Alveolar Epithelial Cells
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2021 ◽  
pp. 1929786
K. Sabrina Lynn ◽  
Kristen F. Easley ◽  
Francisco J. Martinez ◽  
Ryan C. Reed ◽  
Barbara Schlingmann ◽  

MedComm ◽  
2021 ◽  
Tingting Fang ◽  
Jingyun Yang ◽  
Li Liu ◽  
Hengyi Xiao ◽  
Xiawei Wei

2021 ◽  
Angelica M. Olmo-Fontanez ◽  
Julia M. Scordo ◽  
Andreu Garcia-Vilanova ◽  
Diego J. Maselli ◽  
Jay Peters ◽  

The elderly population is at significant risk of developing respiratory diseases, including tuberculosis (TB) caused by the airborne Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). Once M.tb reaches the alveolar space, it contacts alveolar lining fluid (ALF) which dictates host cell interactions. We previously determined that age-associated dysfunctionality in human ALF soluble innate components lead to accelerated M.tb growth within human alveolar macrophages. Here we determined the impact of human ALF on M.tb infection of alveolar epithelial cells (ATs), another critical cellular determinant of infection. We observed that E-ALF-exposed M.tb had significantly increased intracellular growth in ATs compared to adult ALF (A-ALF)-exposed bacteria. Despite this, there were no alterations in AT inflammatory mediators or cell activation. However, exposure to E-ALF altered endosomal trafficking of M.tb, driving bacterial translocation to both endosomal and cytosolic compartments in ATs. Our results indicate that exposure of M.tb to E-ALF promotes translocation of bacteria into the AT cytosol as a potential favorable niche for rapid bacterial growth and at the same time dampens ATs immune responses. Thus, our findings highlight the influence of the elderly lung mucosa on M.tb infection of ATs, an unexplored contributing factor to the elderly population increased susceptibility of developing active TB disease.

Fen Liu ◽  
Wei Peng ◽  
Jiaquan Chen ◽  
Zeyao Xu ◽  
Rong Jiang ◽  

Acute lung injury (ALI) induced by sepsis is characterized by disruption of the epithelial barrier and activation of alveolar macrophages (AMs), which leads to uncontrolled pulmonary inflammation. However, effective treatments for ALI are unavailable. The exact mechanism by which the initial mediator of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) induces inflammation remains elusive. Here we investigated the roles of AEC-derived exosomes in AM activation and sepsis-induced ALI in vivo and in vitro. Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was utilized to establish septic lung injury model in rats. The effect of exosomal inhibition by intratracheal GW4869 administration on lung injury was investigated. To assess the effects of AEC-derived exosomes on ALI, we treated the rat alveolar epithelial cell line RLE-6TN with LPS to induce cell damage. Exosomes from conditioned medium of LPS-treated AECs (LPS-Exos) were isolated by ultracentrifugation. The miRNAs in LPS-Exos were screened by miRNA expression profile analysis. The effects of miR-92a-3p on the function of AMs were studied. We found that intratracheal GW4869 administration ameliorated lung injury following CLP-induced ALI. LPS-Exos were taken up by AMs and activated these cells. Consistently, administration of LPS-Exos in rats significantly aggravated pulmonary inflammation and alveolar permeability. Moreover, miR-92a-3p was enriched in LPS-Exos and could be delivered to AMs. Inhibition of miR-92a-3p in AECs diminished the proinflammatory effects of LPS-Exos in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistically, miR-92a-3p activates AMs along with pulmonary inflammation. This process results in activation of the NF-κB pathway and downregulation of PTEN expression, which was confirmed by a luciferase reporter assay. In conclusion, AEC-derived exosomes activate AMs and induce pulmonary inflammation mediated by miR-92a-3p in ALI. The present findings revealed a previously unidentified role of exosomal miR-92a-3p in mediating the crosstalk between injured AEC and AMs. miR-92a-3p in AEC exosomes might represent a novel diagnostic biomarker for ALI, which may lead to a new therapeutic approach.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Yanxia Wang ◽  
Xiaoming Li ◽  
Wen Niu ◽  
Jian Chen ◽  
Bo Zhang ◽  

Abstract Background Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is a common type of pulmonary hypertension and characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling and constriction. Alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) primarily sense alveolar hypoxia, but the role of AECs in HPH remains unclear. In this study, we explored whether AECs are involved in pulmonary vascular remodeling and constriction. Methods In the constructed rat HPH model, hemodynamic and morphological characteristics were measured. By treating AECs with hypoxia, we further detected the levels of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), catalase (CAT), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), respectively. To detect the effects of AECs on pulmonary vascular remodeling and constriction, AECs and pulmonary artery smooth cells (PASMCs) were co-cultured under hypoxia, and PASMCs and isolated pulmonary artery (PA) were treated with AECs hypoxic culture medium. In addition, to explore the mechanism of AECs on pulmonary vascular remodeling and constriction, ROS inhibitor N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was used. Results Hypoxia caused pulmonary vascular remodeling and increased pulmonary artery pressure, but had little effect on non-pulmonary vessels in vivo. Meanwhile, in vitro, hypoxia promoted the imbalance of SOD2 and CAT in AECs, leading to increased ROS and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production in the AECs culture medium. In addition, AECs caused the proliferation of co-cultured PASMCs under hypoxia, and the hypoxic culture medium of AECs enhanced the constriction of isolated PA. However, treatment with ROS inhibitor NAC effectively alleviated the above effects. Conclusion The findings of present study demonstrated that AECs were involved in pulmonary vascular remodeling and constriction under hypoxia by paracrine H2O2 into the pulmonary vascular microenvironment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 35 (S1) ◽  
Edward Crandall ◽  
Wenbo Chen ◽  
David D’Argenio ◽  
Arnold Sipos ◽  
Kwang‐Jin Kim

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