important quality
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2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Mengxuan Xiao ◽  
Sitong Liu ◽  
Huozhu Jin ◽  
Mingji Xiao ◽  
Huiqiang Wang ◽  

The important quality of green tea is freshness, but high temperature, light, oxygen, and humidity during storage may reduce the freshness of green tea. Thus, this study investigated the freshness loss of green tea (FLGT) under an accelerated shelf-life testing (ASLT) by sensory evaluation and acceptability test. The FLGTs of the samples stored at 20°C, 30°C, and 40°C, were determined as 67 days, 55 days, and 45 days, respectively by the Q10 method. In addition, they were further determined as 67 days, 57 days, and 42 days, respectively, by the Weibull Hazard Analysis (WHA). The sensory evaluation and acceptability test confirmed the correctness of the above results by 2-alternative choice analysis and chemical analysis. The Q10 method was applied to predict the FLGTs stored at 4°C and −20°C which were 93 days and 150 days, which was further verified by 2-alternative choice analysis and chemical analysis. The results show that it is possible to predict the suitable drinking period of green tea during storage by the Q10 method.


The use of an experimental design technique in the development of various pharmaceutical preparations, including tablet preparations, has become the latest trend. Because of their ease of use, tablet formulations are popular among both producers and patients. To increase the usage of tablets in diverse circles and settings, researchers are working to develop a variety of tablet excipients for various functions. Fast dissolving tablets (FDT), effervescent tablets, modified-release tablets, oral mucoadhesive tablets, gastroretentive tablets, and colon targeted tablets are some of the tablet formats that have been developed in addition to traditional tablets. This review will look at how formulation optimization in tablet preparations has been done during the previous ten years using specific literacies. The articles for this review were found using the keywords tablet, excipient, matrices, formulation, and QBD in specialized databases such as Elsevier, Pubmed, and Cambridge. Other options include Springer publications, material from the Internet, and articles published online by The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Medscape, and Statpearls. The formulation design strategy is based on the experimental design approach carried out on the kind of tablet preparation, which has distinct important quality parameters.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yelena Borovsky ◽  
Amit Raz ◽  
Adi Doron-Faigenboim ◽  
Hanita Zemach ◽  
Eldad Karavani ◽  

Fruit shape is one of the most important quality traits of pepper (Capsicum spp.) and is used as a major attribute for the classification of fruit types. Wide natural variation in fruit shape exists among the major cultivated species Capsicum annuum, allowing the identification of several QTLs controlling the trait. However, to date, no genes underlying fruit shape QTLs have been conclusively identified, nor has their function been verified in pepper. We constructed a mapping population from a cross of round- and elongated-fruited C. annuum parents and identified a single major QTL on chromosome 10, termed fs10, explaining 68 and 70% of the phenotypic variation for fruit shape index and for distal fruit end angle, respectively. The QTL was mapped in several generations and was localized to a 5 Mbp region containing the ortholog of SlOFP20 that suppresses fruit elongation in tomato. Virus-induced gene silencing of the pepper ortholog CaOFP20 resulted in increased fruit elongation on two independent backgrounds. Furthermore, CaOFP20 exhibited differential expression in fs10 near-isogenic lines, as well as in an association panel of elongated- and round-fruited accessions. A 42-bp deletion in the upstream region of CaOFP20 was most strongly associated with fruit shape variation within the locus. Histological observations in ovaries and fruit pericarps indicated that fs10 exerts its effect on fruit elongation by controlling cell expansion and replication. Our results indicate that CaOFP20 functions as a suppressor of fruit elongation in C. annuum and is the most likely candidate gene underlying fs10.

В.П. Мамина ◽  
Л.Ю. Бусурина ◽  
А.С. Кубекова

В статье анализируются результате особенностей защитно-совладающего поведения у студентов медицинского вуза с различным уровнем общительности. В исследовании особое внимание уделено уровню общительности, поскольку данный компонент включен в профессионально важное качество личности врача и от данного компонента зависит эффективность лечебного взаимодействия. В исследовании приняли участие студенты 5 курса лечебного факультета в количестве 55 человек. Методиками обследования послужили: 1) оценка уровня общительности (В.Ф. Ряховский); 2) методика измерения психологической защиты (Е.Р. Пилюгина, Р.Ф. Сулейманов). Доминирующими копинг стратегиями в поведении студенты-медики используют: «подавление», «проекция» и «юмор». У студентов медицинского вуза первой и второй группы преобладают адаптивные типы защитно-совладающего поведения. Эмпирически доказано различие в сформированности копинг стратегий по уровню общительности, используемых студентами медицинских специальностей. Нами были обнаружены различия в уровнях психологических защит между данными группами, а именно по шкалам «диссоциация», «изоляция» Полученные результаты исследования могут применяться психологами образовательных учреждений при составлении программ психологического сопровождения с целью коррекции совладающего поведения. The article analyzes the result of the peculiarities of defensive-coping behavior among medical students with different levels of sociability. In the study, special attention is paid to the level of sociability, since this component is included in the professionally important quality of the doctor's personality and the effectiveness of the therapeutic interaction depends on this component. The study involved 55 students of the 5th year of the Faculty of General Medicine. The survey methods were: 1) assessment of the level of sociability (V.F. Ryakhovsky); 2) a technique for measuring psychological defense (E.R. Pilyugina, R.F. Suleymanov). The dominant coping strategies in behavior are used by medical students: "suppression", "projection" and "humor". Among students of a medical university of the first and second groups, adaptive types of defensive-coping behavior prevail. The difference in the formation of coping strategies by the level of sociability used by students of medical specialties has been empirically proven. We found differences in the levels of psychological defenses between these groups, namely on the scales of "dissociation", "isolation". The obtained results of the study can be used by psychologists of educational institutions when drawing up programs of psychological support in order to correct coping behavior.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 626-646
I. A. Martynenko ◽  
N. N. Karandasheva

The article focuses on the need for the development of emotional intelligence as the most important quality of professional competence of a future legal specialist, manifested in personality-oriented activities. The authors provide an in-depth analysis of the literature on the topic and describe the results of their empirical research that reveals the level of emotional intelligence of law school students. The results obtained allow us to conclude that the development of emotional intelligence denotes the ability to be aware of one’s emotions, recognize the emotions of other people, manage their emotional states, allow a law student not only to successfully adapt to environmental conditions, constructively build interpersonal interaction, but also effectively manage difficult life situations, to successfully cope with various life difficulties. The listed qualities then become the basis of his successful professional activity. Current terms of remote study process and work create new challenges for testing the emotional intelligence. The authors suggest ways of solving the problem of emotional intelligence development in modern conditions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 53
Huizi Liu ◽  
Xuezhou Yang ◽  
Xiaofeng Su ◽  
Shuzhi Li ◽  
Qiyuan Du ◽  

There is an obvious colloid state in sauce-flavor liquor due to its unique brewing process and long storage time, which is an important quality feature of sauce-flavor. Aiming at the problems of time, cost, and the strong professionalism of the traditional quality identification method, we proposed a method to identify the quality of sauce-flavored liquor based on the Tyndall phenomenon. The influence of different wavelengths of light on the light scattering in liquor was explored, and it was concluded that the ultraviolet and blue light bands have a certain efficiency in the identification of liquor. Additionally, we analyzed the relationship between the particle size uniformity of liquor colloids and liquor quality according to the Tyndall phenomenon. We found that higher quality liquor has a brighter and lighter Tyndall path and a smaller light flooding angle due to the uniformity of the particles in it. This method can be used to achieve qualitative identification and is suitable for the identification of sauce-flavored liquor.

Alessia I. Delbrück ◽  
Yvette Tritten ◽  
Paolo Nanni ◽  
Rosa Heydenreich ◽  
Alexander Mathys

Resistant bacterial spores are a major concern in industrial decontamination processes. An approach known as pressure-mediated germination-inactivation strategy aims to artificially germinate spores by pressure to mitigate their resistance to inactivation processes. The successful implementation of such a germination-inactivation strategy relies on the germination of all spores. However, germination is heterogeneous, with some ‘superdormant’ spores germinating extremely slowly or not at all. The present study investigated potential underlying reasons for moderate high-pressure (150 MPa, 37°C) superdormancy of Bacillus subtilis spores. The water and dipicolinic acid content of superdormant spores was compared to that of the initial dormant spore population. The results suggest that water and dipicolinic acid content are not major drivers of moderate high-pressure superdormancy. Proteomic analysis was used to identify proteins that were quantified at significantly different levels in superdormant spores. Subsequent validation of the germination capacity of deletion mutants revealed that the presence of protein YhcN is required for efficient moderate high-pressure germination and that proteins MinC, cse60, and SspK may also play a role, albeit a minor one. Importance Spore-forming bacteria are ubiquitous in nature, and as a consequence, inevitably enter the food chain or other processing environments. Their presence can lead to significant spoilage or safety related issues. Intensive treatment is usually required to inactivate them; however, this harms important quality attributes. A pressure-mediated germination-inactivation approach can balance the need for effective spore inactivation and retention of sensitive ingredients. However, superdormant spores are the bottleneck preventing the successful and safe implementation of such a strategy. In-depth understanding of moderate high-pressure germination and the underlying causes of superdormancy is necessary to advance the development of mild high pressure-based spore control technologies. The approach used in this work allowed the identification of proteins that have not yet been associated to reduced germination at moderate high-pressure. This research paves the way for further studies on the germination and superdormancy mechanisms in spores, assisting the development of mild spore inactivation strategies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Heng Chen ◽  
Xiangwen Pan ◽  
Feifei Wang ◽  
Changkai Liu ◽  
Xue Wang ◽  

Isoflavone, protein, and oil are the most important quality traits in soybean. Since these phenotypes are typically quantitative traits, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping has been an efficient way to clarify their complex and unclear genetic background. However, the low-density genetic map and the absence of QTL integration limited the accurate and efficient QTL mapping in previous researches. This paper adopted a recombinant inbred lines (RIL) population derived from ‘Zhongdou27’and ‘Hefeng25’ and a high-density linkage map based on whole-genome resequencing to map novel QTL and used meta-analysis methods to integrate the stable and consentaneous QTL. The candidate genes were obtained from gene functional annotation and expression analysis based on the public database. A total of 41 QTL with a high logarithm of odd (LOD) scores were identified through composite interval mapping (CIM), including 38 novel QTL and 2 Stable QTL. A total of 660 candidate genes were predicted according to the results of the gene annotation and public transcriptome data. A total of 212 meta-QTL containing 122 stable and consentaneous QTL were mapped based on 1,034 QTL collected from previous studies. For the first time, 70 meta-QTL associated with isoflavones were mapped in this study. Meanwhile, 69 and 73 meta-QTL, respectively, related to oil and protein were obtained as well. The results promote the understanding of the biosynthesis and regulation of isoflavones, protein, and oil at molecular levels, and facilitate the construction of molecular modular for great quality traits in soybean.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0260207
Natasha M. Sanabria ◽  
Mary Gulumian

Genetic molecular studies used to understand potential risks of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are incomplete. Intracellular residual ENMs present in biological samples may cause assay interference. This report applies the high-resolution melt (HRM) feature of RT-qPCR to detect shifts caused by the presence of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). A universal RNA standard (untreated control) sample was spiked with known amounts of AuNPs and reverse transcribed, where 10 reference genes were amplified. The amplification plots, dissociation assay (melt) profiles, electrophoretic profiles and HRM difference curves were analysed and detected interference caused by AuNPs, which differed according to the amount of AuNP present (i.e. semi-quantitative). Whether or not the assay interference was specific to the reverse transcription or the PCR amplification step was tested. The study was extended to a target gene-of-interest (GOI), Caspase 7. Also, the effect on in vitro cellular samples was assessed (for reference genes and Caspase 7). This method can screen for the presence of AuNPs in RNA samples, which were isolated from biological material in contact with the nanomaterials, i.e., during exposure and risk assessment studies. This is an important quality control procedure to be implemented when quantifying the expression of a GOI from samples that have been in contact with various ENMs. It is recommended to further examine 18S, PPIA and TBP since these were the most reliable for detecting shifts in the difference curves, irrespective of the source of the RNA, or, the point at which the different AuNPs interacted with the assay.

J. P. Alimi ◽  
S. A. Ahemen ◽  
K. O. Zaka ◽  
N. B. Yepshak ◽  
J. O. Alimi ◽  

The microbial properties of food are important quality characteristics of food materials as it relates directly with the health of the consumer. This study examined the microbiological properties of high quality cassava flours produced from low postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) cassava. Wholesome four varieties of yellow-fleshed Low PPD cassava and one variety of high PPD cassava were, peeled, washed, grated, pressed, pulverized, flash dried at 120 °C for 8 minutes, milled with cyclone hammer mill fitted with a screen of 250 µm aperture size, cooled and packed into high density polyethylene bag. The high quality cassava flours produced were analyzed for total viable fungal and bacteria count, fungi isolated were further characterized and identified using molecular methods. Data obtained were subjected to one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS 25.0 and significant means were separated applying Duncan multiple range test. The mold count ranged from 1.50±0.71 - 2.50±0.71 cfu/ml, with flour produced from IITA-TMS-IBA-011371 and TMEB 419 having the lowest count while the highest was recorded in IITA-TMS-IBA-011368, respectively. The yeast count ranged from 1.00±0.00 - 2.0±0.00 cfu/ml, with flours produced from IITA-TMS-IBA-070593 and IITA-TMS-IBA-011371 having the lowest count while the highest was recorded in flour from IITA-TMS-IBA-011368, respectively. The total viable bacterial and fungal count (microbiological quality) of the flours prepared from IITA-TMS-IBA-011368, IITA-TMS-IBA-070593, IITA-TMS-IBA-011412, IITA-TMS-IBA-011371 and TMEB 419 cassava varieties were within the permissible limit of the microbial load of food allowed for human consumption according to the Standard Organization of Nigeria and CODEX alimentraius.

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