The fasting and stress associated with road transportation contributes to a lack of energy and a decline in the immune system of beef cattle. Therefore, it is essential for beef cattle to enhance energy reserves before transportation. Creatine pyruvate (CrPyr) is a new multifunctional nutrient that can provide both pyruvate and creatine, which are two intermediate products of energy metabolism. To investigate the effects of transport and rumen-protected (RP)-CrPyr on the blood biochemical parameters and rumen fluid characteristics of beef cattle, twenty male Simmental crossbred cattle (659 ± 16 kg) aged 18 months were randomly allocated to four groups (n = 5) using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two RP-CrPyr supplemental levels (0 or 140 g/d) and two transport treatments (5 min or 12 h): T_CrPyr140, T_CrPyr0, NT_CrPyr140, and NT_CrPyr0. After feeding for 30 days, three cattle per treatment were slaughtered.
Compared with nontransport, transport decreased the total antioxidant capacity, catalase activity, contents of IgA, interferon γ, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 in serum, and the amounts of total volatile fatty acids (TVFA), acetate, and butyrate in rumen (P < 0.05); increased the serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) level, contents of rumen LPS and ammonia nitrogen (P < 0.05). RP-CrPyr supplementation decreased the levels of cortisol and LPS in serum and the butyrate concentration in the rumen of beef cattle compared with those in the unsupplemented groups (P < 0.05). RP-CrPyr and transport interaction had a significant effect on the contents of serum tumour necrosis factor-α, IL-6, LPS, ruminal pH, acetate content, and acetate/propionate (P < 0.05). In terms of ruminal bacterial composition, group T_CrPyr0 increased the Prevotella genus abundance compared with group NT_CrPyr0 (P < 0.05), while group T_CrPyr140 increased Firmicutes phylum abundance and decreased Bacteroidetes phylum and genus Prevotella abundance compared with group T_CrPyr0 (P < 0.05). Moreover, Bacteroidetes was positively correlated with serum LPS.
These results indicated that dietary supplementation with RP-CrPyr might be beneficial to alleviate transport stress by decreasing serum cortisol and LPS levels and promoting the restoration of the rumen natural flora.
The use of salivary biomarkers has garnered attention because the composition of saliva reflects the body’s physiological state. Saliva contains a wide range of components, including peptides, nucleic acids, electrolytes, enzymes, and hormones. It has been reported that salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol are biomarkers of stress related biomarker in diseased dogs; however, evaluation of salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol pre- and post- operation has not been studied yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol levels in dogs before and after they underwent surgery and investigate the association between the salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol activity and pain intensity. For this purpose, a total of 35 dogs with disease-related pain undergoing orthopedic and soft tissue surgeries were recruited. Alpha-amylase and cortisol levels in the dogs’ saliva and serum were measured for each using a commercially available canine-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, and physical examinations (measurement of heart rate and blood pressure) were performed. In addition, the dogs’ pre- and post-operative pain scores determined using the short form of the Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale (CMPS-SF) were evaluated.
After surgery, there was a significant decrease in the dogs’ pain scores (0.4-fold for the CMPS-SF, p < 0.001) and serum cortisol levels (0.73-fold, p < 0.01). Based on their pre-operative CMPS-SF scores, the dogs were included in either a high-pain-score group or a low-pain-score group. After the dogs in the high-pain-score group underwent surgical intervention, there was a significant decrease in their CMPS-SF scores and levels of salivary alpha-amylase, serum alpha-amylase, and serum cortisol. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between salivary alpha-amylase levels and CMPS-SF scores in both the high- and low-pain-score groups.
The measurement of salivary alpha amylase can be considered an important non-invasive tool for the evaluation of pain-related stress in dogs.
Fly infestation remains a universal problem for dairy cattle herds, affecting the animals’ health and welfare status. Pre-weaned dairy calves are significantly challenged by the direct and indirect consequences of severe fly infestation, heat-stress and their interaction, which contribute to a stressful and fatiguing environment. Among several physiological, behavioral, clinical and biochemical traits, serum cortisol (SC) and creatine kinase (CK) levels, as well as feed consumption can be used as valid indicators of potential stressful and fatiguing conditions and, therefore, can be efficiently used for stress analysis studies. Hence, the objective of the study was to assess the fly-repellency effect of deltamethrin on pre-weaned dairy calves exposed to heat stress conditions, as well as its association with SC, CK concentrations and feed consumption. Two commercial dairy cattle herds of the Holstein breed in Central Macedonia (Greece) were involved in the study during summer months and under heat stress conditions. Deltamethrin administration resulted in (i) a decreased fly population (100% Musca domestica) landing on pre-weaned dairy calves, (ii) a reduced SC (stress indicator) and CK (fatigue indicator) concentration, and (iii) an increased consumption of feedstuff in deltamethrin treated animals compared to the untreated ones.
Background: Horses are herd animals that have been domesticated in the last century. In several countries, an overview of risk factors and clinical evaluation in horses with colic has not been well‐described. This study aimed to evaluate risk factors and hematological profiles in horses associated with colic in Gresik, East Java, Indonesia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed during April - October 2019. A total of 115 horses were diagnosed based on physical examination, clinical symptoms, and rectal examination. A questionnaire was asked to the horse-owners to analyze the risk factors while the clinical examination was performed and blood samples were collected for pre-treatment and 14 days post-treatment. Hematological profile was evaluated from a whole blood sample. Serum cortisol, plasma epinephrine, and norepinephrine concentrations were also evaluated after separating the aliquots. Results: Of the 115 horses, 96 were diagnosed with colic. The horses with colic showed a significant association between cases with gender (p<0.021), breed (p<0.000), wheat bran feeding (p<0.015), concentrate feeding (p<0.003), anthelmintics administration (p<0.000), gastrointestinal parasites (p<0.000), dental diseases (p<0.024), previous exposure to colic (p<0.000), body condition score (p<0.000), and access to water per day (p<0.000). Based on whole blood and serum evaluation, there were ameliorated significantly on the hematological profile (p<0.01), serum cortisol (p<0.05), and plasma epinephrine (p<0.01) at 14 days post-treatment. Conclusion: This study has identified factors associated with colic in Delman horses. The study provides crucial information to investigate cases of colic and to contribute the development of healthcare strategies during treatment and clinical evaluation.
Introduction. Transsphenoidal adenomectomy (TSA) is the method of choice in the treatment of Cushing’s disease (CD), but remission of hypercorticism cannot be achieved in all patients. The search for predictors of CD remission after TSA remains to be an important challenge in the endocrinology today.Aim. To study the preoperative and postoperative data of patients with CD to identify the predictors of hypercorticism remission after TSA.Materials and methods. 101 patients with confirmed CD after TSA were included. One year after operation all patients were examined for the presence of hypercorticism remission and divided into two groups: with CD remission and its absence. In both groups’ preoperative pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, the results of preoperative high dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDDST) and the results of serum cortisol collected in the morning 2–3 days after surgery were compared.Results. One year after TSA, CD remission was confirmed in 63 patients (62.4%), whereas in 38 patients (37.6%) hypercortisolism persisted. Favorable predictors of CD remission were: the adenoma size > 3 mm without the invasive growth according to pituitary MRI (specificity 82.4%, sensitivity 82.8%), serum cortisol suppression ≥ 74% in preoperative HDDST (specificity 81.5%, sensitivity 86.3%), morning serum cortisol level in 2–3 days after surgery ≤ 388 nmol/l (specificity 79.3%, sensitivity 97.4%).Conclusions. Pituitary MRI data, the results of preoperative HDDST and morning serum cortisol in the 2–3 days after surgery can be used as predictors of CD remission.
Purpose: To conduct a comprehensive monitoring of bulls of different breeds in the summer in a comparative perspective to the study of protein-lipid and mineral metabolism, as well as to determine hormonal status on the content of endogenous hormones: testosterone, estradiol, cortisol and serum thyroxine per day taking seed.Materials and methods. For the first time in a Chernozem region of the Russian Federation (Voronezh region) was carried out comprehensive monitoring of bulls of red-motley Holstein (n = 16), Red-and-White (n = 8) and Simmental (n = 6) rocks in the same time of year (summer) of the protein-lipid and mineral metabolism, as well as the level of endogenous hormone (testosterone, estradiol, cortisol, thyroxine) and their cholesterol precursor in comparative aspect, immediately after taking the seed. Age range bulls ranged from 2 to 11 years. General monitoring was conducted on 23 indices of blood serum 3 rocks. The studies were conducted by modern methods, using modern equipment and reagents.Results. At Red Pied Holsteins an increase of total protein 100.45 g / L versus 92 g / l in normal (above the norm of 9.2%, as compared with red and White breed at the level of 11.3%). A similar increase in concentration in the blood of Holstein bulls red-White breed recorded on globulins, 68.87 g / l to 63 g / l in normal (above the norm of 9.3%), and with respect to the red-and-White breed 17, 6%. Also notes the high content of AST bulls red-motley Holstein against the red-and-White 18%, but within the reference range. Condition protein and lipid metabolism in sires only differed in content of creatinine, which amounted to 165.04 micromol / l against 163 mmol / l in normal, 1.6% higher as compared to the red and white breed this index was higher 18.7%. According to the content of testosterone highest rate was observed in bulls red-White breed 54.73 ± 9.51 nmol / l, is 10.2% more than in bulls red checkered-Holstein and 12.45% compared with Simmental breed. Similarly, in terms of serum cortisol - 355.60 ± 39.2 nmol / l in the red-bulls White breed that more than 2-fold compared with bulls Red Pied Holstein and Simmental. The difference is statistically significant at P ≤ 0,01. According to the content of estradiol relatively low levels recorded in the bulls of red-motley breed - 0.265 nmol / L vs. 0.301 nmol / L in red bulls-motley Holstein, and 0.332 nmol / L - Simmental, is lower by 13.6% and 25 , 3%, respectively.Conclusion. It was found that substantially all of the studied parameters in bulls 3 breeds are at reference values, and this gives grounds to assume that all of these breeds are well adapted to the conditions of Black Soil.
Endocrine dysfunction is common in critically ill children and is manifested by abnormalities in glucose, thyroid hormone, and cortisol metabolism.
To develop consensus criteria for endocrine dysfunction in critically ill children by assessing the association of various biomarkers with clinical and functional outcomes.
PubMed and Embase were searched from January 1992 to January 2020.
We included studies in which researchers evaluated critically ill children with abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, thyroid function and adrenal function, performance characteristics of assessment and/or scoring tools to screen for endocrine dysfunction, and outcomes related to mortality, organ-specific status, and patient-centered outcomes. Studies of adults, premature infants or animals, reviews and/or commentaries, case series with sample size ≤10, and non–English-language studies were excluded.
Data extraction and risk-of-bias assessment for each eligible study were performed by 2 independent reviewers.
The systematic review supports the following criteria for abnormal glucose homeostasis (blood glucose [BG] concentrations >150 mg/dL [>8.3 mmol/L] and BG concentrations <50 mg/dL [<2.8 mmol/L]), abnormal thyroid function (serum total thyroxine [T4] <4.2 μg/dL [<54 nmol/L]), and abnormal adrenal function (peak serum cortisol concentration <18 μg/dL [500 nmol/L]) and/or an increment in serum cortisol concentration of <9 μg/dL (250 nmol/L) after adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation.
These included variable sampling for BG measurements, limited reporting of free T4 levels, and inconsistent interpretation of adrenal axis testing.
We present consensus criteria for endocrine dysfunction in critically ill children that include specific measures of BG, T4, and adrenal axis testing.
Castration is a routine procedure performed on beef and dairy operations in the U.S. All methods of castration cause behavioral, physiologic, and neuroendocrine changes associated with pain. The American Veterinary Medical Association and the American Association of Bovine Practitioners recommend that anesthesia and analgesia be administered at castration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of bupivacaine liposome suspension a novel, long-acting, local anesthetic administered as a nerve block at castration. The authors chose to investigate this novel formulation as an alternative to current industry standards using lidocaine nerve blocks alone, or in combination with meloxicam. Thirty male Holstein calves, 16-20 weeks of age, were enrolled and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups prior to surgical castration: 1) bupivacaine liposome suspension block + oral placebo (BUP); 2) lidocaine block + oral placebo (LID); 3) lidocaine block + oral meloxicam (1 mg/kg) (LID + MEL); and 4) saline block + oral placebo (CON). Biomarkers were collected at -24 h and from 0 to 120 hours post-castration and included infrared thermography, pressure mat gait analysis, chute defense and behavior scoring (pain and activity), and blood sampling for serum cortisol and prostaglandin E2 metabolites (PGEM). Responses were analyzed using repeated measures, with calf nested in treatment as a random effect, and treatment, time, and their interaction designated as fixed effects. Results from pressure mat gait analysis show the CON had a shorter front limb stance time from baseline (-8.73%; 95% CI: -24.84 to 7.37%) compared to BUP and LID + MEL (> 5.70%; 95% CI: -22.91 to 23.79%) (P < 0.03). The CON tended to have an increase in front limb force from baseline (6.31%; 95% CI: -1.79 to 14.41%) compared to BUP, LID, and LID + MEL (< -5.06%; 95% CI: -14.22 to 0.95%) (P < 0.04). The CON displayed higher counts of hunched standing (2.00; 95% CI: 1.68 to 2.32) compared to LID + MEL (1.43; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.72) (P = 0.05). The CON had higher cortisol concentrations at 24 h (7.70 ng/mL; 95% CI: 1.52 to 13.87 ng/mL) relative to BUP (3.11 ng/mL; 95% CI: -2.56 to 8.79 ng/mL) (P = 0.002). At 4 and 24 h, LID + MEL had lower PGEM concentrations from baseline (-32.42% and -47.84%; 95% CI: -78.45 to -1.80%) compared with CON (27.86% and 47.63%; 95% CI: 7.49 to 82.98%) (P < 0.02). Administration of bupivacaine liposome suspension as a local anesthetic block at the time of castration was as effective at controlling pain as a multi-modal approach of lidocaine and meloxicam.
Background and Aim: Stress could play either helpful or harmful roles in vestibular compensation, the process of recovery after vestibular system lesions. Herein, we examined the effect of two stressor types on vestibular compensation: chronic anxiety disorder induced by early maternal separation (MS), and caloric restriction by an intermittent fasting (IF) diet.
Methods: Male Wistar rats (n=56) received maternal separation (the MS group), intermittent fasting (IF group), unilateral vestibular deafferentation (UVD group), or a mixture of these interventions (UVD+IF, UVD+MS, and UVD+IF+MS). All the groups were compared with control animals. The animals’ balance, motor coordination, anxiety, locomotor activity, and serum cortisol levels were evaluated by rotarod, open field, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods, respectively. The data were compared with those of the healthy control (HC) group.
Results: The UVD animals did not show a significant change in the time on the rod, except for the IF+UVD group (p=0.04). There was no significant difference between the experimental groups on the open field indices, except for the MS+IF+UVD group which traveled a significantly less total distance (p=0.02). Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher than HCs for all the groups except for the sham saline and IF+UVD group (p<0.05).
Conclusion: IF seems to promote compensation after UVD, while MS may disrupt it. However, IF loses its beneficial outcomes if the animal has received another source of stress, i.e. MS.