turbulent momentum
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2021 ◽  
Vol 930 ◽  
Wenwu Yang ◽  
Yi-Zhao Zhang ◽  
Bo-Fu Wang ◽  
Yuhong Dong ◽  
Quan Zhou

We investigate the dynamic couplings between particles and fluid in turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard (RB) convection laden with isothermal inertial particles. Direct numerical simulations combined with the Lagrangian point-particle mode were carried out in the range of Rayleigh number $1\times 10^6 \le {Ra}\le 1 \times 10^8$ at Prandtl number ${Pr}=0.678$ for three Stokes numbers ${St_f}=1 \times 10^{-3}$ , $8 \times 10^{-3}$ and $2.5 \times 10^{-2}$ . It is found that the global heat transfer and the strength of turbulent momentum transfer are altered a small amount for the small Stokes number and large Stokes number as the coupling between the two phases is weak, whereas they are enhanced a large amount for the medium Stokes number due to strong coupling of the two phases. We then derived the exact relation of kinetic energy dissipation in the particle-laden RB convection to study the budget balance of induced and dissipated kinetic energy. The strength of the dynamic coupling can be clearly revealed from the percentage of particle-induced kinetic energy over the total induced kinetic energy. We further derived the power law relation of the averaged particles settling rate versus the Rayleigh number, i.e. $S_p/(d_p/H)^2{\sim} Ra^{1/2}$ , which is in remarkable agreement with our simulation. We found that the settling and preferential concentration of particles are strongly correlated with the coupling mechanisms.

2021 ◽  
Vol 62 (10) ◽  
Francesca De Serio ◽  
Roni H. Goldshmid ◽  
Dan Liberzon ◽  
Michele Mossa ◽  
M. Eletta Negretti ◽  

AbstractThe present study has the main purpose to experimentally investigate a turbulent momentum jet issued in a basin affected by rotation and in presence of porous obstructions. The experiments were carried out at the Coriolis Platform at LEGI Grenoble (FR). A large and unique set of velocity data was obtained by means of a Particle Image Velocimetry measurement technique while varying the rotation rate of the tank and the density of the canopy. The main differences in jet behavior in various flow configurations were assessed in terms of mean flow, turbulent kinetic energy and jet spreading. The jet trajectory was also detected. The results prove that obstructions with increasing density and increased rotation rates induce a more rapid abatement of both jet velocity and turbulent kinetic energy. The jet trajectories can be scaled by a characteristic length, which is found to be a function of the jet initial momentum, the rotation rate, and the drag exerted by the obstacles. An empirical expression for the latter is also proposed and validated. Graphic abstract

Atmosphere ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (9) ◽  
pp. 1208
Panagiotis Portalakis ◽  
Maria Tombrou ◽  
John Kalogiros ◽  
Aggeliki Dandou ◽  
Qing Wang

Near surface turbulent momentum flux estimates are performed over the Aegean Sea, using two different approaches regarding the drag coefficient formulation, a wave boundary layer model (referred here as KCM) and the most commonly used Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) algorithm. The KCM model incorporates modifications in the energy-containing wave spectrum to account for the wave conditions of the Aegean Sea, and surface similarity to account for the stratification effects. Airborne turbulence data during an Etesian outbreak over Aegean Sea, Greece are processed to evaluate the simulations. KCM estimates found up to 10% higher than COARE ones, indicating that the wave-induced momentum flux may be insufficiently parameterized in COARE. Turbulent fluxes measured at about 150 m, and reduced to their surface values accounting for the vertical flux divergence, are consistently lower than the estimates. Under unstable atmospheric stratification and low to moderate wind conditions, the residuals between estimates and measurements are less than 40%. On the other hand, under stable stratification and strong winds, the majority of the residuals are more than 40%. This discrepancy is associated with the relatively high measurement level, shallow boundary layer, and the presence of a low level jet.

Lewis P. Blunn ◽  
Omduth Coceal ◽  
Negin Nazarian ◽  
Janet F. Barlow ◽  
Robert S. Plant ◽  

AbstractGood representation of turbulence in urban canopy models is necessary for accurate prediction of momentum and scalar distribution in and above urban canopies. To develop and improve turbulence closure schemes for one-dimensional multi-layer urban canopy models, turbulence characteristics are investigated here by analyzing existing large-eddy simulation and direct numerical simulation data. A range of geometries and flow regimes are analyzed that span packing densities of 0.0625 to 0.44, different building array configurations (cubes and cuboids, aligned and staggered arrays, and variable building height), and different incident wind directions ($$0^\circ $$ 0 ∘ and $$45^\circ $$ 45 ∘ with regards to the building face). Momentum mixing-length profiles share similar characteristics across the range of geometries, making a first-order momentum mixing-length turbulence closure a promising approach. In vegetation canopies turbulence is dominated by mixing-layer eddies of a scale determined by the canopy-top shear length scale. No relationship was found between the depth-averaged momentum mixing length within the canopy and the canopy-top shear length scale in the present study. By careful specification of the intrinsic averaging operator in the canopy, an often-overlooked term that accounts for changes in plan area density with height is included in a first-order momentum mixing-length turbulence closure model. For an array of variable-height buildings, its omission leads to velocity overestimation of up to $$17\%$$ 17 % . Additionally, we observe that the von Kármán coefficient varies between 0.20 and 0.51 across simulations, which is the first time such a range of values has been documented. When driving flow is oblique to the building faces, the ratio of dispersive to turbulent momentum flux is larger than unity in the lower half of the canopy, and wake production becomes significant compared to shear production of turbulent momentum flux. It is probable that dispersive momentum fluxes are more significant than previously thought in real urban settings, where the wind direction is almost always oblique.

Atmosphere ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (8) ◽  
pp. 956
Warren E. Heilman ◽  
Kenneth L. Clark ◽  
Xindi Bian ◽  
Joseph J. Charney ◽  
Shiyuan Zhong ◽  

Atmospheric turbulent circulations in the vicinity of wildland fire fronts play an important role in the transfer of momentum into and out of combustion zones, which in turn can potentially affect the behavior and spread of wildland fires. The vertical turbulent transfer of momentum is accomplished via individual sweep, ejection, outward interaction, and inward interaction events, collectively known as sweep-ejection dynamics. This study examined the sweep-ejection dynamics that occurred before, during, and after the passage of a surface fire front during a prescribed fire experiment conducted in an open-canopied forest in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. High-frequency (10 Hz), tower-based, sonic anemometer measurements of horizontal and vertical wind velocity components in the vicinity of the fire front were used to assess the relative frequencies of occurrence of the different types of momentum-flux events, their contributions to the overall momentum fluxes, and their periodicity patterns. The observational results suggest that the presence of surface fire fronts in open-canopied forests can substantially change the sweep-ejection dynamics that typically occur when fires are not present. In particular, sweep events resulting in the downward transport of high horizontal momentum air from above were found to be more prominent during fire-front-passage periods.

2021 ◽  
Pedro Duarte ◽  
Philipp Assmy ◽  
Karley Campbell ◽  
Arild Sundfjord

Abstract. Different sea-ice models apply unique approaches in the computation of nutrient diffusion between the ocean and the ice bottom, which are generally decoupled from the calculation of turbulent momentum and heat flux. Often, a simple molecular diffusion formulation is used. We argue that nutrient transfer from the ocean to sea ice should be as consistent as possible with momentum and heat transfer, since all these fluxes respond to varying forcing in a similar fashion. We hypothesize that biogeochemical models which do not consider such turbulent nutrient exchanges between the ocean and the sea-ice underestimate bottom-ice algal production. The Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE + Icepack) was used to test this hypothesis by comparing simulations with molecular and turbulent diffusion of nutrients into the bottom of sea ice, implemented in a way that is consistent with turbulent momentum and heat exchanges. Simulation results support the hypothesis, showing a significant enhancement of ice algal production and biomass when nutrient limitation was relieved by bottom-ice turbulent exchange. Our results emphasize the potentially critical role of turbulent exchanges to sea ice algal blooms, and the importance of thus properly representing them in biogeochemical models. The relevance of this becomes even more apparent considering ongoing trends in the Arctic Ocean, with a predictable shift from light to nutrient limited growth of ice algae earlier in the spring, as the sea ice becomes more fractured and thinner with a larger fraction of young ice with thin snow cover.

Water ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 12 ◽  
Yanhong Li ◽  
Liquan Xie ◽  
Tsung-chow Su

Plants in natural water flow can improve water quality by adhering and absorbing the fine suspended sediments. Dense plants usually form an additional permeable bottom boundary for the water flow over it. In the flow layer above dense plants, the flow velocity generally presents a zero-plane-displacement and roughness-height double modified semi-logarithmic profile. In addition, the second order shear turbulent moment (or the Reynolds stress) are different from that found in non-vegetated flow. As a result, the turbulent momentum diffusivity of flow and thus the diffusivity of sediment will shift, which will cause the vertical profile of suspended sediment and the corresponding Rouse formula deform. A set of physical experiments with three different diameters of fine suspended sediments was conducted in an indoor water flume. These experiments investigated a new distribution pattern of suspended sediment and the correspondingly deformed Rouse formula in the flow layer over the dense plants. Experimental results showed that above the dense plants, the shear turbulent momentum of flow presented a plant-height modified negative linear profile, which has been proposed by a previous study, and the vertical distribution of fine suspended sediments presented an equilibrium pattern. Based on the plant-modified profiles of flow velocity and the shear turbulent momentum a new zero-plane and plant-height double modified Rouse formula were analytically derived. This double-parameter modified Rouse formula agrees well with the measured profile of suspended sediment concentration experimentally observed in the present study. By adjusting the Prandtl–Schmidt number, i.e., the ratio of sediment diffusivity to flow diffusivity, the double-parameter modified Rouse formula can be applied to submerged dense plant occupied flow.

2019 ◽  
Vol 31 (10) ◽  
pp. 105114
Mamoru Takahashi ◽  
Koji Iwano ◽  
Yasuhiko Sakai ◽  
Yasumasa Ito

T.-W. Lee

Abstract We have developed a mechanistic approach for determination of the Reynolds stress, using a Lagrangian analysis of turbulent momentum. Analysis and comparison with DNS and experimental data point toward the soundness of this approach (Lee, 2018). von Karman constant, the inner layer thickness and the Reynolds stress itself are all recovered through this approach, in agreement with DNS data. In addition, the turbulent flow profiles can be calculated iteratively using the basic Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equation, in conjunction with the current transport equation for the Reynolds stress. In this work, we explore these and further uses of the current approach in solving turbulent flow dynamics.

2019 ◽  
Vol 49 (6) ◽  
pp. 1369-1379 ◽  
Joey J. Voermans ◽  
Henrique Rapizo ◽  
Hongyu Ma ◽  
Fangli Qiao ◽  
Alexander V. Babanin

AbstractObservations of wind stress during extreme winds are required to improve predictability of tropical cyclone track and intensity. A common method to approximate the wind stress is by measuring the turbulent momentum flux directly. However, during high wind speeds, wave heights are typically of the same order of magnitude as instrument heights, and thus, turbulent momentum flux observations alone are insufficient to estimate wind stresses in tropical cyclones, as wave-induced stresses contribute to the wind stress at the height of measurements. In this study, wind stress observations during the near passage of Tropical Cyclone Olwyn are presented through measurements of the mean wind speed and turbulent momentum flux at 8.8 and 14.8 m above the ocean surface. The high sampling frequency of the water surface displacement (up to 2.5 Hz) allowed for estimations of the wave-induced stresses by parameterizing the wave input source function. During high wind speeds, our results show that the discrepancy between the wind stress and the turbulent stress can be attributed to the wave-induced stress. It is observed that for > 1 m s−1, the wave-induced stress contributes to 63% and 47% of the wind stress at 8.8 and 14.8 m above the ocean surface, respectively. Thus, measurements of wind stresses based on turbulent stresses alone underestimate wind stresses during high wind speed conditions. We show that this discrepancy can be solved for through a simple predictive model of the wave-induced stress using only observations of the turbulent stress and significant wave height.

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