positive sense
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Tobias Lutz ◽  
Gitta Langer ◽  
Cornelia Heinze

AbstractA novel dsRNA virus named “Thelonectria quadrivirus 1” (TQV1) was found in a member of the genus Thelonectria (Ascomycota), isolated from a root associated with stem collar necrosis of Fraxinus excelsior L. The complete genome of TQV1 is composed of four segments, each containing a single ORF on the positive sense RNA. The sequence of the 5´ (5´-(C/T)ACGAAAAA-3´) and 3´termini (5´AT(T/G)AGCAATG(T/C)GC(G/A)CG-3’) of dsRNA 1 (4876 bp), dsRNA 2 (4312 bp), dsRNA 3 (4158 bp), and dsRNA 4 (3933 bp) are conserved. Based on its genome organization and phylogenetic position, TQV1 is suggested to be a new member of the family Quadriviridae. This is the first report of a mycovirus infecting a member of the genus Thelonectria.

BioMed ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 27-36
Abdulrahman A. Balhaddad ◽  
Lamia Mokeem ◽  
Sharukh S. Khajotia ◽  
Fernando L. Esteban Florez ◽  
Mary A. S. Melo

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA coronavirus capable of causing potentially lethal pneumonia-like infectious diseases in mammals and birds. The main mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 spreads include airborne transmission (aerosols and droplets) and the direct exposure of tissues (conjunctival, nasal, and oral mucosa) to contaminated fluids. The aerosol formation is universal in dentistry due to the use of rotary instruments (handpieces), ultrasonic scalers, and air–water syringes. Several layers of infection control should protect key stakeholders such as dentists, dental staff, and patients. These include the utilization of personal protective equipment, high-volume evacuation systems, pre-procedural mouthwashes, rubber dam, and more recently, antimicrobial photodynamic therapy and intra-oral visible light irradiation. These non-specific light-based approaches are relatively simple, inexpensive, and effective against viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Therefore, the present perspective review discusses the current efforts and limitations on utilizing biophotonic approaches as adjunct infection control methods to prevent the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in dental settings. In addition, the present perspective review may positively impact subsequent developments in the field, as it offers relevant information regarding the intricacies and complexities of infection control in dental settings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. e202101124
Elena Rensen ◽  
Stefano Pietropaoli ◽  
Florian Mueller ◽  
Christian Weber ◽  
Sylvie Souquere ◽  

The current COVID-19 pandemic is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus contains a single linear RNA segment that serves as a template for transcription and replication, leading to the synthesis of positive and negative-stranded viral RNA (vRNA) in infected cells. Tools to visualize vRNA directly in infected cells are critical to analyze the viral replication cycle, screen for therapeutic molecules, or study infections in human tissue. Here, we report the design, validation, and initial application of FISH probes to visualize positive or negative RNA of SARS-CoV-2 (CoronaFISH). We demonstrate sensitive visualization of vRNA in African green monkey and several human cell lines, in patient samples and human tissue. We further demonstrate the adaptation of CoronaFISH probes to electron microscopy. We provide all required oligonucleotide sequences, source code to design the probes, and a detailed protocol. We hope that CoronaFISH will complement existing techniques for research on SARS-CoV-2 biology and COVID-19 pathophysiology, drug screening, and diagnostics.

Maria Grazia Di Certo ◽  
Francesca Gabanella ◽  
Christian Barbato ◽  
Nicoletta Corbi ◽  
Marco Fiore ◽  

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic dictated new priorities in biomedicine research. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus. In this pilot study, we optimized our padlock assay to visualize genomic/subgenomic regions using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded placental samples obtained from a confirmed case of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was localized in trophoblastic cells. We also checked the presence of the virion by immunolocalization of its glycoprotein spike. In addition, we imaged mitochondria of placental villi keeping in mind that the mitochondrion has been suggested as a potential residence of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Indeed, we observed a substantial overlapping of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and mitochondria in trophoblastic cells. This intriguing linkage correlated with an aberrant mitochondrial network. Overall, to our knowledge, this is the first study that provides the evidence of a co-localization of the SARS-CoV-2 genome and mitochondria in SARS-CoV-2 infected tissue. These findings also support the notion that SARS-CoV-2 infection could reprogram mitochondrial activity in highly specialized maternal/fetal interface.

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 78
Grigorios D. Amoutzias ◽  
Marios Nikolaidis ◽  
Eleni Tryfonopoulou ◽  
Katerina Chlichlia ◽  
Panayotis Markoulatos ◽  

Coronaviruses (CoVs) constitute a large and diverse subfamily of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. They are found in many mammals and birds and have great importance for the health of humans and farm animals. The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, as well as many previous epidemics in humans that were of zoonotic origin, highlights the importance of studying the evolution of the entire CoV subfamily in order to understand how novel strains emerge and which molecular processes affect their adaptation, transmissibility, host/tissue tropism, and patho non-homologous genicity. In this review, we focus on studies over the last two years that reveal the impact of point mutations, insertions/deletions, and intratypic/intertypic homologous and non-homologous recombination events on the evolution of CoVs. We discuss whether the next generations of CoV vaccines should be directed against other CoV proteins in addition to or instead of spike. Based on the observed patterns of molecular evolution for the entire subfamily, we discuss five scenarios for the future evolutionary path of SARS-CoV-2 and the COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, within this evolutionary context, we discuss the recently emerged Omicron (B.1.1.529) VoC.

2022 ◽  
pp. 708-725
Cristiano Felaco ◽  
Jacopo Nocerino ◽  
Jessica Parola ◽  
Roberta Tofani

This contribution studies the debated terms “politically correct” and “cancel culture” on Twitter and in particular investigates the meaning that people give when they label something or someone as politically correct or indicate a case of cancel culture in the Italian context, where they are not yet widespread as they are in the USA and Britain. A textual analysis of a corpus of tweets selected through a set of hashtags was carried out to identify thematic clusters to understand features and meanings given to these expressions, along with their ways of using in the various situations and contexts. The main results show different meanings of the term, in the negative sense as a limitation of freedom of speech, and in a positive sense as the exclusion of some terms that may offend some people or groups. In this case, the meaning of a word is relative and depends on the situation and context in which it is used. Furthermore, the recourse in the discourses of cancel culture is only rhetorical; there are no actions of cancellation or boycott of someone or something.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (6) ◽  
pp. 182-186
Jingyan Wang

The theme of Chinese animated films gives a rich orientation as we reach the post-epidemic age. Re-examining the expression of life in early animated films can assist encourage the viewer to build a positive outlook on life in the face of the epidemic’s impact. Chinese animated films express people’s entire view of life to some extent after experiencing the ups and downs of development, stagnation, and RE development. At the same time, in early Chinese animated films, the concept of a life full of fighting spirit and passion helps to guide the viewer in developing a positive sense of life in the post-epidemic era.

2021 ◽  
Vol 102 (12) ◽  
Merike Sõmera ◽  
Denis Fargette ◽  
Eugénie Hébrard ◽  
Cecilia Sarmiento ◽  

The family Solemoviridae includes viruses with icosahedral particles (26–34 nm in diameter) assembled on T=3 symmetry with a 4–6 kb positive-sense, monopartite, polycistronic RNA genome. Transmission of members of the genera Sobemovirus and Polemovirus occurs via mechanical wounding, vegetative propagation, insect vectors or abiotically through soil; members of the genera Polerovirus and Enamovirus are transmitted by specific aphids. Most solemoviruses have a narrow host range. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the family Solemoviridae, which is available at ictv.global/report/solemoviridae.

2021 ◽  
Hua Li ◽  
Jun Guo ◽  
ZhongHua Zhao ◽  
Zhuangxin Ye ◽  
Jianping Chen ◽  

Abstract In this work, we report the isolation of a novel positive-sense single strand RNA virus from wheat, tentatively named Triticum aestivum-associated virga-like virus 1 (TaAVLV1). Further characterization revealed that the complete genome of TaAVLV1 was divided into two segments, RNA1 and RNA2, which were 3530 and 3466 nt long, excluding the polyA tail. These segments contained two open reading frames (ORFs). The ORF in RNA1 encoded an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), while the ORF in RNA2 encoded a putative protein carrying MET and HEL domains. Phylogenetic analysis based on the RdRp protein of each representative genus of Virgaviridae placed TaAVLV1 in the unclassified Virgaviridae clade of the Virgaviridae family. To our knowledge, this is the first report of virga-like virus isolated from wheat. Future studies will be conducted to examine its effect on host growth and development.

2021 ◽  
pp. 011719682110678
Terence Chun Tat Shum

This article proposes the concept of religious asylum to examine how Christian asylum-seekers utilize religion to cope with their emotional experiences, induced by a sense of insecurity, during prolonged displacement. Drawing from interviews and ethnographic observations of people seeking asylum in Hong Kong, this research determines that asylum-seekers use religion to redefine their positive sense of self beyond their current situation, which is central to the construct of well-being. While religion supports asylum-seekers going through psychosocial distress and suffering, this discussion on religious asylum shows how asylum-seekers utilize the religiously inflected space to make the experience of prolonged displacement meaningful.

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