Hardwood Species
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Dercilio Junior Verly Lopes ◽  
Gustavo Fardin Monti ◽  
Greg W. Burgreen ◽  
Jordão Cabral Moulin ◽  
Gabrielly dos Santos Bobadilha ◽  

Microscopic wood identification plays a critical role in many economically important areas in wood science. Historically, producing and curating relevant and representative microscopic cross-section images of wood species is limited to highly experienced and trained anatomists. This manuscript demonstrates the feasibility of generating synthetic microscopic cross-sections of hardwood species. We leveraged a publicly available dataset of 119 hardwood species to train a style-based generative adversarial network (GAN). The proposed GAN generated anatomically accurate cross-section images with remarkable fidelity to actual data. Quantitative metrics corroborated the capacity of the generative model in capturing complex wood structure by resulting in a Fréchet inception distance score of 17.38. Image diversity was calculated using the Structural Similarity Index Measure (SSIM). The SSIM results confirmed that the GAN approach can successfully synthesize diverse images. To confirm the usefulness and realism of the GAN generated images, eight professional wood anatomists in two experience levels participated in a visual Turing test and correctly identified fake and actual images at rates of 48.3 and 43.7%, respectively, with no statistical difference when compared to random guess. The generative model can synthesize realistic, diverse, and meaningful high-resolution microscope cross-section images that are virtually indistinguishable from real images. Furthermore, the framework presented may be suitable for improving current deep learning models, helping understand potential breeding between species, and may be used as an educational tool.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (14) ◽  
pp. 6602
Marta Pędzik ◽  
Tomasz Rogoziński ◽  
Jerzy Majka ◽  
Kinga Stuper-Szablewska ◽  
Petar Antov ◽  

Wood dust generated during woodworking—particularly from hardwood species during sanding—poses a health and safety hazard to workers in the wood industry. This study aimed to determine the particle-size distribution of selected hardwood species and the content of fine particles in dust created during machine sanding, which pose the highest health and safety hazards in the woodworking industry. Six hardwood species were studied: black alder, European ash, common walnut, pedunculate oak, hornbeam, and European beech. The sieve analysis method was used to determine the particle-size distribution and article mean arithmetic particle diameter, and laser diffraction analysis was used to determine the finest particle content. Two size ranges were assumed: <2.5 μm and <10 μm. Beech dust had the smallest mean particle diameter. Dust from wood species used in the test had similar contents of fine fractions of particles. The average content of particles smaller than 2.5 µm in wood dust from the tested hardwood species did not exceed 1.9%. In terms of occupational exposure to wood dust, machine sanding conditions of hardwoods should be properly adjusted to limit the formation of large amounts of dust.

BioResources ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (3) ◽  
pp. 5329-5340
Xiaoxia Yang ◽  
Ziyu Zhao ◽  
Zhongmin Wang ◽  
Zhedong Ge ◽  
Yucheng Zhou

Because of the diversity of vessel pores in different hardwood species, they are important for wood species identification. In this paper, a Micro CT was used to collect wood images. The experiment was based on six wood types, Pterocarpus macrocarpus, Pterocarpus erinaceus, Dalbergia latifolia, Dalbergia frutescens var. tomentosa, Pterocarpus indicus, and Pterocarpus soyauxii. One-thousand cross-sectional images of 2042 px × 1640 px were collected for each species. One pixel represents 1.95 µm of the real physical dimension. The level set geometric active contour model was used to obtain the contour of the vessel pores. Combined with a variety of morphological processing methods, the binary images of the vessel pores were obtained. The features of the binary images were extracted for classification. Classifiers such as BP neural network and support vector machine were used, the number, roundness, area, perimeter, and other characteristic parameters of the vessel pores were classified, and the accuracy rate was more than 98.9%. The distribution and arrangement of the vessel pores of six kinds of hardwood were obtained through the level set geometric active contour model and image morphology. Then BP neural network and support vector machine were used for realizing the classification of hardwood species.

Phytotaxa ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 505 (3) ◽  
pp. 286-296

A new mushroom species from Hunnan province in China, Stropharia lignicola, is described. S. lignicola is distinguished from other species of Stropharia by its greyish yellow pileus, white stipe with recurved yellowish squamules, presence of acanthocytes in the hymenium, and association with decaying fallen wood or stumps of a hardwood species, Tilia sp. The phylogenetic analyses were based on ITS and 28S. An illustrated description of S. lignicola is provided along with a key to the Stropharia species found in China.

2021 ◽  
Vol 97 (02) ◽  
pp. 204-218
Mohammed Henneb ◽  
Gaetan Pelletier ◽  
Mathieu Fortin ◽  
Nelson Thiffault ◽  
Marie-Andrée Giroux

Natural forest regeneration after natural or anthropogenic disturbance is difficult to predict given its high variability. The process is poorly documented for commercial northern hardwood species in the Acadian forest of eastern Canada. Our objective was to identify the silvicultural, environmental, and ecological factors that best explain the variability in sapling density and occurrence of two commercial tolerant hardwood species in New Brunswick: American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.). Forty-three permanent sample plots were established in 2002 and measured before harvesting in 2004. Sapling density and occurrence were measured 14 years after harvesting. The results showed that the interactions between the species and the residual merchantable basal area and between the species and the percent of hardwoods in the original stand best explained the sapling density and occurrence variation of tolerant hardwoods. The sapling density of sugar maple increased with increasing merchantable residual basal area. However, the effect of this variable was not significant for the density of American beech saplings. The density and occurrence of tolerant hardwood saplings both increased along with the percent of hardwoods in the original stand. These results provide an improved understanding about tolerant hardwood regeneration dynamics in New Brunswick forests.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (3) ◽  
pp. 212-220
F Terrasse ◽  
L Brancheriau ◽  
R Marchal ◽  
N Boutahar ◽  
S Lotte ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 71 (3) ◽  
pp. 216-223
William Luppold ◽  
Matthew Bumgardner

Abstract In 1990, Europe, North America, and the Asian democracies of Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea (JTK) were the major export markets for U.S. hardwood lumber and oak species accounted for 59 percent of total exports. In the 1990s, shipments to Europe and North America increased, while shipments to JTK declined. During the early 2000s, exports to China and Vietnam (CHV) increased. The worldwide recession of 2009 caused exports to decline in all regions, and oak species accounted for 37 percent of total shipments that year. Since 2010, CHV has become the most important export market for all species except maple. In 2020, oak species accounted for 43 percent of total export volume, and walnut ranked third in value of shipments. An examination of imputed prices found that exports tend to be composed of mid- to higher-quality hardwood lumber. Since 1997, real prices of exported lumber have declined for most species, and this decline occurred concurrently with increased U.S. sawtimber volume. In the 1990s, increased exports expanded the market for domestically produced hardwood lumber. Since the early 2000s, increased lumber exports have partially countered reduced domestic demand and have acted as a hedge against greater declines in overall demand for U.S. hardwood lumber.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (6) ◽  
pp. 2860
Maciej Sydor ◽  
Radosław Mirski ◽  
Kinga Stuper-Szablewska ◽  
Tomasz Rogoziński

We hypothesized that the type of wood, in combination with the grit size of sandpapers, would affect sanding efficiency. Fixed factors were used in the experiment (a belt sander with pressure p = 3828 Pa, and a belt speed of vs = 14.5 m/s) as well as variable factors (three sand belts (P60, P120, P180), six hardwood species (beech, oak, ash, hornbeam, alder, walnut) and three softwood species (pine, spruce, larch)). The masses of the test samples were measured until they were completely sanded. The sanding efficiency of hardwood species is less variable than for softwood species. Maximum sanding efficiency for the softwood ranged from 1 to 2 min, while for the hardwood species, it ranged from 2 to 4.5 min at the start of sanding and then decreased. The average time for complete sanding of the softwood samples was: 87 s (P60), 150 s (P120), and 188 s (P180). For hardwood, these times were 2.4, 1.5, and 1.8 times longer. The results indicate that the factors determining sanding efficiency are the type of wood, and, secondly, the grit size of sanding belts. In the first phase of blunting with the sanding belts, the sanding processes of hardwood and softwood are significantly different. In the second phase of blunting, sanding belts with higher grit numbers (P120 and P180) behaved similarly while sanding hardwood and softwood.

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