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Amina Unis ◽  
Amany Abdelbary ◽  

Gentamicin induced acute nephrotoxicity (GIAN) is considered as one of the important causes of acute renal failure. In recent years’ great effort has been focused on the introduction of herbal medicine as a novel therapeutic agent for prevention of GIAN. Hence, the current study was designed to investigate the effect of green coffee bean extract (GCBE) on GIAN in rats. Results of the present study showed that rat groups that received oral GCBE for 7 days after induction of GIAN (by a daily intraperitoneal injection of gentamicin for 7days), reported a significant improvement in renal functions tests when compared to the GIAN model groups. Moreover, there was significant amelioration in renal oxidative stress markers (renal malondialdehyde, renal superoxide dismutase) and renal histopathological changes in the GCBE-treated groups when compared to GIAN model group. These results indicate that GCBE has a potential role in ameliorating renal damage involved in GIAN.

2022 ◽  
Vol 807 ◽  
pp. 150753
Rong Zhong ◽  
Heng He ◽  
Meng Jin ◽  
Zequn Lu ◽  
Yao Deng ◽  

2022 ◽  
Nienke Willemsen ◽  
Isabel Arigoni ◽  
Maja Studencka-Turski ◽  
Elke Krüger ◽  
Alexander Bartelt

Objective: Regulation of proteasomal activity is an essential component of cellular proteostasis and function. This is evident in patients with mutations in proteasome subunits and regulators, who suffer from proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndromes (PRAAS). These patients display lipodystrophy and fevers, which may be partly related to adipocyte malfunction and abnormal thermogenesis in adipose tissue. However, the cell-intrinsic pathways that could underlie these symptoms are unclear. Here, we investigate the impact of two proteasome subunits implicated in PRAAS, Psmb4 and Psmb8, on differentiation, function and proteostasis of brown adipocytes. Methods: In immortalized mouse brown pre-adipocytes, levels of Psmb4, Psmb8, and downstream effectors genes were downregulated through reverse transfection with siRNA. Adipocytes were differentiated and analyzed with various assays of adipogenesis, lipogenesis, lipolysis, inflammation, and respiration. Results: Loss of Psmb4, but not Psmb8, disrupted proteostasis and adipogenesis. Proteasome function was reduced upon Psmb4 loss, but partly recovered by the activation of Nuclear factor, erythroid-2, like-1 (Nfe2l1). In addition, cells displayed higher levels of surrogate inflammation and stress markers, including Activating transcription factor-3 (Atf3). Simultaneous silencing of Psmb4 and Atf3 lowered inflammation and restored adipogenesis. Conclusions: Our study shows that Psmb4 is required for adipocyte development and function in cultured adipocytes. These results imply that in humans with PSMB4 mutations, PRAAS-associated lipodystrophy is partly caused by disturbed adipogenesis. While we uncover a role for Nfe2l1 in the maintenance of proteostasis under these conditions, Atf3 is a key effector of inflammation and blocking adipogenesis. In conclusion, our work highlights how proteasome dysfunction is sensed and mitigated by the integrated stress response in adipocytes with potential relevance for PRAAS patients and beyond.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Saad Mohamed Asseri ◽  
Nehal M. Elsherbiny ◽  
Mohamed El-Sherbiny ◽  
Iman O. Sherif ◽  
Alsamman M. Alsamman ◽  

AbstractThe burden of diabetes mellitus (DM) and associated complications is increasing worldwide, affecting many organ functionalities including submandibular glands (SMG). The present study aims to investigate the potential ameliorative effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA) on diabetes-induced SMG damage. Experimental evaluation of GA treatment was conducted on a rat model of type I diabetes. Animals were assigned to three groups; control, diabetic and GA treated diabetic groups. After 8 weeks, the SMG was processed for assessment of oxidative stress markers, autophagy related proteins; LC3, Beclin-1 and P62, vascular regulator ET-1, aquaporins (AQPs 1.4 and 5), SIRT1 protein expressions in addition to LC3 and AQP5 mRNA expressions. Also, parenchymal structures of the SMG were examined. GA alleviated the diabetes-induced SMG damage via restoring the SMG levels of oxidative stress markers and ET-1 almost near to the normal levels most probably via regulation of SIRT1, AQPs and accordingly LC-3, P62 and Beclin-1levels. GA could be a promising candidate for the treatment of diabetes-induced SMG damage via regulating oxidative stress, autophagy and angiogenesis.

F1000Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 1161
Mirasari Putri ◽  
Bening Mauliddina Rastiarsa ◽  
Raden Aliya T. M. Djajanagara ◽  
Ghaliby Ardhia Ramli ◽  
Neni Anggraeni ◽  

Background: Sepsis causes several immunological and metabolic alterations that induce oxidative stress. The modulation of fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) has been shown to worsen this condition. Extract of cogon grass root (ECGR) contains flavonoids and isoeugenol compounds that exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. This study aimed to assess the effects of ECGR on FABP4 and oxidative stress–related factors in a sepsis mouse model. Methods: Twenty-nine male mice (Mus musculus) of the Deutsche Denken Yoken strain were divided into four groups: group 1, control; group 2, mice treated with 10 μL/kg body weight (BW) lipopolysaccharide (LPS); and groups 3 and 4, mice pre-treated with 90 and 115 mg/kg BW, respectively, and then treated with 10 μL/kg BW LPS for 14 d. Blood, liver, lymph, and cardiac tissue samples were collected and subjected to histological and complete blood examinations. Antioxidant (Glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) and superoxide dismutase), FABP4 levels, and immune system-associated biomarker levels (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β ) were measured. Results: Significant increases in platelet levels (p = 0.03), cardiomyocyte counts (p =0.004), and hepatocyte counts (p = 0.0004) were observed in group 4 compared with those in group 2. Conversely, compared with those in group 2, there were significant decreases in TNF-α expression in group 3 (p = 0.004), white pulp length and width in group 4 (p = 0.001), FABP4 levels in groups 3 and 4 (p = 0.015 and p = 0.012, respectively), lymphocyte counts in group 4 (p = 0.009), and monocyte counts (p = 0.000) and polymorphonuclear cell counts in the livers (p = 0.000) and hearts (p = 0.000) of groups 3 and 4. GPx3 activity was significantly higher in group 3 than in group 1 (p = 0.04). Conclusions: ECGR reduces FABP4 level and modulating oxidative stress markers in sepsis mouse model.

Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 168
Fahad Alqarni ◽  
Hala S. Eweis ◽  
Ahmed Ali ◽  
Aziza Alrafiah ◽  
Mohammed Alsieni ◽  

Valproic acid (VPA) has toxic metabolites that can elevate oxidative stress markers, and the hepatotoxicity of VPA has been reported. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is one of the most widely used antioxidants. The effect of CoQ10 on epileptogenesis and VPA hepatotoxicity were examined. Rats were randomly divided into five groups: the control group received 0.5% methylcellulose by oral gavages daily and saline by intraperitoneal injection three times weekly. The PTZ group received 1% methylcellulose by gavages daily and 30 mg/kg PTZ by intraperitoneal injection three times weekly. The valproic acid group received 500 mg/kg valproic acid by gavage and 30 mg/kg PTZ, as above. The CoQ10 group received 200 mg/kg CoQ10 by gavages daily and 30 mg/kg PTZ, as above. The Valproic acid + CoQ10 group received valproic acid and CoQ10, as above. Results: CoQ10 exhibited anticonvulsant activity and potentiated the anticonvulsant effect of VPA. CoQ10 combined with VPA induced a more significant reduction in oxidative stress and improved the histopathological changes in the brain and liver compared to VPA treatment. In addition, CoQ10 reduced the level of toxic VPA metabolites. These findings suggest that the co-administration of CoQ10 with VPA in epilepsy might have therapeutic potential by increasing antiepileptic activity and reducing the hepatotoxicity of VPA.

Shiny Joy ◽  
P. Eswara Prasad ◽  
K. Padmaja ◽  
K. Adilaxamamma ◽  
V. Chengalva Rayulu ◽  

Background: A study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and immunological profile of methanolic extract of Adhatoda vasica leaves (AVE) in naturally infected sheep with gastrointestinal nematodes and compared with commonly used anthelmintic albendazole in sheep. Methods: Fifty four sheep found positive for gastrointestinal nematodes were divided into 3 equal groups, GI (infected-untreated: control), GII (infected- AVE treated) and GIII (infected- albendazole treated). Blood samples were drawn on 5th and 14th day after treatment for analysis of oxidative stress markers such as TBARS, TAC, SOD and catalase and immunological parameters such as total immunoglobulin, IgG and IL-10. Result: Helminthiasis in sheep cause a considerable oxidative stress. The anthelmintic activity of Adhatoda vasica surpassed the conventional synthetic drug albendazole in sheep in terms of oxidative and immunological changes in blood.

2022 ◽  
Dalia M Mabrouk ◽  
Aida El makawy ◽  
Kawkab A Ahmed ◽  
Faten M Ibrahim

Abstract Background: Topamax® ® has multiple pharmacological mechanisms that are efficient to treat epilepsy and migraine. Ginger has been demonstrated to have gingerols and shogaols compounds that proven to cross the blood-brain barrier causing migraine relief, implying that it is useful in the treatment of migraines. Moreover, Topamax has many off-label uses. So it was necessary to explore the possible neurotoxicity of Topamax®, Ginger oil and their interaction in the mice brain. Methods and Results: Male mice were orally gavage with Topamax®, ginger oil (400mg/kg), and Topamax® plus ginger oil with the same pattern for one month. Oxidative stress markers, acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α), were analyzed in brain tissue. Histopathological examination by hematoxylin and eosin, immunohistochemical glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and Bax expression analysis were done. The mRNA levels of GABAAR subunits, Gabra1, Gabra3, and Gabra5 were evaluated by RT qPCR. The analysis of data revealed that Topamax® elevated the levels of oxidative stress markers, neurotransmitters, TNF-α, and diminished the level of glutathione reduced (GSH). Topamax® exhibited various neuropathological alterations, strong Bax expression, and GFAP immune-reactivity in the cerebral cortex. The interaction effect of Topamax® plus ginger oil attenuated the changes induced by Topamax® in the abovementioned parameters. Both Topamax® and ginger oil upregulated the mRNA expression of gabra1 and gabra3 while their interaction markedly downregulated them. Conclusion: We can conclude that the Topamax® overdose could possibly cause neurotoxicity, but the interaction with ginger oil can reduce Topamax® -induced neurotoxicity and should be taken in parallel.

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