Production Process
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2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 654
Mattia Rapa ◽  
Salvatore Ciano

Olive oil is one of the most globally recognized high-value products, with 4 million hectares cultivated in the Mediterranean area. The production process involves many stages: farming, extraction, packing, and waste treatment. Each one of these stages should present critical points for the environmental impacts, and for this reason, the entire sector is adopting mitigation strategies to begin to be more sustainable. The mitigation actions’ efficiency should be evaluated through environmental indicators or environmental impact assessment by Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This review aimed to carry out an overview of recent papers (2011–2021) involving an LCA study in the olive oil supply chain by giving a framework of what is included in LCA studies and highlighting the main contributors to environmental impacts. The main scholarly literature databases have been exploited, highlighting a great increase in publications, especially from the producer countries. The review results reflect the heterogeneity of the production process. However, the use of pesticides, fertilizers, water, and fuel for machinery heavily weigh on the farming stage’s environmental impact. Finally, special focus was given to key elements of LCA studies in the olive oil supply chain, such as functional unit, system boundaries, impact categories, calculation method, and software widely used.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 243
Shuai Yuan ◽  
Jiayuan Liang ◽  
Yanmin Zhang ◽  
Hongyu Han ◽  
Tianyi Jiang ◽  

Xanthan gum is prone to thermal oxidative degradation, which limits its applications. However, conformational changes in xanthan gum and appropriate stabilizers may improve its thermal stability. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to establish a strategy to maintain the viscosity of xanthan gum during long-term storage at high temperatures. We modified the original strain used for xanthan gum production by genetic engineering and added stabilizers during the production process. The structure and thermal stability of the resulting xanthan gum samples were then determined. Pyruvyl deficiency, combined with the addition of sodium sulfite and glyoxal during the production process, was found to significantly improve the maintenance of viscosity. The apparent viscosity of the new xanthan gum solution remained above 100 mPa·s after being stored at 90 °C for 48 days. Fourier-transform infrared spectra and scanning electron microscopy images showed that pyruvate-free xanthan gum with added stabilizers had more extensive cross-linking than natural xanthan gum. In conclusion, these findings may contribute to the use of xanthan gum in applications that require high temperatures for a long period of time.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 600
Spyros Bofylatos

Design has an important role in shaping the modes of production, consumption and disposal. Decisions made early in the product, service and system development influence the majority of the environmental impact and social consequences. With sustainability emerging as the major challenge of our times, the creation of novel methodologies, economic models and innovative materials is critical. In this paper, we put forward a new methodology that aims to bridge the ecomodernist business-focused circular economy models with the expressive material driven design (MDD) approach. The ‘design out waste methodology’ (DOWM) bridges existing concepts, methods and practices, creating an innovative design and production process that redefines waste and sets it up as a subject of creative study. The purpose of this process is to help designers understand the importance of evaluating the entire life cycle of a product; it also enables local ‘degrowth’ by shifting our modes of production towards a human scale with local makers exchanging knowledge and expressing themselves through upcycled materials, while simultaneously eradicating the very concept of waste. The methodology has been developed in an iterative research-through-design process that combines experiential and tacit knowledge from local case studies with desk research of emerging case studies in MDD.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 205
Daniele Tammaro ◽  
Alberto Ballesteros ◽  
Claudio Walker ◽  
Norbert Reichelt ◽  
Ulla Trommsdorff

We explore the foam extrusion of expanded polypropylene with a long chain branched random co-polypropylene to make its production process simpler and cheaper. The results show that the presence of long chain branches infer high melt strength and, hence, a wide foamability window. We explored the entire window of foaming conditions (namely, temperature and pressure) by means of an ad-hoc extrusion pilot line design. It is shown that the density of the beads can be varied from 20 to 100 kg/m3 using CO2 and isobutane as a blowing agent. The foamed beads were molded by steam-chest molding using moderate steam pressures of 0.3 to 0.35 MPa independently of the closed cell content. A characterization of the mechanical properties was performed on the molded parts. The steam molding pressure for sintering expanded polypropylene beads with a long chain branched random co-polypropylene is lower than the one usually needed for standard polypropylene beads by extrusion. The energy saving for the sintering makes the entire manufacturing processes cost efficient and can trigger new applications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2160 (1) ◽  
pp. 012055
Yuhong Yuan ◽  
Yu Ren ◽  
Quan Wu

Abstract In order to solve the flange and dent defects in the end face of the cold extrusion of the connecting screw, the Deform3D software is used to simulate the extrusion forming process of the connecting screw, and the velocity vector is used to study the metal flow law of the part in the cold extrusion process. According to the velocity field and deformation law obtained by the simulation, the end face depression defect in the forming process is predicted. An improved production process is proposed, and the simulation results show that the new process scheme effectively eliminates the “sag” defect on the end face of the part. Finally, the extruded parts with qualified dimensional accuracy are obtained through experiments, and the results are basically consistent with the simulation results.

2022 ◽  
Vol 951 (1) ◽  
pp. 012032
R Ermawati ◽  
I Setiawati ◽  
Irwinanita ◽  
A Ariani

Abstract Particulate matter (PM) as one of the pollutants in the atmosphere needs to be studied. PM has physical and chemical characteristics and is called physicochemical properties. These properties vary depending on the source of the PM. PM samplers are used for air sampling to characterize some fine particles (PM2.5). The PM2.5 samples have collected from four sampling sites in the steel industry in Cilegon, Indonesia. The sampling sites are the main gate, the hot strip mill, the billet post, and the hot blast plant. The sampling period was four months. The physicochemical properties analysed are morphology, elements content, heavy metals, and particle size. The instruments used to analyse were Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and Particle Size Analyzer (PSA). The morphology of PM2.5 detected varied, but the elements and the most elements found were F and C particles. The metals concentration was below the Indonesia Regulation. While the average particle size analysed was below 2,500 nm. The physicochemical properties of PM2.5 are affected by the type of production process in the industry.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 27-50
Simone Ferreira de Albuquerque ◽  
Maria do Socorro Ferreira dos Santos ◽  
José Machado Moita Neto

The garment industry stands out as the second-largest employer in the manufacturing industry, but it is singled out for environmentally and socially unsustainable practices. In this study, managers of ten companies in Teresina (Piauí State, Brazil) were interviewed to investigate textile waste management methods and instruments and the difficulties and challenges found in management. Methodologically, it was used bibliographical, exploratory, documental and case study research. The research instruments were the questionnaire, direct observation and interview. Data were assessed through content analysis. The results show that part of the production-related waste is donated to manufacture rugs and fuxico, discarded for everyday collection. The conclusion we came across is that the clothing industry in Teresina lacks better management of its production process to generate less waste. When it is not possible to reuse it, dispose of it properly.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (6) ◽  
pp. 1453-1464
A A Sagung Mirah Padmadewi ◽  
Luh Putu Mahyuni

Rice farmers roles are very significant in establishing national food security. However, due to weather that is often uncontrolled, affecting the quantity and quality of the harvest, the welfare of rice farmers is still difficult to improve. As an effort to improve the welfare of rice farmers, this community outreach activity seeks to assist farmers, especially in Mas Village - Ubud, increase the added value of their harvests by providing training on making beauty scrubs made from rice and turmeric. The training covers not only the production process, but also packaging and labeling methods. Exploration of potentials and problems was done through the process of observation and interviews. Then the planning process of training activities, training implementation, and evaluation process was carried out, to achieve the goals of community outreach activities. This community outreach activity provides new knowledge and skills for rice farmers and their families in processing rice into traditional scrubs. These new skills are expected to be able to help improve the welfare of rice farmers in Mas Village, especially during this pandemic. This community outreach activity paper contributes to the literature, by offering insight into how the welfare of rice farmers could be improved by providing trainings to increase the added value of agricultural production. In addition, the findings of this community outreach activity can also be applied to different contexts, so that this paper also offers significant practical contribution.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 438
Siti Salwani Binti Yaacob ◽  
Hairulnizam Bin Mahdin ◽  
Mohammed Saeed Jawad ◽  
Nayef Abdulwahab Mohammed Alduais ◽  
Akhilesh Kumar Sharma ◽  

The globalization of manufacturing has increased the risk of counterfeiting as the demand grows, the production flow increases, and the availability expands. The intensifying counterfeit issues causing a worriment to companies and putting lives at risk. Companies have ploughed a large amount of money into defensive measures, but their efforts have not slowed counterfeiters. In such complex manufacturing processes, decision-making and real-time reactions to uncertain situations throughout the production process are one way to exploit the challenges. Detecting uncertain conditions such as counterfeit and missing items in the manufacturing environment requires a specialized set of technologies to deal with a flow of continuously created data. In this paper, we propose an uncertain detection algorithm (UDA), an approach to detect uncertain events such as counterfeit and missing items in the RFID distributed system for a manufacturing environment. The proposed method is based on the hashing and thread pool technique to solve high memory consumption, long processing time and low event throughput in the current detection approaches. The experimental results show that the execution time of the proposed method is averagely reduced 22% in different tests, and our proposed method has better performance in processing time based on RFID event streams.

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