Product Removal
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2021 ◽  
Xabier Barriola

AbstractThe relationship between innovation and competition has been vastly studied over the past fifty years. However, one piece of the puzzle that has not been studied in detail is how in certain industries competition has an effect in the number of products that are removed from the market. That is why in this paper, I use scanner data to analyze the effect of competition on product removal. In particular, I track sales in the beer industry across a set of 1107 over a period of four years. Following previous studies, I use the merger between SABMiller and Molson Coors as an unexpected change in the industry to estimate future market concentration. I find that there is a negative relationship between removal and concentration. Therefore, retailers decide to remove products from their shelves in a faster way when the market is more competitive to open the gates for a more dynamic assortment.

Catalysts ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 973
Natàlia Alcover ◽  
Gregorio Álvaro ◽  
Marina Guillén

Asymmetric synthesis of chiral amines from prochiral ketones using transaminases is an attractive biocatalytic strategy. Nevertheless, it is hampered by its unfavorable thermodynamic equilibrium. In the present work, an insitu by-product removal strategy was applied for the synthesis of 3-amino-1-phenylbutane (3-APB) by coupling a transaminase with a pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), which does not require the use of any expensive additional cofactor. Using this strategy, the pyruvate obtained in the transamination reaction is transformed by PDC into acetaldehyde and CO2 which are of high volatility. Two different transaminases from Chromobacterium violaceum (CviTA) and Vibrio fluvialis (VflTA) were characterized to find out the appropriate pH conditions. In both cases, the addition of PDC dramatically enhanced 3-APB synthesis. Afterwards, different reaction conditions were tested to improve reaction conversion and yield. It was concluded that 30 °C and a 20-fold alanine excess lead to the best process metrics. Under the mentioned conditions, yields higher than 60% were reached with nearly 90% selectivity using both CviTA and VflTA. Moreover, high stereoselectivity for (S)-3-APB was obtained and ee of around 90% was achieved in both cases. For the first time, the asymmetric synthesis of 3-APB using PDC as by-product removal system using CviTA is reported.

Ramona Achermann ◽  
Viktoria Wiedmeyer ◽  
Mercedeh Sadat Hosseinalipour ◽  
Selin Güngör ◽  
Marco Mazzotti

2021 ◽  
Yuqiu Chen ◽  
Nipun Garg ◽  
Hao Luo ◽  
Georgios M. Kontogeorgis ◽  
John M. Woodley

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (2) ◽  
pp. 757-769
Kiran Mathew Thomas ◽  
Soojin Kwon ◽  
Richard Lakerveld

2021 ◽  
Kevin Mack ◽  
Moritz Doeker ◽  
Laura Grabowski ◽  
Andreas Jupke ◽  
Dörte Rother

Vicinal amino alcohols such as metaraminol find direct application in pharmaceuticals and serve as building blocks for fine chemicals. The amine transaminase enzyme can facilitate the stereoselective production of such...

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