intracellular ca
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yu Hao ◽  
Zhikai Lei ◽  
Nanjing Shi ◽  
Lingying Yu ◽  
Weiqin Ji ◽  

ObjectiveWe identified a novel inactivating mutation in the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) gene in a patient with refractory hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and analyzed its function. The effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation of the parathyroid glands to treat hypercalcemia caused by this mutation was explored.MethodsClinical data of patients before and after radiofrequency ablation were retrospectively analyzed. The CaSR mutation (D99N) found in the patient was studied in cell lines. HEK-293 cells were transfected with plasmids containing wild-type (WT) or mutant CaSR genes (D99N and W718X). Expression levels of the respective CaSR proteins were measured, and their functions were assessed by examining the effect of NPS R-568 (a CaSR agonist) on intracellular Ca2+ oscillations and that of exogenous parathyroid hormone (PTH) on intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels.ResultsThe effectiveness of pharmacological treatment was poor, whereas radiofrequency ablation of the parathyroid glands resulted in controlled blood calcium and PTH levels in the patient. In cell lines, upon NPS R-568 administration, the amplitude of intracellular Ca2+ oscillations in the D99N group was lower than that in the WT group and higher than that in the W718X group. Upon administration of PTH, intracellular cAMP levels in the D99N group were higher than those in the WT group and lower than those in the W718X group.ConclusionThe homozygous mutation D99N reduced CaSR activity and caused more severe hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. For patients with this type of hypercalcemia and poor response to pharmacological treatments, radiofrequency ablation of the parathyroid glands may be a suitable treatment option.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Tiziana Petrozziello ◽  
Francesca Boscia ◽  
Valentina Tedeschi ◽  
Anna Pannaccione ◽  
Valeria de Rosa ◽  

Abstract Background The cycad neurotoxin beta-methylamino-l-alanine (L-BMAA), one of the environmental trigger factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Parkinson-dementia complex (ALS/PDC), may cause neurodegeneration by disrupting organellar Ca2+ homeostasis. Through the activation of Akt/ERK1/2 pathway, the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and its non-metallated form, ApoSOD1, prevent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cell death in motor neurons exposed to L-BMAA. This occurs through the rapid increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in part flowing from the extracellular compartment and in part released from ER. However, the molecular components of this mechanism remain uncharacterized. Methods By an integrated approach consisting on the use of siRNA strategy, Western blotting, confocal double- labeling immunofluorescence, patch-clamp electrophysiology, and Fura 2-/SBFI-single-cell imaging, we explored in rat motor neuron-enriched cultures the involvement of the plasma membrane proteins Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) and purinergic P2X7 receptor as well as that of the intracellular cADP-ribose (cADPR) pathway, in the neuroprotective mechanism of SOD1. Results We showed that SOD1-induced [Ca2+]i rise was prevented neither by A430879, a P2X7 receptor specific antagonist or 8-bromo-cADPR, a cell permeant antagonist of cADP-ribose, but only by the pan inhibitor of NCX, CB-DMB. The same occurred for the ApoSOD1. Confocal double labeling immunofluorescence showed a huge expression of plasmalemmal NCX1 and intracellular NCX3 isoforms. Furthermore, we identified NCX1 reverse mode as the main mechanism responsible for the neuroprotective ER Ca2+ refilling elicited by SOD1 and ApoSOD1 through which they promoted translocation of active Akt in the nuclei of a subset of primary motor neurons. Finally, the activation of NCX1 by the specific agonist CN-PYB2 protected motor neurons from L-BMAA-induced cell death, mimicking the effect of SOD1. Conclusion Collectively, our data indicate that SOD1 and ApoSOD1 exert their neuroprotective effect by modulating ER Ca2+ content through the activation of NCX1 reverse mode and Akt nuclear translocation in a subset of primary motor neurons.

2022 ◽  
Tamara Madacsy ◽  
Árpád Varga ◽  
Noémi Papp ◽  
Bálint Tél ◽  
Petra Pallagi ◽  

Abstract Background and aims. Alcoholic pancreatitis and hepatitis are frequent, potentially lethal diseases with limited treatment options. Our previous study reported that the expression of CFTR Cl- channel is impaired by ethanol in pancreatic ductal cells leading to more severe alcohol-induced pancreatitis. In addition to determining epithelial ion secretion, CFTR has multiple interactions with other proteins, which may influence intracellular Ca2+ signaling. Thus, we aimed to investigate the impact of ethanol-mediated CFTR damage on intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis in pancreatic ductal epithelial cells and cholangiocytes.Methods. Human and mouse pancreas and liver samples and ex vivo organoids were used to study ion secretion, intracellular signaling and protein expression and interaction. The effect of PMCA4 inhibition was analysed in a mouse model of alcohol-induced pancreatitis.Results. The decreased CFTR expression impaired PMCA function and resulted in sustained intracellular Ca2+ elevation in ethanol-treated and mouse and human pancreatic organoids. Liver samples derived from alcoholic hepatitis patients and ethanol-treated mouse liver organoids showed decreased CFTR expression and function, and impaired PMCA4 activity. PMCA4 co-localizes and physically interacts with CFTR on the apical membrane of polarized epithelial cells, where CFTR-dependent calmodulin recruitment determines PMCA4 activity. The sustained intracellular Ca2+ elevation in the absence of CFTR inhibited mitochondrial function and was accompanied with increased apoptosis in pancreatic epithelial cells and PMCA4 inhibition increased the severity of alcohol-induced AP in mice.Conclusion. Our results suggest that improving Ca2+ extrusion in epithelial cells may be a potential novel therapeutic approach to protect the exocrine pancreatic function in alcoholic pancreatitis and prevent the development of cholestasis in alcoholic hepatitis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Giovanni De Marco ◽  
Annarosa Lomartire ◽  
Umberto Manera ◽  
Antonio Canosa ◽  
Maurizio Grassano ◽  

AbstractThe aetiology of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is still poorly understood. The discovery of genetic forms of ALS pointed out the mechanisms underlying this pathology, but also showed how complex these mechanisms are. Excitotoxicity is strongly suspected to play a role in ALS pathogenesis. Excitotoxicity is defined as neuron damage due to excessive intake of calcium ions (Ca2+) by the cell. This study aims to find a relationship between the proteins coded by the most relevant genes associated with ALS and intracellular Ca2+ accumulation. In detail, the profile of eight proteins (TDP-43, C9orf72, p62/sequestosome-1, matrin-3, VCP, FUS, SOD1 and profilin-1), was analysed in three different cell types induced to raise their cytoplasmic amount of Ca2+. Intracellular Ca2+ accumulation causes a decrease in the levels of TDP-43, C9orf72, matrin3, VCP, FUS, SOD1 and profilin-1 and an increase in those of p62/sequestosome-1. These events are associated with the proteolytic action of two proteases, calpains and caspases, as well as with the activation of autophagy. Interestingly, Ca2+ appears to both favour and hinder autophagy. Understanding how and why calpain-mediated proteolysis and autophagy, which are physiological processes, become pathological may elucidate the mechanisms responsible for ALS and help discover new therapeutic targets.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Anna Suwińska ◽  
Piotr Wasąg ◽  
Elżbieta Bednarska-Kozakiewicz ◽  
Marta Lenartowska ◽  
Robert Lenartowski

Abstract Background Pollen development in the anther in angiosperms depends on complicated cellular interactions associated with the expression of gametophytic and sporophytic genes which control fundamental processes during microsporo/gametogenesis, such as exo/endocytosis, intracellular transport, cell signaling, chromatin remodeling, and cell division. Most if not all of these cellular processes depend of local concentration of calcium ions (Ca2+). Work from our laboratory and others provide evidence that calreticulin (CRT), a prominent Ca2+-binding/buffering protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells, may be involved in pollen formation and function. Here, we show for the first time the expression pattern of the PhCRT1 gene and CRT accumulation in relation to exchangeable Ca2+ in Petunia hybrida developing anther, and discuss probable roles for this protein in the male gametophyte development. Results Using northern hybridization, western blot analysis, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), immunocytochemistry, and potassium antimonate precipitation, we report that PhCRT1 is highly expressed in the anther and localization pattern of the CRT protein correlates with loosely bound (exchangeable) Ca2+ during the successive stages of microsporo/gametogenesis. We confirmed a permanent presence of both CRT and exchangeable Ca2+ in the germ line and tapetal cells, where these factors preferentially localized to the ER which is known to be the most effective intracellular Ca2+ store in eukaryotic cells. In addition, our immunoblots revealed a gradual increase in CRT level from the microsporocyte stage through the meiosis and the highest CRT level at the microspore stage, when both microspores and tapetal cells show extremely high secretory activity correlated with the biogenesis of the sporoderm. Conclusion Our present data provide support for a key role of CRT in developing anther of angiosperms – regulation of Ca2+ homeostasis during pollen grains formation. This Ca2+-buffering chaperone seems to be essential for pollen development and maturation since a high rate of protein synthesis and protein folding within the ER as well as intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis are strictly required during the multi-step process of pollen development.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Snezana Levic

Chick hair cells display calcium (Ca2+)-sensitive spontaneous action potentials during development and regeneration. The role of this activity is unclear but thought to be involved in establishing proper synaptic connections and tonotopic maps, both of which are instrumental to normal hearing. Using an electrophysiological approach, this work investigated the functional expression of Ca2+-sensitive potassium [IK(Ca)] currents and their role in spontaneous electrical activity in the developing and regenerating hair cells (HCs) in the chick basilar papilla. The main IK(Ca) in developing and regenerating chick HCs is an SK current, based on its sensitivity to apamin. Analysis of the functional expression of SK current showed that most dramatic changes occurred between E8 and E16. Specifically, there is a developmental downregulation of the SK current after E16. The SK current gating was very sensitive to the availability of intracellular Ca2+ but showed very little sensitivity to T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, which are one of the hallmarks of developing and regenerating hair cells. Additionally, apamin reduced the frequency of spontaneous electrical activity in HCs, suggesting that SK current participates in patterning the spontaneous electrical activity of HCs.

2022 ◽  
Maria Stefania Brignone ◽  
Angela Lanciotti ◽  
Antonio Michelucci ◽  
Cinzia Mallozzi ◽  
Serena Camerini ◽  

Abstract MLC1 is a membrane protein highly expressed by brain perivascular astrocytes. Mutations in the MLC1 gene account for megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC), an incurable leukodystrophy characterized by macrocephaly, brain edema and cysts, myelin vacuolation and astrocyte swelling, causing cognitive and motor dysfunctions. It has been demonstrated that MLC1 mutations affect the swelling-activated Cl - currents (I Cl,swell ) mediated by volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) and the consequent regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and lead to abnormal activation of intracellular signaling pathways linked to inflammation/osmotic stress. Despite this knowledge, the MLC1 physiological role and MLC molecular pathogenesis are still elusive. Following the observations that Ca 2+ regulates all the MLC1-modulated processes and that intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis is altered in MLC1-defective cells, we applied a multidisciplinary approach including biochemistry, molecular biology, video imaging, electrophysiology and proteomic techniques on cultured astrocytes to uncover new Ca 2+ -dependent signaling pathways controlling MLC1 function. Here, we revealed that MLC1 binds the Ca 2+ effector proteins calmodulin (CaM) and Ca 2+ /CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and, as result, changes its assembly, localization and functional properties in response to Ca 2+ changes. Noteworthy, CaM binding to the COOH terminal promotes MLC1 trafficking to the plasma membrane, while CaMKII phosphorylation of the NH 2 -terminal potentiates MLC1 activation of I Cl,swell . Overall, these results revealed that MLC1 is a Ca 2+ -regulated protein linking VRAC function and, possibly, volume regulation to Ca 2+ signaling in astrocytes. These findings open new avenues of investigations aimed at clarifying the abnormal molecular pathways underlying MLC and other diseases characterized by astrocyte swelling and brain edema.

Sreeja Kumari Dhanya ◽  
Gaiti Hasan

Septins are cytoskeletal proteins that can assemble to form heteromeric filamentous complexes and regulate a range of membrane-associated cellular functions. SEPT7, a member of the septin family, functions as a negative regulator of the plasma membrane–localized store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) channel, Orai in Drosophila neurons, and in human neural progenitor cells. Knockdown of STIM, a Ca2+ sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and an integral component of SOCE, leads to flight deficits in Drosophila that can be rescued by partial loss of SEPT7 in neurons. Here, we tested the effect of reducing and removing SEPT7 in mouse Purkinje neurons (PNs) with the loss of STIM1. Mice with the complete knockout of STIM1 in PNs exhibit several age-dependent changes. These include altered gene expression in PNs, which correlates with increased synapses between climbing fiber (CF) axons and Purkinje neuron (PN) dendrites and a reduced ability to learn a motor coordination task. Removal of either one or two copies of the SEPT7 gene in STIM1KO PNs restored the expression of a subset of genes, including several in the category of neuron projection development. Importantly, the rescue of gene expression in these animals is accompanied by normal CF-PN innervation and an improved ability to learn a motor coordination task in aging mice. Thus, the loss of SEPT7 in PNs further modulates cerebellar circuit function in STIM1KO animals. Our findings are relevant in the context of identifying SEPT7 as a putative therapeutic target for various neurodegenerative diseases caused by reduced intracellular Ca2+ signaling.

2021 ◽  
Negar Firouzabadi ◽  
MohammadReza Kiafar ◽  
Nahid Alimoradi ◽  
Sara Keshtgar ◽  
Fereshteh Mehdipour ◽  

Abstract Background: Depression is one of the most common mental illnesses and knowledge about its pathophysiology will assist in smart treatment of depression. RAS is a hormonal system that regulates blood pressure and fluid balance. Role of brain RAS has been highlighted in many mental and neurological disorders. Many drugs that target this system, such as ACEIs and ARBs, have shown positive effects on improving depression in clinical studies and animal models.Methods and results: Regarding the effectiveness RAS in depression, this study was conducted to compare the neuroprotective effects of ARB and ACEI drugs and common antidepressants on Neuro-2a cells. The cells were treated in the different concentrations of captopril, losartan, imipramine, and venlafaxine (1, 10, 50, 100 μM), after exposure to H2O2. Intracellular Ca2+ content, cell viability, SOD activity and ROS generation were measured in all groups. Our results show that cell viability of H2O2-treated cells was significantly increased in the presence of antihypertensive drugs. We observed a protective effect against ROS production in all drug groups in Neuro-2a cells. Losartan at all concentrations and captopril prevented cell damage caused by ROS. Cell death due to intracellular Ca2+, was significantly reduced with all antidepressant. At low concentrations of losartan and captopril cell death due to intracellular Ca2+was significantly reduced compared to the H2O2 group. Conclusions: Antihypertensive drugs, especially losartan can have neuroprotective effects and if approved in animal models, it may be used in the future as an adjunct in psychiatric diseases such as depression.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Nawfel Mokrane ◽  
Yassin Snabi ◽  
Thierry Cens ◽  
Janique Guiramand ◽  
Pierre Charnet ◽  

The regulation of the redox status involves the activation of intracellular pathways as Nrf2 which provides hormetic adaptations against oxidative stress in response to environmental stimuli. In the brain, Nrf2 activation upregulates the formation of glutathione (GSH) which is the primary antioxidant system mainly produced by astrocytes. Astrocytes have also been shown to be themselves the target of oxidative stress. However, how changes in the redox status itself could impact the intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis in astrocytes is not known, although this could be of great help to understand the neuronal damage caused by oxidative stress. Indeed, intracellular Ca2+ changes in astrocytes are crucial for their regulatory actions on neuronal networks. We have manipulated GSH concentration in astroglioma cells with selective inhibitors and activators of the enzymes involved in the GSH cycle and analyzed how this could modify Ca2+ homeostasis. IP3-mediated store-operated calcium entry (SOCE), obtained after store depletion elicited by Gq-linked purinergic P2Y receptors activation, are either sensitized or desensitized, following GSH depletion or increase, respectively. The desensitization may involve decreased expression of the proteins STIM2, Orai1, and Orai3 which support SOCE mechanism. The sensitization process revealed by exposing cells to oxidative stress likely involves the increase in the activity of Calcium Release-Activated Channels (CRAC) and/or in their membrane expression. In addition, we observe that GSH depletion drastically impacts P2Y receptor-mediated changes in membrane currents, as evidenced by large increases in Ca2+-dependent K+ currents. We conclude that changes in the redox status of astrocytes could dramatically modify Ca2+ responses to Gq-linked GPCR activation in both directions, by impacting store-dependent Ca2+-channels, and thus modify cellular excitability under purinergic stimulation.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document