intestinal barrier
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Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 377
Jiayuan Zhao ◽  
Lihan Wang ◽  
Shasha Cheng ◽  
Yu Zhang ◽  
Mo Yang ◽  

The disturbance of intestinal microorganisms and the exacerbation of type 2 diabetes (T2D) are mutually influenced. In this study, the effect of exopolysaccharides (EPS) from Lactobacillus plantarum JY039 on the adhesion of Lactobacillus paracasei JY062 was investigated, as well as their preventive efficacy against T2D. The results showed that the EPS isolated from L. plantarum JY039 effectively improved the adhesion rate of L. paracasei JY062 to Caco-2 cells (1.8 times) and promoted the proliferation of L. paracasei JY062. In the mice experiment, EPS, L. paracasei JY062 and their complex altered the structure of the intestinal microbiota, which elevated the proportion of Bifidobacterium, Faecalibaculum, while inversely decreasing the proportion of Firmicutes, Muribaculaceae, Lachnospiraceae and other bacteria involved in energy metabolism (p < 0.01; p < 0.05); enhanced the intestinal barrier function; promoted secretion of the gut hormone peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1); and reduced inflammation by balancing pro-inflammatory factors IL-6, TNF-α and anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 (p < 0.01; p < 0.05). These results illustrate that EPS and L. paracasei JY062 have the synbiotic potential to prevent and alleviate T2D.

2022 ◽  
Yanan Gao ◽  
Qingwei Meng ◽  
Xin Song ◽  
Qianqian Zhao ◽  
Baoming Shi

Abstract Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary resveratrol supplementation on growth performance, redox status, inflammatory state, and intestinal function of weaned piglets fed oxidized soybean oils.Methods: A total of twenty-eight castrated weaned male piglets with a similar body weight of 10.19 ±1 kg were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments for 28 days feeding trial with 7 replications per treatment and 1 piglet per replicate. Treatments were arranged as a 2×2 factorial with oil type [fresh soybean oils (FSOs) vs. oxidized soybean oils (OSOs)] and dietary resveratrol (RES) (0 vs. 300 mg/kg).Result: Inclusion of OSOs decreased the villus/crypt ratio (VCR), while the villus height (VH) and VCR in the jejunum of weaned piglets was increased by dietary RES (P< 0.05). The activities of lipase, chymotrypsin, and lactase were decreased by OSOs, however dietary RES supplementation increased the activities of lipase, chymotrypsin, lactase, and α-amylase in the jejunum of weaned piglets (P< 0.05). Dietary RES increased the apparent digestibility of crude fat (EE). Dietary RES supplementation in the diets supplemented with OSOs decreased the level of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the plasma of weaned piglets, but failed to influence the IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α level when diets supplemented with FSOs. Dietary RES alleviated the decrease of total-superoxide dismutase activity in the plasma of weaned piglets fed OSOs (P< 0.05). Dietary supplemented with OSOs and RES decreased the level of H2O2 in the plasma of weaned piglets (P< 0.05). RES alleviates the intestinal barrier damage fed OSOs in weaned piglets by increasing the mRNA expression of ZO-1 and Occludin. It is noteworthy that inclusion of OSOs in diets increased the abundance of Actinobacteria, and decreased the abundance of Tenercutes (P< 0.05). RES increased the abundance of Firmicutes, and decreased the abundance of Bacteroidetes (P< 0.05). At the genus level, RES decreased the abundance of Prevotella-1, Prevotellaceae UCG003, and Clostridium_sensu_stricto_6 in the colon. OSOs decreased the level of acetic acid, and dietary RES increased the level of acetic acid and butyric acid in the colon of weaned piglets.Conclusions: Dietary RES supplementation improved the villus-crypt structure, digestive enzyme activities and alleviated OSOs induced digestive absorption disorder. In addition, RES may alleviate OSOs immune status and energy metabolism of weaned piglets by affecting gut microbiota and its metabolite SCFAs. Notably, this positive effect of RES on OSOs may be related to decrease in the abundance of Prevotella_1 and Prevotellaceae_UCG-003.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 167
Pauline Raoul ◽  
Marco Cintoni ◽  
Marta Palombaro ◽  
Luisa Basso ◽  
Emanuele Rinninella ◽  

Diet is a key environmental factor in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and, at the same time, represents one of the most promising therapies for IBD. Our daily diet often contains food additives present in numerous processed foods and even in dietary supplements. Recently, researchers and national authorities have been paying much attention to their toxicity and effects on gut microbiota and health. This review aims to gather the latest data focusing on the potential role of food additives in the pathogenesis of IBDs through gut microbiota modulation. Some artificial emulsifiers and sweeteners can induce the dysbiosis associated with an alteration of the intestinal barrier, an activation of chronic inflammation, and abnormal immune response accelerating the onset of IBD. Even if most of these results are retrieved from in vivo and in vitro studies, many artificial food additives can represent a potential hidden driver of gut chronic inflammation through gut microbiota alterations, especially in a population with IBD predisposition. In this context, pending the confirmation of these results by large human studies, it would be advisable that IBD patients avoid the consumption of processed food containing artificial food additives and follow a personalized nutritional therapy prescribed by a clinical nutritionist.

Gut Microbes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Li Ge ◽  
Jie Qi ◽  
Bo Shao ◽  
Zhenzhen Ruan ◽  
Yueran Ren ◽  

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 145
Małgorzata Gieryńska ◽  
Lidia Szulc-Dąbrowska ◽  
Justyna Struzik ◽  
Matylda Barbara Mielcarska ◽  
Karolina Paulina Gregorczyk-Zboroch

The gastrointestinal tract, which is constantly exposed to a multitude of stimuli, is considered responsible for maintaining the homeostasis of the host. It is inhabited by billions of microorganisms, the gut microbiota, which form a mutualistic relationship with the host. Although the microbiota is generally recognized as beneficial, at the same time, together with pathogens, they are a permanent threat to the host. Various populations of epithelial cells provide the first line of chemical and physical defense against external factors acting as the interface between luminal microorganisms and immunocompetent cells in lamina propria. In this review, we focus on some essential, innate mechanisms protecting mucosal integrity, thus responsible for maintaining intestine homeostasis. The characteristics of decisive cell populations involved in maintaining the barrier arrangement, based on mucus secretion, formation of intercellular junctions as well as production of antimicrobial peptides, responsible for shaping the gut microbiota, are presented. We emphasize the importance of cross-talk between gut microbiota and epithelial cells as a factor vital for the maintenance of the homeostasis of the GI tract. Finally, we discuss how the imbalance of these regulations leads to the compromised barrier integrity and dysbiosis considered to contribute to inflammatory disorders and metabolic diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 662
Roberta Forlano ◽  
Benjamin H. Mullish ◽  
Lauren A. Roberts ◽  
Mark R. Thursz ◽  
Pinelopi Manousou

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents an increasing cause of liver disease worldwide, mirroring the epidemics of obesity and metabolic syndrome. As there are still no licensed medications for treating the disease, there is an ongoing effort to elucidate the pathophysiology and to discover new treatment pathways. An increasing body of evidence has demonstrated a crosstalk between the gut and the liver, which plays a crucial role in the development and progression of liver disease. Among other intestinal factors, gut permeability represents an interesting factor at the interface of the gut–liver axis. In this narrative review, we summarise the evidence from human studies showing the association between increased gut permeability and NAFLD, as well as with type-2 diabetes and obesity. We also discuss the manipulation of the gut permeability as a potential therapeutical target in patients with NAFLD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Ziqi Dai ◽  
Lijun Shang ◽  
Fengming Wang ◽  
Xiangfang Zeng ◽  
Haitao Yu ◽  

Microcin C7 is an antimicrobial peptide produced by Escherichia coli, composed of a heptapeptide with a modified adenosine monophosphate. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of Microcin C7 as a potential substrate to traditional antibiotics on growth performance, immune functions, intestinal barrier, and cecal microbiota of broilers. In the current study, 300 healthy Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of five treatments including a corn–soybean basal diet and basal diet supplemented with antibiotic or 2, 4, and 6 mg/kg Microcin C7. Results showed that Microcin C7 significantly decreased the F/G ratio of broilers; significantly increased the levels of serum cytokine IL-10, immunoglobulins IgG and IgM, and ileal sIgA secretion; significantly decreased the level of serum cytokine TNF-α. Microcin C7 significantly increased villus height and V/C ratio and significantly decreased crypt depth in small intestine of broilers. Microcin C7 significantly increased gene expression of tight junction protein Occludin and ZO-1 and significantly decreased gene expression of pro-inflammatory and chemokine TNF-α, IL-8, IFN-γ, Toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR4, and downstream molecular MyD88 in the jejunum of broilers. Microcin C7 significantly increased the number of Lactobacillus and decreased the number of total bacteria and Escherichia coli in the cecum of broilers. Microcin C7 also significantly increased short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) and lactic acid levels in the ileum and cecum of broilers. In conclusion, diet supplemented with Microcin C7 significantly improved growth performance, strengthened immune functions, enhanced intestinal barrier, and regulated cecal microbiota of broilers. Therefore, the antimicrobial peptide Microcin C7 may have the potential to be an ideal alternative to antibiotic.

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