heat exchanges
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Author(s):  
Manoel Raimundo dos Santos Jr. ◽  
Elinéia Castro Costa ◽  
Caio Campos Ferreira ◽  
Lucas Pinto Bernar ◽  
Marcilene Paiva da Silva ◽  
...  

In this work, the deoxygenation of organic liquid products (OLP) obtained by thermal catalytic cracking of palm oil at 450 °C, 1.0 atmosphere, with 10% (wt.) Na2CO3 as catalyst, in multistage countercurrent absorber columns using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) as solvent, with Aspen-HYSYS process simulator was systematically investigated. In a previous study, the thermodynamic data basis and EOS modeling necessary to simulate the deoxygenation of OLP has been presented [Molecules 2021, 26, 4382. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144382]. This work address a new flowsheet, consisting of 03 absorber columns, 10 expansions valves, 10 flash drums, 08 heat exchanges, 01 pressure pump, and 02 make-up of CO2, aiming to improve the deacidification of OLP. The simulation was performed at 333 K, 140 bar, and (S/F) = 17; 350 K, 140 bar, and (S/F) = 38; 333 K, 140 bar, and (S/F) = 25. The simulation shows that 81.49% of OLP could be recovered and the concentrations of hydrocarbons in the extracts of absorber-01 and absorber-02 were 96.95 and 92.78% (wt.) in solvent-free basis, while the bottom stream of absorber-03 was enriched in oxygenates compounds with concentrations up to 32.66% (wt.) in solvent-free basis, showing that organic liquid products (OLP) was deacidified and SC-CO2 was able to deacidify OLP and to obtain fractions with lower olefins content. The best deacidifying conditions was obtained at 333 K, 140 bar, and (S/F) = 17.


Author(s):  
Yassine Slatni ◽  
Mahfoud Djezzar ◽  
Tarek Messai ◽  
Mahfoud Brahim

Inside a greenhouse, during the day, the temperature rises very quickly, while the plants have to face temperatures that rise to more than 35[Formula: see text]C. The plant closes its pores to limit sweating and stops growing. As soon as it gets hot, it is therefore necessary to ventilate the greenhouse. In this context, this research aims to investigate the behavior of the natural ventilation on the internal climate of the tunnel greenhouse, which contains two openings in the roof. The effect of the position of the openings on heat transfer is considered, thus promoting photosynthesis and plant growth. The vorticity transport equation, the Poisson equation and the energy equation are discretized by using the finite volume method. Two-dimensional simulations that described laminar flows in a steady state were carried out. Flows are studied for a range of parameters: the Rayleigh number, Ra, [Formula: see text], and three positions of opening ventilation. The results reveal that the ventilation through the top opening position allows the best creation of heat exchanges between the air inside the greenhouse and its atmosphere, which serves to conserve the plant under a favorable climate that allows its growth.


Processes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 2060
Author(s):  
Jiaxing Chen ◽  
Qiguo Yang ◽  
Guomin Cui ◽  
Zhongkai Bao ◽  
Guanhua Zhang

Facing the current energy structure urgently needs to be transformed, heat exchanger network (HEN) can implement heat recovery and cost reduction by the arrangement for heat exchanges between cold and hot streams. The plenty of integer and continuous variables involved in HEN synthesis cause the results to be easily trapped in local optima. To avoid this situation, the mechanism of accepting imperfect solutions is added in a novel algorithm called Random Walk Algorithm with Compulsive Evolution. However, several potential solutions maybe abandoned by accepting imperfect solutions. To maintain the global searching ability, and at the same time, protecting the potential solutions during the optimization process, the limitations of accepting imperfect solutions are investigated in this work, then a back substitution strategy and elite optimization strategy based on algorithm are proposed. The former is to identify and adjust the inferior individuals in long-term stagnation while the latter is to keep and perform a fine search for the better solutions. Furthermore, a modified stage-wised superstructure is also developed to implement the flexible placement of utilities, which efficiently enlarges the solution domain. The validation of strategies and model is implemented by three cases, the results are lower, with 2219 $/year, 1280 $/year, and 2M $/year than the best published result, revealing the strong abilities of the proposed method in designing more economical HENs.


Nanomaterials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 2998
Author(s):  
Sheik Ambarine Banon Auckloo ◽  
Khanisya Palaniandy ◽  
Yew Mun Hung ◽  
Giuseppe Lazzara ◽  
Siang-Piao Chai ◽  
...  

This study, for the first time, focused on the fabrication of nonporous polyurea thin films (~200 microns) using the electrospinning method as a novel approach for coating applications. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and hydrophilic-fumed nanosilica (HFNS) were added separately into electrospun polyurea films as nano-reinforcing fillers for the enhancement of properties. Neat polyurea films demonstrated a tensile strength of 14 MPa with an elongation of 360%. At a loading of 0.2% of MWCNTs, the highest tensile strength of 21 MPa and elongation of 402% were obtained, while the water contact angle remained almost unchanged (89°). Surface morphology analysis indicated that the production of polyurea fibers during electrospinning bonded together upon curing, leading to a nonporous film. Neat polyurea exhibited high thermal resistance with a degradation temperature of 380 °C. Upon reinforcement with 0.2% of MWCNTs and 0.4% of HFNS, it increased by ~7 °C. The storage modulus increased by 42 MPa with the addition of 0.2% of MWCNTs, implying a superior viscoelasticity of polyurea nanocomposite films. The results were benchmarked with anti-corrosive polymer coatings from the literature, revealing that the production of nonporous polyurea coatings with robust strength, elasticity, and thermal properties was achieved. Electrospun polyurea coatings are promising candidates as flexible anti-corrosive coatings for heat exchanges and electrical wires.


2021 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Author(s):  
Karina Cucchi ◽  
Nicolas Flipo ◽  
Agnès Rivière ◽  
Yoram N. Rubin

Located in the critical zone at the intersection between surface water and groundwater, hyporheic zones (HZ) host a variety of hydrological, biological and biogeochemical processes regulating water availability and quality and sustaining riverine ecosystems. However, difficulty in quantifying water fluxes along this interface has limited our understanding of these processes, in particular under dynamic flow conditions where rapid variations can impact large-scale HZ biogeochemical function. In this study, we introduce an innovative measurement assimilation chain for determining uncertainty-quantified hydraulic and thermal HZ properties, as well as associated uncertainty-quantified high-frequency water fluxes. The chain consists in the assimilation of data collected with the LOMOS-mini geophysical device with a process-based, Bayesian approach. The application of this approach on a synthetic case study shows that hydraulic and thermal HZ properties can be estimated from LOMOS-mini measurements, their identifiability depending on the Peclet number – summarizing the hydrological and thermal regime. Hydraulic conductivity values can be estimated with precision when greater than ~10−5m · s−1 when other HZ properties are unknown, with decreasing uncertainty when other HZ properties are known prior to starting the LOMOS-mini measurement assimilation procedure. Water fluxes can be estimated in all regimes with varying accuracy, highest accuracy is reached for fluxes greater than ~10−6m · s−1, except under highly conductive exfiltration regimes. We apply the methodology on in situ datasets by deriving uncertainty-quantified HZ properties and water fluxes for 2 data points collected during field campaigns. This study demonstrates that the LOMOS-mini monitoring technology can be used as complete and stand-alone sampling solution for quantifying water and heat exchanges under dynamic exchange conditions (time resolution < 15 min).


2021 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jose A. Caballero ◽  
Leandro V. Pavão ◽  
Caliane B. B. Costa ◽  
Mauro A. S. S. Ravagnani

This paper presents a new algorithm for the design of heat exchanger networks (HEN) that tries to take advantage of the strengths of the sequential and simultaneous approaches. It is divided into two sequential parts. The first one is an adaptation of the transportation model (TransHEN). It maintains the concept of temperature intervals and considers the possibility of heat transfer between all the hot and cold streams inside those intervals, and at the same time it allows the a priori calculation of the logarithmic mean temperature difference between all possible heat exchanges, and therefore it maintains the area estimation linear in the model. The second step (HENDesign model), uses a superstructure that contains all the possible alternatives in which the matches predicted by the first stage model can exchange heat to design the final heat exchanger network. Unlike the sequential approach, in this model, all heat flows, temperatures, areas, etc. are reoptimized maintaining the set of matches predicted in the first stage. The model is highly nonlinear and nonconvex, however, it is relatively easy to get good results, because the model starts with the values predicted by the TransHEN model. The algorithm has been tested using fifteen benchmark problems commonly used in literature to compare the performance of heat exchanger network algorithms. In eleven out of the fifteen cases present better or equal results than the best ones reported in the open literature. In three the results presented only marginal differences in total annualized cost (lower than 0.5%) and only a difference of 2.4% in the largest one.


Author(s):  
Sílvio Aparecido Verdério Júnior ◽  
Vicente Luiz Scalon ◽  
Santiago del Rio Oliveira ◽  
Elson Avallone ◽  
Paulo César Mioralli ◽  
...  

Due to their greater flexibility in heating and high productivity, continuous tunnel-type ovens have become the best option for industrial processes. The geometric optimization of ovens to better take advantage of the heat transfer mechanisms by convection and thermal radiation is increasingly researched; with the search for designs that combine lower fuel consumption, greater efficiency and competitiveness, and lower costs. In this sense, this work studied the influence of height on heat exchanges by radiation and convection and other flow parameters to define the best geometric height for the real oven under study. From the dimensions and real operating conditions of continuous tunnel-type ovens were built five numerical models of parametric variation, which were simulated with the free and open-source software OpenFOAM®. The turbulent forced convection regime was characterized in all models. The use of greater heights in the ovens increased and intensified the recirculation regions, reduced the rates of heat transfer by thermal radiation, and reduced the losses of heat by convection. The order of magnitude of heat exchanges by radiation proved to be much higher than heat exchanges by convection, confirming the results of the main references in the technical-scientific literature. It was concluded that the use of ovens with a lower height provides significant increases in the thermal radiation heat transfer rates.


2021 ◽  
pp. 127-139
Author(s):  
Eusébio Conceição ◽  
João Gomes ◽  
Maria Manuela Lúcio ◽  
Hazim Awbi

This work presents a study of a numerical building dynamic simulation in the development of a horizontal shading device passive solution applied in a university canteen. The used building dynamic simulation software, that simulates simultaneously a building or groups of buildings with complex topologies, in transient conditions, considers the solar radiation, the HVAC system, glass radiative proprieties, radiative heat exchanges, thermal solutions, thermal comfort of occupants, indoor air quality, among others properties. The development of efficient external horizontal shading devices is made by a numerical model that uses the sun's trajectory and its position in relation to the windows where it falls. The canteen is constituted by three levels and is divided in 37 spaces. In the numerical simulation, 100 transparent surfaces and 773 opaque surfaces are considered. Special attention is given in the students’ main canteen, professors’ main canteen, specialized canteen and university bar. The simulation is made, in summer conditions, considered the selected spaces without and with horizontal shading devices placed above their windows. In the simulation, the occupancy and the implemented ventilation system are considered. Regarding to the obtained results the use of horizontal shading devices can reduce the air temperature range and improve the thermal comfort level that the occupants are subjected in some of the analyzed spaces.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Roberto Pagani ◽  
Giovanni Legnani ◽  
Giovanni Incerti ◽  
Manuel Beschi ◽  
Monica Tiboni

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Pedro Duarte ◽  
Philipp Assmy ◽  
Karley Campbell ◽  
Arild Sundfjord

Abstract. Different sea-ice models apply unique approaches in the computation of nutrient diffusion between the ocean and the ice bottom, which are generally decoupled from the calculation of turbulent momentum and heat flux. Often, a simple molecular diffusion formulation is used. We argue that nutrient transfer from the ocean to sea ice should be as consistent as possible with momentum and heat transfer, since all these fluxes respond to varying forcing in a similar fashion. We hypothesize that biogeochemical models which do not consider such turbulent nutrient exchanges between the ocean and the sea-ice underestimate bottom-ice algal production. The Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE + Icepack) was used to test this hypothesis by comparing simulations with molecular and turbulent diffusion of nutrients into the bottom of sea ice, implemented in a way that is consistent with turbulent momentum and heat exchanges. Simulation results support the hypothesis, showing a significant enhancement of ice algal production and biomass when nutrient limitation was relieved by bottom-ice turbulent exchange. Our results emphasize the potentially critical role of turbulent exchanges to sea ice algal blooms, and the importance of thus properly representing them in biogeochemical models. The relevance of this becomes even more apparent considering ongoing trends in the Arctic Ocean, with a predictable shift from light to nutrient limited growth of ice algae earlier in the spring, as the sea ice becomes more fractured and thinner with a larger fraction of young ice with thin snow cover.


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