beech wood
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2022 ◽  
Svetlana Butylina ◽  
Krista Koljonen ◽  
Salla Hiltunen ◽  
Katri Laatikainen

Abstract Valorisation of bio-based materials derived from agricultural and industrial side-streams or waste-streams is a basis of circular economy. However, the success of it depends on the full understanding of materials and finding their optimal way of processing. Barley husk is a side-stream waste material derived from the starch and ethanol production. This study is focused on the processability of the arabinoxylan extracted from barley husk using the electrospinning technique to produce thin xylan-poly(vinyl alcohol) fibers. As a comparison, lignin-free xylan of beech wood was used. The properties of spinning solutions and resulting nanofibrous mats were assessed by using rheological measurements, FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurements. It was found that solubility plays a crucial role in the spinnability of xylan extracts. Decrease in viscosity of arabinoxylan achieved by decreasing its concentration was found to improve the jet stability but at the same time, to reduce the diameter of spun fibre. Hydrophilicity of nanofibrous mats were strongly affected by the type of xylan and solvent used.

Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 77
Mitja Plos ◽  
Barbara Fortuna ◽  
Tamara Šuligoj ◽  
Goran Turk

The aim of the present paper is to assess the non-destructive indicating properties of Slovenian beech (Fagus sylvatica) logs and correlate them with the mechanical properties of the final product, which is boards. Beech logs were visually graded according to the standard procedure and vibrational frequencies were measured. Logs were further on sawn into boards which were also non-destructively tested in wet and dry conditions. Finally, the boards were experimentally tested in tension. Special focus was directed towards visual parameters of the beech logs and their influence on the overall quality of the output material. The longitudinal natural frequencies of the logs were studied as potential indicating properties. The results showed that a majority of the visual log grading parameters do not result in good quality timber in terms of strength and stiffness properties, and only few are decisive for the final classification. The coefficient of determination of the static MOE vs. dynamic MOE of logs was r2=0.13, whereas vs. the MOE of wet boards was r2=0.49. Using a few visual characteristics in combination with dynamic measurements of logs and of wet boards could help to increase the yield of high quality beech wood.

2021 ◽  
Vol 116 ◽  
pp. 111-122
Ewa Dobrowolska ◽  
Andrzej Klimczak

Temperature distribution in beech wood during vacuum drying. The temperature distribution and changes in humidity in beech wood in the form of friezes during drying in a vacuum were analysed. The intensity of the occurring phenomena of desorption and the volumetric flow of moisture through the anatomical structures of the wood, depending on the absolute pressure and the temperature of the process, was determined. It was found that the fastest temperature increase took place in the subsurface layers directly adjacent to the heating plates. The introduction of conditioning between the drying phases made it possible to even out the humidity and temperature distribution in the entire element. On the basis of the analysis of changes taking place between the volumes of the three components of wood, it was found that the volume of moisture in the form of vapor removed in the initial phase of drying is over 20 times greater than the volume of voids in wood structures, and in the following phases it decreases to 0.27. The average volume of vapour removed from 1 m3 of wood at the temperature of 55℃ is 13.9 m3/h, decreasing in the following phases to 9.1 m3/h at the drying temperature of 60℃ and then 3.1 m3/h at the temperature of 65℃. The drying rates for these phases reach the value of 0.15%/h, 0.17%/h and 0.075%/h, respectively. Direct measurements of wood moisture, made during the experimental course of the drying process at an absolute pressure of 150 hPa, follow the equivalent moisture, determined on the basis of the Hailwood-Horrobin model, taking into account the appropriate calculation factors.

Holzforschung ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Adèle J. Chabert ◽  
Emmanuel Fredon ◽  
Romain Rémond

Abstract The improvement of durability and dimensional stability of wood properties via modification of the microstructure and wood–water interaction has been widely utilised. This study investigated polyester treatments, a possible alternative, using environmentally friendly chemicals such as malic acid to improve the beech wood (Fagus sylvatica) properties. The modified properties have been studied with four treatments using malic acid, glycerol, butanediol and succinic anhydride, mixing polycarboxylic acids and polyols. Results showed that the anti-swelling-efficiency (ASE) improved up to 70%, and the bulking coefficient improved around 23%, exhibiting an efficient penetration within the cell walls. The leaching rates (LR) of treatments and the extractables remained low, between 0.05 and 2.4%. The equilibrium moisture content (EMC) decreased by 50% for the four treatments, compared to untreated beech wood.

Maria Cristina TIMAR ◽  
Julia BUCHNER ◽  
Dana M. POP ◽  
Mark IRLE ◽  

The present research investigates the antifungal efficiency of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) essential oil (C-EO) combined with linseed oil (LO) at different concentrations (1%, 5%, 10%) using two types of mycological tests: a qualitative screening test by agar diffusion method and a quantitative mini-block test on treated beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood.The agar diffusion test indicated improved protection of wood should be possible with a mixture of C-EO and LO from a concentration of 5%. In contrast, the mini-block test indicated that wood is partially protect by LO alone and that adding increasing quantities of C-EO gradually reduces this protection.One possible explanation of this unexpected result could be the antioxidant effect of C-EO which could negatively interfere in the oxidative curing process of LO. ESEM investigation revealed the penetration of LO and C-EO/LO mixtures into the wood structure and non-uniform fungal colonization of all the samples exposed to Postia placenta, as well as some characteristic features of consequent wood structure degradation, which was found more advanced for the untreated beech wood samples.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (24) ◽  
pp. 7604
Michal Zgrzebnicki ◽  
Agnieszka Kałamaga ◽  
Rafal Wrobel

The aim of this study was to prepare activated carbon materials with different porous structures. For this purpose, the biomass precursor, beech wood, was carbonized in an inert atmosphere, and the obtained charcoal was physically activated using carbon dioxide at 1273 K. Different porous structures were obtained by controlling the time of the activation process. Prepared materials were characterized in terms of textural (N2 sorption at 77 K), structural (XRD), and sorption properties (CO2, C2H4, C4H10). The shortest activation time resulted in a mostly microporous structure, which provided a high sorption of CO2. Increasing the activation time led to an increasing of the pores’ diameters. Therefore, the highest ethene uptake was obtained for the material with an intermediate activation time, while the highest butane uptake was obtained for the material with the highest activation time.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (24) ◽  
pp. 7616
Georg Baumann ◽  
Reinhard Brandner ◽  
Ulrich Müller ◽  
Alexander Stadlmann ◽  
Florian Feist

In order to use wood for structural and load-bearing purposes in mechanical engineering, basic information on the impact behaviour of the material over a wide temperature range is needed. Diffuse porous hardwoods such as solid birch wood (Betula pendula) and solid beech wood (Fagus sylvatica) are particularly suited for the production of engineered wood products (EWPs) such as laminated veneer lumber (LVL) or plywood due to their processability in a veneer peeling process. In the frame of this study, solid birch wood and solid beech wood samples (300 × 20 × 20 mm3) were characterised by means of an impact pendulum test setup (working capacity of 150 J) at five temperature levels, ranging from −30 °C to +90 °C. The pendulum hammer (mass = 15 kg) was equipped with an acceleration sensor in order to obtain the acceleration pulse and deceleration force besides the impact bending energy. In both solid birch wood and solid beech wood, the deceleration forces were highest at temperatures at and below zero. While the average impact bending energy for solid birch wood remained almost constant over the whole considered temperature range, it was far less stable and prone to higher scattering for solid beech wood.

Fuel ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 306 ◽  
pp. 121724
Junhui Gong ◽  
Chunjie Zhai ◽  
Zhirong Wang

Jan Baar ◽  
Petr Hrdlička ◽  
Peter Rademacher ◽  
Jiří Volánek ◽  
Radim Rousek ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 72 (4) ◽  
pp. 353-363
Huseyin Pelit ◽  
Ali Alkan ◽  
Mesut Yalcin

In this study, the effect of impregnation with natural extracts on decay resistance and color change of pine and beech wood was analyzed. Flowers of Rhododendron luteum and Rhododendron ponticum plants were extracted according to the decoction method and aqueous solutions were prepared at different concentration levels (2 %, 4 % and 7 %). In addition, ferrous sulfate, copper sulfate and aluminum sulfate mordants were added to the solution to improve the properties of the extracts. Then the wood specimens were impregnated with the prepared solutions. The results indicated that the effect of plant species on the mass loss of specimens exposed to T. versicolor (white-rot fungus) was insignificant. Non-mordant extracts had a slight effect on the mass loss of the specimens. However, in pine and beech specimens impregnated with mordant-added (especially ferrous sulfate-added) extracts, mass loss was significantly reduced and resistance to fungal rot was almost completely achieved. The concentration level did not have a significant effect on the mass loss of specimens treated with mordant-added extracts. After impregnation, the L* value of all specimens (especially those treated with ferrous sulfate-added extracts) decreased and the specimens darkened. The a* and b* values increased in specimens treated with non-mordant and aluminum sulfate-added extracts and these specimens tend to have a red-yellow color. The a* value decreased and the b* value increased in wood specimens treated with copper sulfate-added extracts. The green-yellow color trend of these specimens increased. Both the a* and b* values of the specimens treated with ferrous sulfate-added extracts decreased and the green-blue color tendency increased in these specimens. The increase in the concentration level positively affected the determined color changes. The total color change (ΔE*) was higher in wood specimens (especially pine) treated with ferrous sulfate-added R. ponticum extracts.

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