inflow turbulence
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Atmosphere ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 72
Yuxin Zhang ◽  
Shuyang Cao ◽  
Jinxin Cao

For the analysis of the aerodynamic characteristics of the buildings immersed in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), it is necessary to generate a turbulence velocity field with similar temporal and special characteristics to the ABL to obtain a reliable result. In this paper, an improved precursor simulation method called the recycling and reshaping method (RRM) is proposed to generate a turbulent boundary layer in an LES model. The laminar inflow is firstly disturbed by the virtual roughness blocks realized by adding drag force term in the momentum equation, then the inflow velocity profile is reshaped every several steps to adjust the streamwise velocity profile in the downstream target area to meet the requirements. The final turbulence field generated by RRM with virtual roughness blocks is in good agreement with the target velocity conditions. Then, the simulation of the wind-induced pressure on an isolated low-rise building surface is carried out, using the generated turbulence boundary layer as inflow. The comparison between numerical results and TPU aerodynamic database shows that the time-averaged wind-induced surface pressure obtained by LES can be considered in good accordance with the measurements over the whole building surface. However, the non-ignorable deviations for the fluctuating pressure result in the flow separation corners still exist.

2021 ◽  
Vol 33 (12) ◽  
pp. 125106
Seyed Sobhan Aleyasin ◽  
Mark Francis Tachie ◽  
Ram Balachandar

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 1274
Artur K. Lidtke ◽  
Maarten Klapwijk ◽  
Thomas Lloyd

Inflow turbulence is relevant for many engineering applications relating to noise generation, including aircraft wings, landing gears, and non-cavitating marine propellers. While modelling of this phenomenon is well-established for higher Mach number aerospace problems, lower Mach number applications, which include marine propellers, still lack validated numerical tools. In order to develop these simplified cases for which extensive measurement data are available can be used. This paper investigates the effect of inflow turbulence on a circular cylinder at a Reynolds number of 14,700, a Mach number of 0.029, and with inflow turbulence intensities ranging between 0% and 22%. In the present work focus is put on the hydrodynamics aspect, with the aim of addressing radiated noise in a later study. The flow is simulated using the partially averaged Navier Stokes equations, with turbulence inserted using a synthetic inflow turbulence generator. Results show that the proposed method can successfully replicate nearfield pressure variations and relevant flow features in the wake of the body. In agreement with the literature, increasing inflow turbulence intensity adds broadband frequency content to all the presented fluctuating flow quantities. In addition, the applied variations in inflow turbulence intensity result in a major shift in flow dynamics around a turbulence intensity of 15%, when the dominant effect of von Kármán vortices on the dominant flow dynamics becomes superseded by freestream turbulence.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 2246
David Janke ◽  
Senthilathiban Swaminathan ◽  
Sabrina Hempel ◽  
Robert Kasper ◽  
Thomas Amon

Agriculture is a major emitter of particulate matter (PM), which causes health problems and can act as a carrier of the pathogen material that spreads diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate an open-source solver that simulates the transport and dispersion of PM for typical agricultural applications. We investigated a coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian solver within the open source software package OpenFOAM. The continuous phase was solved using transient large eddy simulations, where four different subgrid-scale turbulence models and an inflow turbulence generator were tested. The discrete phase was simulated using two different Lagrangian solvers. For the validation case of a turbulent flow of a street canyon, the flowfield could be recaptured very well, with errors of around 5% for the non-equilibrium turbulence models (WALE and dynamicKeq) in the main regions. The inflow turbulence generator could create a stable and accurate boundary layer for the mean vertical velocity and vertical profile of the turbulent Reynolds stresses R11. The validation of the Lagrangian solver showed mixed results, with partly good agreements (simulation results within the measurement uncertainty), and partly high deviations of up to 80% for the concentration of particles. The higher deviations were attributed to an insufficient turbulence regime of the used validation case, which was an experimental chamber. For the simulation case of PM dispersion from manure application on a field, the solver could capture the influence of features such as size and density on the dispersion. The investigated solver is especially useful for further investigations into time-dependent processes in the near-source area of PM sources.

Fluids ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (11) ◽  
pp. 372
Luciano Caldas ◽  
Carolin Kissner ◽  
Maximilian Behn ◽  
Ulf Tapken ◽  
Robert Meyer

Turbulence parameters, in particular integral length scale (ILS) and turbulence intensity (Tu), are key input parameters for various applications in aerodynamics and aeroacoustics. The estimation of these parameters is typically performed using data obtained via hot-wire measurements. On the one hand, hot-wire measurements are affected by external disturbances resulting in increased measurement noise. On the other hand, commonly applied turbulence parameter estimators lack in robustness. If not addressed correctly, both issues may impede the accuracy of the turbulence parameter estimation. In this article, a procedure consisting of several signal processing steps is presented to filter non-turbulence related disturbances from the unsteady velocity data. The signal processing techniques comprise time- and frequency-domain approaches. For the turbulence parameter estimation, two different models of the turbulence spectra—the von Kármán model and the Bullen model—are fitted to match the spectrum of the measured data. The results of several parameter estimation techniques are compared. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) data are used to validate the estimation techniques and also to assess the influence of the variation in window size on the estimated parameters. Additionally, hot-wire data from a high-speed fan rig are analyzed. ILS and Tu are assessed at several radial positions for two fan speeds. It is found that most techniques yield similar values for ILS and Tu. The comparison of the fitted spectra with the spectra of the measured data shows a good agreement in most cases provided that a sufficiently fine frequency resolution is applied. The ratio of ILS and Tu of the velocity components in longitudinal and transverse direction allows the assessment of flow-isotropy. Results indicate that the turbulence is anisotropic for the investigated flow fields.

2021 ◽  
Pradip Zamre ◽  
Thorsten Lutz

Abstract. The behavior of a rooftop mounted generic H-rotor Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine (H-VAWT) is investigated numerically in realistic urban terrain. The interaction of the atmospheric boundary layer with the different buildings, topography, and vegetation present in the urban environment leads to the highly turbulent inflow conditions with continuously changing inclination, and direction. Consequently, all these factors can influence the performance of a VAWT significantly. In order to simulate a small H-VAWT at rooftop locations in the urban terrain under turbulent inflow conditions, a computational approach is developed. First, the flow field in the terrain is initialized and computed with inflow turbulence. Later, the wind turbine grids are superimposed for further computation in the turbulent flow field. The behavior of the H-VAWT is complex due to the 3D unsteady aerodynamics resulting from continuously changing the angle of attack, blade wake interaction, and dynamic stall. To get more insights into the behavior of a rooftop mounted H-VAWT in turbulent flow, high fidelity DDES simulations are performed at different rooftop positions and compared the results against the behavior at uniform inflow conditions in the absence of inflow turbulence, built environment. It is found that the performance of wind turbine is significantly increased near the rooftop positions. The skewed flow at the rooftop location increases the complexity. However, this effect contributes positively to increasing the performance of wind turbines.

Ettore Bertolini ◽  
Paul Pieringer ◽  
Wolfgang Sanz

The aim of this work is to study the influence of different subgrid-scale (SGS) closure models and inflow turbulence conditions on the boundary layer transition on the suction side of a highly loaded transonic turbine cascade in the presence of high free-stream turbulence using large eddy simulations (LES) of the MUR237 test case. For the numerical simulations, the MUR237 flow case was considered and the incoming free-stream turbulence was reproduced using the synthetic eddy method (SEM). The boundary layer transition on the blade suction side was found to be significantly influenced by the choice of the SGS closure model and the SEM parameters. These two aspects were carefully evaluated in this work. Initially, the influence of three different closure models (Smagorinsky, WALE, and subgrid-scale kinetic energy model) was evaluated. Among them, the WALE SGS closure model performed best compared to the Smagorinsky and KEM models and, for this reason, was used in the following analysis. Finally, different values of the turbulence length scale, eddies density, and inlet turbulence for the SEM were evaluated. As shown by the results, among the different parameters, the choice of the turbulence length scale plays a major role in the transition onset on the blade suction side.

2021 ◽  
Paul Hulsman ◽  
Martin Wosnik ◽  
Vlaho Petrović ◽  
Michael Hölling ◽  
Martin Kühn

Abstract. A potential technique to reduce the negative wake impact is to redirect it away from a downstream turbine by yawing the upstream turbine. The present research investigated the wake behaviour for three yaw angles [−30°, 0°, 30°] at different inflow turbulence levels and shear profiles under controlled conditions. Experiments were conducted using a model wind turbine with 0.6 m diameter (D) in a wind tunnel. A short-range dual-Doppler Lidar WindScanner facilitated mapping the wake with a high spatial and temporal resolution in vertical, cross-stream planes at different downstream locations and in a horizontal plane at hub height. This versatile equipment enabled the fast measurements at multiple locations in comparison to the well known hot-wire measurements. The flow structures and the energy dissipation rate of the wake were measured from 1D up to 10D, and for one inflow case up to 16D, downstream of the turbine rotor. A strong dependency of the wake characteristics on both the yaw angle and the inflow conditions was observed. In addition, the curled wake that develops under yaw misalignment due to the counter-rotating vortex pair was more pronounced with a boundary layer (sheared) inflow condition than for uniform inflow with different turbulence levels. Furthermore, the lidar velocity data and the energy dissipation rate compared favourably with hot-wire data from previous experiments with a similar inflow condition and wind turbine model in the same facility, lending credibility to the measurement technique and methodology used here. The measurement campaign provided a deeper understanding of the development of the wake at different inflow conditions, which will advance the process to improve existing wake models.

2021 ◽  
Vol 263 (6) ◽  
pp. 112-122
Shuaikang Shi ◽  
Huang Xiuchang ◽  
Rao zhiqiang ◽  
Hua hongxing

To clarify the characteristics of unsteady force spectrum of a pump-jet running under inflow turbulent,the turbulence grid and Fourier synthesis method is employed to produce incoming turbulence with spatial flow structure and temporal fluctuation, which is combined with LES (large eddy simulation) to obtain broadband unsteady force spectrum of the pump-jet. The results show that the proposed method could obtain the unsteady force broadband spectrum for duct, stator and rotor. The unsteady force broadband spectrum of the pump-jet is composed of the "hump" around the blade passing frequency and its multiples, the characteristic line spectrum at the stator blade passing frequency and shaft frequency of adjacent stator multiples. With the number of blades increasing, the "hump" becomes more obvious, the characteristic peak changes periodically and reaches the minimum when the number of blades is the number of rotors. Due to the use of the stator and duct, the amplitude of the unsteady force broadband spectrum of the pump-jet is higher than propeller, but the "hump" is not as obvious as propeller. The research is helpful to clarify the unsteady force characteristics of pump-jet induced by turbulence, and provide ideas for the vibration and noise reduction of pump-jet.

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