behavioral traits
Recently Published Documents





2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
L. M. R. Cantano ◽  
L. C. Luchesi ◽  
J. T. Takata ◽  
P. F. Monticelli

Abstract Behavior is a useful trait for comparative studies that provide the comprehension of phylogenetic relationships among species. Here, we present a description of two spiny-rats species’ behavioral repertoire, Clyomys laticeps and Trinomys setosus (Rodentia: Echimyidae). The affiliative and agonistic behavioral patterns were sampled during a three-year study of captive populations of wild animals. Observational data were collected in two phases under different arrangements of individuals in groups. We also compare the behavioral traits of T. setosus and C. laticeps with the known behavioral patterns of Trinomys yonenagae. We add categories to the previous descriptions of T. setosus and a standard ethogram for C. laticeps. Trinomys setosus showed a visual and vocal display we called foot-trembling, which was not described in this form and function for other species studied until now. We discuss the differences in their sociality levels and similarities and differences among behavior patterns and repertoires.

2022 ◽  
Qinglei Xu ◽  
Yanli Guo ◽  
Jing Zhao ◽  
Mingzheng Liu ◽  
Allan P. Schinckel ◽  

Abstract Background: Weaned pigs often have more aggressive behavior after mixing, which has negative effects on animal welfare and growth performance. Identification of functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to aggressive behavior of pigs would provide valuable molecular markers of aggressive behavioral trait for genetic improvement program. Rho GTPase Activating Protein 24 (ARHGAP24) gene plays an important role in regulating the process of axon guidance, which may impact aggressive behavior of pigs. Results: By re-sequencing the entire coding region, partially adjacent introns and the 5’ and 3’ flanking regions, 6 and 4 SNPs were identified in the 5’ flanking region and 5’ untranslated region (UTR) of porcine ARHGAP24 gene, respectively. Association analyses revealed that 9 SNPs were significantly associated with aggressive behavioral traits (P = < 1.00 × 10−4 - 4.51 × 10−2), and their haplotypes were significantly associated with aggressive behavior (P = < 1.00 × 10−4 - 2.99 × 10−2). The core promoter region of ARHGAP24 gene was identified between -670 bp and -1113 bp. Furthermore, the luciferase activity of allele A of rs335052970 was significantly less than that of allele G, suggesting the transcriptional activity of ARHGAP24 gene was inhibited by allele A of rs335052970. It was identified that the transcription factor p53 bound to the transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) containing allele A of rs335052970. In porcine primary neural cells, p53 bind to the target promoter region of ARHGAP24 gene, reduce its promoter transcriptional activity, and then reduce its messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression through axon guidance pathway.Conclusion: The results demonstrated that ARHGAP24 gene had significant genetic effects on aggressive behavioral traits of pigs. Therefore, rs335052970 in ARHGAP24 gene can be used as a molecular marker to select less aggressive pigs and improve animal welfare.

2022 ◽  
pp. 334-354
Venera Tomaselli ◽  
Giulio Giacomo Cantone ◽  
Valeria Mazzeo

This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the phenomenon of review bomb, which occurs when an abnormally large amount of information is submitted to a rating system in a very short period of time by an overtly anonymous mass of accounts, with the overall goal of sabotaging the system's proper functioning. Because review bombs are frequently outbursts of social distress from gaming communities, gamification theories have proven useful for understanding the behavioral traits and conflict dynamics associated with such a phenomenon. A prominent case is analysed quantitatively. The methodology is discussed and proposed as a generalized framework for descriptive quantification of review bombs. As a result of the study, considerations for technological improvements in the collection of rating data in systems are proposed too.

Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 17
Andre C. Araujo ◽  
Paulo L. S. Carneiro ◽  
Amanda B. Alvarenga ◽  
Hinayah R. Oliveira ◽  
Stephen P. Miller ◽  

Behavior is a complex trait and, therefore, understanding its genetic architecture is paramount for the development of effective breeding strategies. The objective of this study was to perform traditional and weighted single-step genome-wide association studies (ssGWAS and WssGWAS, respectively) for yearling temperament (YT) in North American Angus cattle using haplotypes. Approximately 266 K YT records and 70 K animals genotyped using a 50 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel were used. Linkage disequilibrium thresholds (LD) of 0.15, 0.50, and 0.80 were used to create the haploblocks, and the inclusion of non-LD-clustered SNPs (NCSNP) with the haplotypes in the genomic models was also evaluated. WssGWAS did not perform better than ssGWAS. Cattle YT was found to be a highly polygenic trait, with genes and QTL broadly distributed across the whole genome. Association studies using LD-based haplotypes should include NCSNPs and different LD thresholds to increase the likelihood of finding the relevant genomic regions affecting the trait of interest. The main candidate genes identified, i.e., ATXN10, ADAM10, VAX2, ATP6V1B1, CRISPLD1, CAPRIN1, FA2H, SPEF2, PLXNA1, and CACNA2D3, are involved in important biological processes and metabolic pathways related to behavioral traits, social interactions, and aggressiveness in cattle. Future studies should further investigate the role of these genes.

2021 ◽  
Camila Oliva ◽  
Nicole K Hinz ◽  
Wayne Robinson ◽  
Alexys M Barrett Thompson ◽  
Julianna Booth ◽  

Evolution in response to a change in ecology often coincides with various morphological, physiological, and behavioral traits. For most organisms little is known about the genetic and functional relationship between evolutionarily derived traits, representing a critical gap in our understanding of adaptation The Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, consists of largely independent populations of fish that inhabit at least 30 caves in Northeast Mexico, and a surface fish population, that inhabits the rivers of Mexico and Southern Texas. The recent application of molecular genetic approaches combined with behavioral phenotyping have established A. mexicanus as a model for studying the evolution of complex traits. Cave populations of A. mexicanus are interfertile with surface populations and have evolved numerous traits including eye degeneration, insomnia, albinism and enhanced mechanosensory function. The infertility of different populations from the same species provides a unique opportunity to define the genetic relationship between evolved traits and assess the co-evolution of behavioral and morphological traits with one another. To define the relationships between morphological and behavioral traits, we developed a pipeline to test individual fish for multiple traits. This pipeline confirmed differences in locomotor activity, prey capture, and startle reflex between surface and cavefish populations. To measure the relationship between traits, individual F2 hybrid fish were characterized for locomotor behavior, prey-capture behavior, startle reflex and morphological attributes. Analysis revealed an association between body length and slower escape reflex, suggesting a trade-off between increased size and predator avoidance in cavefish. Overall, there were few associations between individual behavioral traits, or behavioral and morphological traits, suggesting independent genetic changes underlie the evolution of behavioral and morphological traits. Taken together, this approach provides a novel system to identify genes that underlie naturally occurring genetic variation in morphological and behavioral traits.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Jose A. Ramos ◽  
Richard A. Peters

Closely related species make for interesting model systems to study the evolution of signaling behavior because they share evolutionary history but have also diverged to the point of reproductive isolation. This means that while they may have some behavioral traits in common, courtesy of a common ancestor, they are also likely to show local adaptations. The Ctenophorus decresii complex is such a system, and comprises six closely related agamid lizard species from Australia: C. decresii, C. fionni, C. mirrityana, C. modestus, C. tjanjalka, and C. vadnappa. In this study, we analyze the motion displays of five members of the C. decresii complex in the context of their respective habitats by comparing signal structure, habitat characteristics and signal contrast between all species. Motor pattern use and the temporal sequence of motor patterns did not differ greatly, but the motion speed distributions generated during the displays were different for all species. There was also variation in the extent to which signals contrasted with plant motion, with C. vadnappa performing better than the other species at all habitats. Overall, this study provides evidence that members of the C. decresii complex exhibit local adaptations in signaling behavior to their respective habitat, but they also maintain some morphological and behavioral traits in common, which is likely a consequence from the ancestral state.

2021 ◽  
pp. 75-95
Elena V. Carter

Birds are a rich source for metaphors in paremias that are known to be a significant rhetorical force in various modes of communication. This article deals with the repertoire of ornithological proverbial texts utilized in the Soviet leader’s public speeches and memoirs, as well as in their English translations. The metaphor human is bird, in which there are various grounds of comparison, is explored. The peculiarities of using avian metaphors in the context of the original and the ways of their translation into English are scrutinized as well. The analysis of the material shows that the main features, shared by the Target (human) and the Source (bird species), are grounded on physiological characteristics and behavioral traits, having a negative slant. The equivalent and literal translations are applied as the main methods of rendition. Of particular interest are the metaphorical “animalistic metamorphoses” found in translation.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document