Downstream Target
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2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Coen J. Lap ◽  
Samah Nassereddine ◽  
Min-Ling Liu ◽  
Victor E. Nava ◽  
Anita Aggarwal

Hematological malignancies with a BCR-JAK2 rearrangement have been described only sporadically in the literature over the last three decades. Although most patients suffer from a chronic myeloid neoplasm with marked eosinophilia, the clinical presentation varies significantly and can even manifest as a lymphoid malignancy. In this case report, we present a patient with a therapy-related BCR-JAK2+ myeloid neoplasm with extensive extramedullary disease localizing in the lymph nodes. While treatment with a JAK2 inhibitor (ruxolitinib) was not able to stop disease progression, combination treatment with inhibitors of both JAK2 and BCL2 (venetoclax) resulted in disease control for over 1.5 years. Combining these two inhibitors might be strategic in these patients, not only because BCL2 is a downstream target of JAK/STAT signaling but also because BCL2 is crucial for JAK2 inhibitor resistance. The recent inclusion of JAK2-rearranged malignancies in major classification systems and guidelines emphasizes the importance of not only getting a better understanding of the clinical phenotype of these rare disorders but also of identifying alternative treatment options for patients ineligible for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Considering the low toxicity of combination treatment with these two small molecule inhibitors, this regimen could be further explored in future studies.

PLoS Genetics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (7) ◽  
pp. e1009690
Lin Wen ◽  
Tao Zhang ◽  
Jinxuan Wang ◽  
Xuepu Jin ◽  
Muhammad Abdul Rouf ◽  

Recent studies have focused on capillary pruning in various organs and species. However, the way in which large-diameter vessels are pruned remains unclear. Here we show that pruning of the zebrafish caudal vein (CV) from ventral capillaries of the CV plexus in different transgenic embryos is driven by endothelial cell (EC) rearrangement, which involves EC nucleus migration, junction remodeling, and actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Further observation reveals a growing difference in blood flow velocity between the two vessels in CV pruning in zebrafish embryos. With this model, we identify the critical role of Kruppel-like factor 6a (klf6a) in CV pruning. Disruption of klf6a functioning impairs CV pruning in zebrafish. klf6a is required for EC nucleus migration, junction remodeling, and actin cytoskeleton dynamics in zebrafish embryos. Moreover, actin-related protein transgelin 2 (tagln2) is a direct downstream target of klf6a in CV pruning in zebrafish embryos. Together these results demonstrate that the klf6a-tagln2 axis regulates CV pruning by promoting EC rearrangement.

2021 ◽  
Yonglian Guo ◽  
Guohao Li ◽  
Zhihua Wan ◽  
Yuanjie Zhang ◽  
Dong Liu ◽  

Abstract Objective: Prostate cancer (PCa) refers to one of the most common tumors in male’s genitourinary system. Emerging research has confirmed that circRNAs play an important role in the occurrence and development of tumors. However, the correlation between circular RNA circITGA7 and PCa still remains unclear. Here, the role of circITGA7 in PCa was explored and the underlying mechanism was investigated as well.Methods: The circRNA expression profiles in PCa and the paracancerous tissues were established by high-throughput sequencing. The expression levels of circITGA7 in PCa tissues and cells were detected by qRT-PCR. Cell Counting Kit-8, colony formation, EdU and flow cytometry assays were used to detect the effects of circITGA7 on PCa cell proliferation. To further explore the underlying mechanisms, bioinformatics analysis on downstream target genes was carried out. RNA immunoprecipitation and dual-luciferase reporter assays were used to verify the direct relationship between miR-370-3p and circITGA7 or P21CIP1.Results: circITGA7 was downregulated in PCa tissues and cells. Gain- or loss-of-function assays showed that circITGA7 inhibited the proliferation of PCa cells in vivo and in vitro. Mechanically, circITGA7 served as a sponge for miR-370-3p and miR-370-3p could target P21CIP1 in PCa cells. The inhibition of cell proliferation induced by circITGA7 could be reversed by transfecting miR-370-3p mimic. Conclusion: Our data indicated that circITGA7 played an important role in inhibiting tumor proliferation in PCa and might be a potential therapeutic target.

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
Yu Fu ◽  
Zhili Xin ◽  
Ziji Ling ◽  
Hanyu Xie ◽  
Tao Xiao ◽  

Abstract Background Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) disease caused by activating mutations of guanine nucleotide-binding protein alpha-stimulating activity polypeptide (GNAS) and is characterized by increased proliferative activity and disrupted osteogenesis of BMSCs. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating the pathophysiologic features of BMSCs in FD remain unknown. This study aimed to identify and verify the roles of the CREB1-miR-181a-5p regulatory loop in FD pathophysiology. Methods MicroRNA (miRNA) sequencing analysis was used to identify the possible miRNAs implicated in FD. The proliferation, apoptosis, and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, as well as the osteoclast-induced phenotype, were measured and compared after exogenous miR-181a-5p transfection into FD BMSCs or miR-181a-5p inhibitor transfection into normal BMSCs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays were performed to verify the interactions between CREB1 and miR-181a-5p and their effects on the FD pathological phenotype. Results Compared to normal BMSCs, FD BMSCs showed decreased miR-181a-5p levels and exhibited increased proliferative activity, decreased apoptotic capacity, and impaired osteogenesis. FD BMSCs also showed a stronger osteoclast activation effect. miR-181a-5p overexpression reversed the pathophysiologic features of FD BMSCs, whereas miR-181a-5p suppression induced an FD-like phenotype in normal BMSCs. Mechanistically, miR-181a-5p was the downstream target of CREB1, and CREB1 was posttranscriptionally regulated by miR-181a-5p. Conclusions Our study identifies that the interaction loop between CREB1 and miR-181a-5p plays a crucial role in regulating the pathophysiologic features of FD BMSCs. MiR-181a-5p may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of FD.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (15) ◽  
pp. 3683
Kazuko Sakai ◽  
Marco A. De Velasco ◽  
Yurie Kura ◽  
Kazuto Nishio

Colitis is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) and can change the dynamics of gut microbiota, leading to dysbiosis and contributing to carcinogenesis. The functional interactions between colitis-associated CRC and microbiota remain unknown. In this study, colitis and CRC were induced in BALB/c mice by the administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and/or azoxymethane (AOM). Whole transcriptome profiling of normal colon was then performed, and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed enriched fatty acid metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling in the tissues from DSS/AOM mice. Additionally, immunohistochemical staining showed increased expression levels of phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein, a downstream target of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway in the inflamed mucosa of DSS/AOM mice. Fecal microbes were characterized using 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Redundancy analysis demonstrated a significant dissimilarity between the DSS/AOM group and the others. Functional analysis inferred from microbial composition showed enrichments of the sphingolipid signal and lipoarabinomannan biosynthetic pathways. This study provides additional insights into alterations associated with DSS/AOM-induced colitis and associates PI3K-Akt-mTOR, sphingolipid-signaling and lipoarabinomannan biosynthetic pathways in mouse DSS/AOM-induced colitis.

Hongjuan Song ◽  
Yuan Liu ◽  
Hui Liang ◽  
Xin Jin ◽  
Liping Liu

Accumulating evidences have revealed the dysregulated expressions and critical roles of non-coding RNAs in various malignancies, including cervical cancer. Nevertheless, our knowledge about the vast majority of non-coding RNAs is still lacking. Here we identified long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) SPINT1-AS1 as a novel cervical cancer-associated lncRNA. SPINT1-AS1 was increased in cervical cancer and correlated with advanced stage and poor prognosis. SPINT1-AS1 was a direct downstream target of miR-214, a well-known tumor suppressive microRNA (miRNA) in cervical cancer. Intriguingly, SPINT1-AS1 was also found to repress miR-214 biogenesis via binding DNM3OS, the primary transcript of miR-214. The interaction between SPINT1-AS1 and DNM3OS repressed the binding of DROSHA and DGCR8 to DNM3OS, blocked DNM3OS cleavage, and therefore repressed mature miR-214 biogenesis. The expression of SPINT1-AS1 was significantly negatively correlated with miR-214 in cervical cancer tissues, supporting the reciprocal repression between SPINT1-AS1 and miR-214 in vivo. Through downregulating mature miR-214 level, SPINT1-AS1 upregulated the expression of β-catenin, a target of miR-214. Thus, SPINT1-AS1 further activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling in cervical cancer. Functionally, SPINT1-AS1 drove cervical cancer cellular proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro, and also tumorigenesis in vivo. Deletion of the region mediating the interaction between SPINT1-AS1 and DNM3OS, overexpression of miR-214, and inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling all reversed the roles of SPINT1-AS1 in cervical cancer. Collectively, these findings identified SPINT1-AS1 as a novel cervical cancer-associated oncogenic lncRNA which represses miR-214 biogenesis and activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling, highlighting its potential as prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for cervical cancer.

2021 ◽  
Vol 218 (9) ◽  
Siyu Tan ◽  
Xiaowei Guo ◽  
Mengzhen Li ◽  
Tixiao Wang ◽  
Zehua Wang ◽  

The maturation and functional competence of natural killer (NK) cells is a tightly controlled process that relies on transcription factors (TFs). Here, we identify transcriptional repressor zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2 (Zhx2) as a novel regulator that restricts NK cell maturation and function. Mice with Zhx2 conditional deletion in NK cells (Zhx2Δ/Δ) showed accumulation of matured NK cells. Loss of Zhx2 enhanced NK cell survival and NK cell response to IL-15. Transcriptomic analysis revealed Zeb2, a key TF in NK cell terminal maturation, as a direct downstream target of Zhx2. Therapeutically, transfer of Zhx2-deficient NK cells resulted in inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis in different murine models. Our findings collectively unmask a previously unrecognized role of Zhx2 as a novel negative regulator in NK cell maturation and highlight its therapeutic potential as a promising strategy to enhance NK cell–mediated tumor surveillance.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Shaojian Lin ◽  
Weiwei Zhang ◽  
Ziwen Shi ◽  
Langping Tan ◽  
Yue Zhu ◽  

Abstract Background Our previous study shows that LINC01278 inhibits the malignant proliferation and invasion of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cells by regulating the miR-376c-3p/DNM3 axis. However, the regulation mechanism of LINC01278 expression in PTC cells is still unclear. Methods The luciferase reporter and ChIP assays were used to confirm the binding of LEF-1 to the putative promoter site of LINC01278 gene. The RNA immunoprecipitation and RNA pulldown were used to determine the enrichment of LINC01278 in β-catenin protein. The proteasome inhibitors (MG132) was used for detecting the β-catenin ubiquitination-proteasome degradation. Wnt/β-catenin specific agonists (LiCI), inhibitors (WiKI4) and TOP/FOP-flash reporter assay were used for detecting the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signal. Western blot was used to detected the expression of target proteins. Results The online PROMO algorithm determines a putative LEF-1 binding site on LINC01278 promoter, the LEF-1 binds to the putative promoter site of LINC01278 gene, and β-catenin enhances the binding of LEF-1 to the LINC01278 gene promoter. Furthermore, LINC01278 negatively regulated the protein accumulation of β-catenin in the cytoplasm, into nucleus, and ultimately inhibited the transcription of downstream target genes activated by Wnt/β-catenin signal. The results of RNA immunoprecipitation and RNA pulldown proved the direct binding of LINC01278 to β-catenin protein. In addition, the combination of LINC01278 and β-catenin promotes the β-catenin ubiquitination-proteasome degradation. Conclusion In summary, we found the transcriptional activation of LINC01278 by the β-catenin/LEF-1 transcription factor, and the negative feedback regulation of LINC01278 onβ-catenin signal.

2021 ◽  
Chun Duan ◽  
Bin Quan ◽  
Ni Wang ◽  
Jianghua Yang ◽  
Yan-Lin Yu

Abstract Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy with high morbidity. The current study aimed to explore the molecular mechannism of lncRNA SLC16A1-AS1 in the tumorigenesis of HCC.Material and Methods: The expression of SLC16A1-AS1 and miR-411 were examined in clinical HCC tissues. HCC cell lines Hep3B and Huh-7 were employed and transfected with si-SLC16A1-AS1. The correlation between SLC16A1-AS1 and miR-411 was verified by luciferase reporter assay. Cell viability was detected by CCK-8 assay. Cell migration and invasion capacity were examined by transwell assay. The protein level of MITD1 was analyzed by western blotting.Results: The expression of SLC16A1-AS1 markedly increased in HCC tissues and cell lines. Subsequent studies identified SLC16A1-AS1 as a downstream target of miR-411. In addition, SLC16A1-AS1 knockdown and miR-411 overexpression significantly stagnated progression of HCC cells. SLC16A1-AS1 knockdown also downregulated MITD1 levels. Conclusion: Our findings showed that SLC16A1-AS1 was overexpressed in HCC cells and tissues. SLC16A1-AS1 promoted the malignant characteristics of HCC cells and acted as an oncogene. Its regulatory effect may be associated with miR-411/MITD1 axis. Therefore, SLC16A1-AS1 has a potential be used as a biomarker or therapeutic target for the treatment of HCC.

2021 ◽  
Zhenchuan Liu ◽  
Shaorui Gu ◽  
Kaiqin Wu ◽  
Lei Li ◽  
Chenglai Dong ◽  

Abstract Background: Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is a mainstay systematic therapy for advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and cisplatin resistance is not uncommon and the major barrier to patient outcome improvements. circRNAs are novel noncoding RNAs that are implicated in cancer progression, but their involvement in modulating cisplatin responsiveness in ESCC remains unknown. Methods: Bioinformatics analysis was used to profile and identify the circRNAs involved in cisplatin responsiveness in ESCC. The chemo-sensitive role of cDOPEY2was confirmed both in vitro and in vivo. The molecular mechanism of cDOPEY2 was investigated by mass spectrum, immunoprecipitation and ubiquitination analyses.Results: We report that a novel circRNA (cDOPYE2, hsa_circ_0008078) was markedly downregulated in cisplatin-resistant ESCC cells (ESCC-CR) compared with parental chemosensitive cells. Re-expression of cDOPEY2 substantially enhanced the cell-killing ability of cisplatin by augmenting the apoptotic process in ESCC-GR cells, which was achieved by decreasing the abundance of the antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1. Mechanistically, we showed that cDOPEY2 acted as a protein scaffold to enhance the interaction between the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein (CPEB4) and the E3 ligase TRIM25, which in turn facilitated the ubiquitination and degradation of CPEB4. The increased Mcl-1 expression in ESCC-GR cells was dependent on the binding of CPEB4 to its untranslated mRNA, and depletion of CPEB4 mediated by cDOPEY2 reversed this effect. Rescue experiments confirmed that the critical role of cDOPEY2 in maintaining cisplatin sensitivity was dependent on the depletion of CEPB4 and its downstream target Mcl-1. Clinical and in vivo data further corroborated the significant relevance of cDOPEY2 to cisplatin responsiveness in ESCC. Conclusions: We provide evidence that cDOPEY2 inhibits CPEB4-mediated Mcl-1 translation by promoting the ubiquitination and degradation of CPEB4 to alleviate cisplatin resistance, indicating that cDOPEY2 may serve as a valuable biomarker and potential therapeutic target in ESCC.

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