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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 717-723
Bing Pan ◽  
Binghui Liu ◽  
Juhua Pan ◽  
Jian Xin ◽  
Chenglin Fu

Introduction: Breast cancer (BC) developed in the glandular epithelial tissue of breast. microRNA (miR)-367 is an important player in cancer progression, but has never been studied in BC. This experiment tries to probe the mechanism of miR-367 in BC treatment with downstream target gene. Materials and Methods: Human BC cell lines and healthy breast epithelium cells were applied in this study. After the transfection of miR-367 inhibitor or mimic into BC cells, functional assays were conducted to measure cell growth. Afterwards, flow cytometry was employed in apoptosis verification. Then, target relation between miR-367 and ARID1B was certified. Furthermore, ARID1B level was also measured. Results: miR-367 was underexpressed in human BC cells (p < 0.05). Besides, overexpressed miR-367 inhibited BC cell proliferation and encouraged apoptosis, while underexpressed miR-367 led to an opposite outcome (p < 0.05). This experiment then implied that miR-367 dramatically suppressed the activity of cell transfected with ARID1B-wild type. miR-367 overexpression quenched ARID1B level in BC cells; while silencing miR-367 upregulated ARID1B expression (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our experiment discovered that miR-367 quenched BC cell growth and promoted apoptosis by targeting ARID1B. This investigation may provide novel insights in BC treatment.

2022 ◽  
Wen Li ◽  
Guohua Jin

Alzheimer\'s disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia worldwide. Although the great progress on the prevention and treatment of AD, no effective therapies are available as yet. With the increasing incidence of AD, it has brought a growing burden to the family and society. Histopathologically, AD is characterized by the presence of myloid β (Aβ) plaques composed of Aβ and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins, which lead to neuronal loss. However, the full spectrum of precise molecular mechanism that contribute to AD pathogenesis remains largely unknown. circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel class of endogenous non-coding RNAs that play a vital role in post-transcriptional regulation. Recent reports showed circRNAs to be an important player in the development of neurodegenerative diseases like AD. In this chapter, we review recent progress on understanding the role of circRNAs in AD, and many studies implicating specific circRNAs in the development of the disease. Moreover, we explore the potential promise of these findings for future diagnosis and treatment.

2022 ◽  
Katarzyna H Maslowska ◽  
Vincent Pagès

DNA Damage Tolerance (DDT) funcPons to bypass replicaPon-blocking lesions and is divided into two disPnct pathways: error-prone Translesion Synthesis (TLS) and error-free Damage Avoidance (DA). Rad5 is an important player in these processes. Indeed, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad5 is a large mulPfuncPonal protein that contains three well defined domains: a RING domain that promotes PCNA polyubiquiPnaPon and a ssDNA-dependent ATPase/helicase domain, that are both conserved in Rad5 human ortholog HLTF. Yeast Rad5 also contains a Rev1-binding domain. In this study we used domain-specific mutants to address the contribuPon of each of the Rad5 funcPons to lesion tolerance. Using an assay based on the inserPon of a single lesion into a defined locus in the genome of a living yeast cell, we demonstrate that Rad5 plays opposite roles in lesion tolerance: i) Rad5 favors error-free lesion bypass by acPvaPng template switching through polyubiquiPnaPon of PCNA; ii) Rad5 is also required for TLS by recruiPng the TLS polymerase Rev1. We also show that the helicase acPvity does not play any role in lesion tolerance/

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Jan Lubawy ◽  
Szymon Chowański ◽  
Zbigniew Adamski ◽  
Małgorzata Słocińska

AbstractTemperature stress is one of the crucial factors determining geographical distribution of insect species. Most of them are active in moderate temperatures, however some are capable of surviving in extremely high as well as low temperatures, including freezing. The tolerance of cold stress is a result of various adaptation strategies, among others the mitochondria are an important player. They supply cells with the most prominent energy carrier—ATP, needed for their life processes, but also take part in many other processes like growth, aging, protection against stress injuries or cell death. Under cold stress, the mitochondria activity changes in various manner, partially to minimize the damages caused by the cold stress, partially because of the decline in mitochondrial homeostasis by chill injuries. In the response to low temperature, modifications in mitochondrial gene expression, mtDNA amount or phosphorylation efficiency can be observed. So far study also showed an increase or decrease in mitochondria number, their shape and mitochondrial membrane permeability. Some of the changes are a trigger for apoptosis induced via mitochondrial pathway, that protects the whole organism against chill injuries occurring on the cellular level. In many cases, the observed modifications are not unequivocal and depend strongly on many factors including cold acclimation, duration and severity of cold stress or environmental conditions. In the presented article, we summarize the current knowledge about insect response to cold stress focusing on the role of mitochondria in that process considering differences in results obtained in different experimental conditions, as well as depending on insect species. These differentiated observations clearly indicate that it is still much to explore. Graphical Abstract

2021 ◽  
Ronja Mülfarth ◽  
Elisenda Alsina-Sanchis ◽  
Iris Moll ◽  
Sarah Böhn ◽  
Lena Wiedmann ◽  

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the most lethal gynaecological cancers worldwide. EOC cells educate tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) through CD44-mediated cholesterol depletion to generate an immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment (TME). In addition, tumour cells frequently activate Notch1 receptors on endothelial cells (ECs) to facilitate metastasis. However, little is known whether the endothelium would also influence the education of recruited monocytes. Here, we report that canonical Notch signalling through RBPJ in ECs is an important player in the education of TAMs and EOC progression. Deletion of Rbpj in the endothelium of adult mice reduced infiltration of monocyte-derived macrophages into the TME of EOC and prevented the acquisition of a typical TAM gene signature. This was associated with stronger cytotoxic activity of T cells and decreased tumour burden. Mechanistically, we identified CXCL2 as a novel Notch/RBPJ target gene. This angiocrine factor regulates the expression of CD44 on monocytes and subsequent cholesterol depletion of TAMs. Bioinformatic analysis of ovarian cancer patient data showed that increased CXCL2 expression is accompanied by higher expression of CD44 and TAM education. As such, EOC cells employ the tumour endothelium to secrete CXCL2 in order to facilitate an immunosuppressive microenvironment.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 6280
Eugenia Passaro ◽  
Chiara Papulino ◽  
Ugo Chianese ◽  
Antonella Toraldo ◽  
Raffaella Congi ◽  

Autophagy is an essential intracellular catabolic mechanism involved in the degradation and recycling of damaged organelles regulating cellular homeostasis and energy metabolism. Its activation enhances cellular tolerance to various stresses and is known to be involved in drug resistance. In cancer, autophagy has a dual role in either promoting or blocking tumorigenesis, and recent studies indicate that epigenetic regulation is involved in its mechanism of action in this context. Specifically, the ubiquitin-binding histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzyme HDAC6 is known to be an important player in modulating autophagy. Epigenetic modulators, such as HDAC inhibitors, mediate this process in different ways and are already undergoing clinical trials. In this review, we describe current knowledge on the role of epigenetic modifications, particularly HDAC-mediated modifications, in controlling autophagy in cancer. We focus on the controversy surrounding their ability to promote or block tumor progression and explore the impact of HDAC6 inhibitors on autophagy modulation in cancer. In light of the fact that targeted drug therapy for cancer patients is attracting ever increasing interest within the research community and in society at large, we discuss the possibility of using HDAC6 inhibitors as adjuvants and/or in combination with conventional treatments to overcome autophagy-related mechanisms of resistance.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 62-73
Maria-Cristina Ichim (Balaneasa)

The temporary work agent is an important player in the EU labor market from the perspective of labor flexibility. The evolution of the national legal framework on the regulation of the establishment and operation of the temporary work agent in accordance with the European provisions - Directive 2008/104 / EC - is an important issue to consider in this article because the national legal frameworks had to be adapted after 2008 in accordance with the Community law, in order to ensure the protection of temporary workers. Last but not least, the trends on the European labor market are also interesting from the point of view of the employment degree based on the services of temporary work agents. This paper aims to analyze the evolution of the Romanian legal provisions regarding temporary work agencies since the entry into force of the 2003 Labor Code to present day, emphasizing on the debate regarding the licensing, registration and the withdrawal of license procedure for a temporary work agent in our country. At the end of the article, we will present the number of temporary work agencies licensed in Romania, but also the percentage of employees recruited through temporary work agents in EU countries during the period 2011-2020, in order to highlight the degree of use of this type of workforce.

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 3447
Saara Laulumaa ◽  
Markku Varjosalo

Commander complex is a 16-protein complex that plays multiple roles in various intracellular events in endosomal cargo and in the regulation of cell homeostasis, cell cycle and immune response. It consists of COMMD1–10, CCDC22, CCDC93, DENND10, VPS26C, VPS29, and VPS35L. These proteins are expressed ubiquitously in the human body, and they have been linked to diseases including Wilson’s disease, atherosclerosis, and several types of cancer. In this review we describe the function of the commander complex in endosomal cargo and summarize the individual known roles of COMMD proteins in cell signaling and cancer. It becomes evident that commander complex might be a much more important player in intracellular regulation than we currently understand, and more systematic research on the role of commander complex is required.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Juan Chen ◽  
Ruixian Zhang ◽  
Min Xie ◽  
Chunyan Luan ◽  
Xiaolan Li

Dermatomyositis (DM), an inflammatory disorder, is often associated with interstitial lung disease (ILD). However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Our study performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and integrative bioinformatics analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in patients with dermatomyositis-associated interstitial lung disease (DM-ILD) and healthy controls. A total of 2,018 DEGs were identified between DM-ILD and healthy blood samples. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis showed that DEGs were mainly involved in immune- and inflammatory-related biological processes and pathways. Disease ontology (DO) enrichment analysis identified 35 candidate key genes involved in both skin and lung diseases. Meanwhile, a total of 886 differentially expressed alternative splicing (AS) events were found between DM-ILD and healthy blood samples. After overlapping DEGs with differential AS genes, the plasminogen activator and urokinase receptor (PLAUR) involved in immune-related biological processes and complement and coagulation cascades was screened and identified as the most important gene associated with DM-ILD. The protein–protein interaction (PPI) network revealed that PLAUR had interactions with multiple candidate key genes. Moreover, we observed that there were significantly more neutrophils and less naive B cells in DM-ILD samples than in healthy samples. And the expression of PLAUR was significantly positively correlated with the abundance of neutrophils. Significant higher abundance of PLAUR in DM-ILD patients than healthy controls was validated by RT-qPCR. In conclusion, we identified PLAUR as an important player in regulating DM-ILD by neutrophil-associated immune response. These findings enrich our understanding, which may benefit DM-ILD patients.

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