregulated 4 (NEDD4) gene encodes a ubiquitin ligase that targets the epithelial sodium channel for degradation and has been implicated in tumor growth in various cancers. Hence, in this study, we intended to characterize the functional relevance of the NEDD4-mediated Kruppel-like factor 8/microRNA-132/nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (KLF8/miR-132/NRF2) axis in the development of bladder cancer. NEDD4 and KLF8 were overexpressed in bladder cancer tissues and were associated with poorer patient survival rates. In bladder cancer cells, NEDD4 intensified the stability and transcriptional activity of KLF8 through ubiquitination to augment cell viability and migratory ability. Our investigations revealed that NEDD4 promotes the binding of KLF8 to the miR-132 promoter region and inhibits the expression of miR-132. KLF8 inhibited the expression of miR-132 to augment the viability and migratory ability of bladder cancer cells. Furthermore, miR-132 downregulated the expression of NRF2 to restrict the viability and migratory ability of bladder cancer cells. In addition, in vivo findings verified that NEDD4 regulates the KLF8/miR-132/NRF2 axis by accelerating tumor growth and lung metastasis. In conclusion, this study highlights NEDD4 as a potential therapeutic target against tumor recurrence and metastasis in bladder cancer.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 246
Martina Mascaro ◽  
Inês Lages ◽  
Germana Meroni

TRIM36 is a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family of RING-containing proteins, also known as Haprin, which was first discovered for its abundance in testis and found to be implicated in the spermatozoa acrosome reaction. TRIM36 is a microtubule-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays a role in cytoskeletal organization, and according to data gathered in different species, coordinates growth speed and stability, acting on the microtubules’ plus end, and impacting on cell cycle progression. TRIM36 is also crucial for early developmental processes, in Xenopus, where it is needed for dorso-ventral axis formation, but also in humans as bi-allelic mutations in the TRIM36 gene cause a form of severe neural tube closure defect, called anencephaly. Here, we review TRIM36-related mechanisms implicated in such composite physiological and pathological processes.

Yanzhao Zhang ◽  
Seiya Ozono ◽  
Takuya Tada ◽  
Minoru Tobiume ◽  
Masanori Kameoka ◽  

A member of the MARCH E3 ubiquitin ligase family, MARCH8, downregulates many different kinds of host transmembrane proteins, resulting in the regulation of cellular homeostasis. On the other hands, MARCH8 acts as an antiviral factor when it binds to and downregulates HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein and vesicular stomatitis virus G-glycoprotein that are viral transmembrane proteins.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Manami Hiraiwa ◽  
Kazuya Fukasawa ◽  
Takashi Iezaki ◽  
Hemragul Sabit ◽  
Tetsuhiro Horie ◽  

AbstractGlioma stem cells (GSCs) contribute to the pathogenesis of glioblastoma, the most malignant form of glioma. The implication and underlying mechanisms of SMAD specific E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2 (SMURF2) on the GSC phenotypes remain unknown. We previously demonstrated that SMURF2 phosphorylation at Thr249 (SMURF2Thr249) activates its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Here, we demonstrate that SMURF2Thr249 phosphorylation plays an essential role in maintaining GSC stemness and tumorigenicity. SMURF2 silencing augmented the self-renewal potential and tumorigenicity of patient-derived GSCs. The SMURF2Thr249 phosphorylation level was low in human glioblastoma pathology specimens. Introduction of the SMURF2T249A mutant resulted in increased stemness and tumorigenicity of GSCs, recapitulating the SMURF2 silencing. Moreover, the inactivation of SMURF2Thr249 phosphorylation increases TGF-β receptor (TGFBR) protein stability. Indeed, TGFBR1 knockdown markedly counteracted the GSC phenotypes by SMURF2T249A mutant. These findings highlight the importance of SMURF2Thr249 phosphorylation in maintaining GSC phenotypes, thereby demonstrating a potential target for GSC-directed therapy.

Dragomir B. Krastev ◽  
Shudong Li ◽  
Yilun Sun ◽  
Andrew J. Wicks ◽  
Gwendoline Hoslett ◽  

AbstractPoly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors elicit antitumour activity in homologous recombination-defective cancers by trapping PARP1 in a chromatin-bound state. How cells process trapped PARP1 remains unclear. Using wild-type and a trapping-deficient PARP1 mutant combined with rapid immunoprecipitation mass spectrometry of endogenous proteins and Apex2 proximity labelling, we delineated mass spectrometry-based interactomes of trapped and non-trapped PARP1. These analyses identified an interaction between trapped PARP1 and the ubiquitin-regulated p97 ATPase/segregase. We found that following trapping, PARP1 is SUMOylated by PIAS4 and subsequently ubiquitylated by the SUMO-targeted E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF4, events that promote recruitment of p97 and removal of trapped PARP1 from chromatin. Small-molecule p97-complex inhibitors, including a metabolite of the clinically used drug disulfiram (CuET), prolonged PARP1 trapping and enhanced PARP inhibitor-induced cytotoxicity in homologous recombination-defective tumour cells and patient-derived tumour organoids. Together, these results suggest that p97 ATPase plays a key role in the processing of trapped PARP1 and the response of tumour cells to PARP inhibitors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Liyuan Wang ◽  
Chan Chen ◽  
Zemin Song ◽  
Honghong Wang ◽  
Minghui Ye ◽  

AbstractEfforts to therapeutically target EZH2 have generally focused on inhibition of its methyltransferase activity, although it remains less clear whether this is the central mechanism whereby EZH2 promotes cancer. In the current study, we show that EZH2 directly interacts with both MYC family oncoproteins, MYC and MYCN, and promotes their stabilization in a methyltransferase-independent manner. By competing against the SCFFBW7 ubiquitin ligase to bind MYC and MYCN, EZH2 counteracts FBW7-mediated MYC(N) polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Depletion, but not enzymatic inhibition, of EZH2 induces robust MYC(N) degradation and inhibits tumor cell growth in MYC(N) driven neuroblastoma and small cell lung carcinoma. Here, we demonstrate the MYC family proteins as global EZH2 oncogenic effectors and EZH2 pharmacologic degraders as potential MYC(N) targeted cancer therapeutics, pointing out that MYC(N) driven cancers may develop inherent resistance to the canonical EZH2 enzymatic inhibitors currently in clinical development.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Seung-Eun Lee ◽  
Daekee Kwon ◽  
Nari Shin ◽  
Dasom Kong ◽  
Nam Gyo Kim ◽  

AbstractMitochondrial dysfunction is associated with familial Alzheimer’s disease (fAD), and the accumulation of damaged mitochondria has been reported as an initial symptom that further contributes to disease progression. In the amyloidogenic pathway, the amyloid precursor protein (APP) is cleaved by β-secretase to generate a C-terminal fragment, which is then cleaved by γ-secretase to produce amyloid-beta (Aβ). The accumulation of Aβ and its detrimental effect on mitochondrial function are well known, yet the amyloid precursor protein-derived C-terminal fragments (APP-CTFs) contributing to this pathology have rarely been reported. We demonstrated the effects of APP-CTFs-related pathology using induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) from AD patient-derived fibroblasts. APP-CTFs accumulation was demonstrated to mainly occur within mitochondrial domains and to be both a cause and a consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction. APP-CTFs accumulation also resulted in mitophagy failure, as validated by increased LC3-II and p62 and inconsistent PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1)/E3 ubiquitin ligase (Parkin) recruitment to mitochondria and failed fusion of mitochondria and lysosomes. The accumulation of APP-CTFs and the causality of impaired mitophagy function were also verified in AD patient-iNSCs. Furthermore, we confirmed this pathological loop in presenilin knockout iNSCs (PSEN KO-iNSCs) because APP-CTFs accumulation is due to γ-secretase blockage and similarly occurs in presenilin-deficient cells. In the present work, we report that the contribution of APP-CTFs accumulation is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy failure in AD patient-iNSCs as well as PSEN KO-iNSCs.

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