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2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Long Sun ◽  
Yunshu Zhang ◽  
Lijun Cui ◽  
Jianfeng Li ◽  
Lin Li ◽  

Background: The prevalence of mental disorders is an important topic, which has been reported in different countries in the world. In China, some studies were also conducted to get the prevalence of mental disorders at the national level and in some metropolitan cities. However, the prevalence of mental disorders in Chinese underdeveloped provinces has not been reported internationally in recent decades. Due to the discrepancy in the social-economic development of different Chinese provinces, we also have reasons to believe the different prevalence of mental disorders between underdeveloped provinces and other provinces.Method: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among community residents aged 18 years and older in Hebei province, China. We screened 20,884 community residents in this study, and a Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) Axis I disorders was used to make the diagnoses of mental disorders.Results: The weighted lifetime prevalence of mental disorders was 15.87% (95% CI 15.38–16.38%), and the 1-month prevalence was 10.79% (95% CI 10.37–11.22%). Anxiety disorder ranked first in the classification of mental disorders for both lifetime (6.56%) and 1-month prevalence (6.25%). The weighted lifetime and 1-month region–gender–age-specific prevalence of mental disorders was also analyzed in this study.Conclusions: Mental disorders have been an important issue in Chinese economically underdeveloped regions, and the prevalence was at a high level compared with the results in the 2000s. There are several serious challenges in the work of Chinese mental disorders, which should be paid more attention to.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ingunn Jystad ◽  
Tommy Haugan ◽  
Ottar Bjerkeset ◽  
Erik R. Sund ◽  
Jonas Vaag

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) typically emerges during childhood or early adolescence and often has long-term effects on several areas of an individual's life, including school and education. The purpose of this study is to examine whether social anxiety is associated with (1) school functioning in terms of behavioral difficulties (hyperactivity and/or attention problems), school dissatisfaction, social exclusion, truancy, and learning difficulties, and (2) educational aspirations (educational level). We use data from the population-based Young-HUNT3 study (2006–2008), where 8,199 Norwegian adolescents participated. Social anxiety is measured both as self-report [the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C)], and as screening information from diagnostic interviews [Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule for DSM IV: child version (ADIS-C)]. ADIS-C screening positives (n = 388) reported higher rates of behavioral difficulties (RR = 1.06), school dissatisfaction (RR = 1.15), social exclusion (RR = 1.24), truancy (RR = 1.05), and learning difficulties (RR = 1.10) compared to screened negatives. Self-reported social anxiety symptoms showed similar patterns. Further, higher mean scores of self-reported social anxiety symptoms and being ADIS-C screening positive were negatively associated with aspirations of higher education (OR = 0.92 and OR = 0.74, respectively). However, as regards to having aspirations for the future (aspirations of higher education and/or aspirations of vocational training), no associations were found. The results indicate that social anxiety in adolescence is related to unfavorable/poorer school functioning and lower tendency of aspirations of higher education, which may have consequences for future educational pathways and later work life.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Wahid Boukouaci ◽  
Mohamed Lajnef ◽  
Jean-Romain Richard ◽  
Ching-Lien Wu ◽  
Jihène Bouassida ◽  

AbstractSchizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorders (BD) are severe mental illnesses that lack reliable biomarkers to guide diagnosis and management. As immune dysregulation is associated with these disorders, we utilized the immunoregulatory functions of the natural killer cell inhibitory HLA-E locus to investigate the relationships between HLA-E genetic and expression diversities with SZ and BD risk and severity. Four hundred and forty-four patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for SZ (N = 161) or BD (N = 283) were compared to 160 heathy controls (HC). Circulating levels of the soluble isoform of HLA-E molecules (sHLA-E) were measured and HLA-E*01:01 and HLA-E*01:03 variants genotyped in the whole sample. sHLA-E circulating levels were significantly higher in both SZ and in BD patients compared to HC (pc < 0.0001 and pc = 0.0007 for SZ and BD, respectively). High sHLA-E levels were also observed in stable SZ patients and in acute BD patients experiencing depressive episodes when comparisons were made between the acute and stable subgroups of each disorder. sHLA-E levels linearly increased along HLA-E genotypes (p = 0.0036). In conclusion, HLA-E variants and level may have utility as diagnostic biomarkers of SZ and BD. The possible roles of HLA diversity in SZ and BD etiology and pathophysiology are discussed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 35 (5) ◽  
pp. 750-763
Paul A. Pilkonis ◽  
Kelly L. Johnston ◽  
Nathan E. Dodds

We previously developed a three-item screener for identifying respondents with any personality disorder (PD) using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP). The current goal was to examine the convergent validity of the IIP-3 with other PD screeners and diagnostic tools and to investigate its relationship to measures of adult attachment and emotion regulation. The sample consisted of participants from five studies (total N = 852), with data from collateral informants available for a subsample (N = 353). Despite its brevity, the IIP-3 showed moderate to strong relationships with other longer PD screeners, with PD symptom scores from the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (SIDP-IV), and with a global rating of PD severity. It was most sensitive to the stylistic aspects of PD typical of the traditional DSM cluster B (dramatic, expressive) PDs. These results emerged with data from both participants and informants, although correlations using informant data were generally smaller.

QJM ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 114 (Supplement_1) ◽  
Yasser Abdel Razek Elsayed ◽  
Hanan Hany Elrassas ◽  
Mahmoud Hassan Ali Morsy ◽  
Mostafa Mohamed Shady

Abstract Background Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) is an annoying problem, has a noticeable impact on all perspective of the life. RLS attract spots to its discussion as it became a challenge in all societies. Also, antipsychotic (AP) and antidepressant drugs (AD) is well known as a cause of RLS, But RLS occurrence and its prevalence among psychiatric patients who receive the antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs is un known in Egypt. Aim of the Study To estimate rate of Restless legs Syndrome among psychiatric patients who receive Antidepressant & Antipsychotic drugs. And to assess severity of RLS if detected in those patients Subjects and Methods A descriptive cross-sectional, case control comparative observational study, included two hundred Patients who received AP and AD for more than one month and one hundreds of volunteers as a control group from Psychiatry department, Ain Shams University Hospitals and Al- Abbassyia Mental Hospital in Cairo, Egypt, in the period between October 2018 and April 2019, Using validated Arabic version of Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I), four items questionnaire that was recommended by International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) Arabic version for RLS diagnosis and validated Arabic version of Restless Legs Syndrome Rating Scale (IRLS). Results Eighty-three (41.5%) of patient group who received AP & AD and fifteen (15%) individual of control group met the diagnostic criteria of RLS. There was high statistically significance between the two groups regarding RLS occurrence (P = 0.000). Severity fluctuated in patients’ group between moderate and sever (69.9 % & 30.1%) respectively, while in control group it fluctuated between mild and moderate (40 % & 60%) respectively with high statistically significance between the two groups regarding RLS severity (P = 0.000). Family history and smoking are a risk factors for developing RLS as (OR = 2.705) & (OR = 6.390) respectively. While Trazadone and Haloperidol had a protective role against RLS (OR = 0.393 & 0.415) respectively. Conclusion RLS occurrence was higher in patients who received AP and AD drugs and its severity was more fluctuant among those patients, antipsychotic and antidepressant can induce RLS or worse it in patients who had past history of RLS before receiving the medications. Smoking and family history were risk factors for developing or worsening of RLS in our study. Both Haloperidol and Trazadone drugs in our study had protective role against RLS.

QJM ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 114 (Supplement_1) ◽  
Ahmed Saad Mohamed ◽  
Nesreen Mohammed Mohsen ◽  
Lobna AbuBakr Ismail ◽  
Ayat Ullah Mazloum Mahmoud

Abstract Background The magnitude of the problem of substance use in Egypt has been growing lately. Substance use disorders have been associated with depression and suicide, as well as impulsivity and specific personality traits. Suicide is closely linked to the substances use. Therefore it is very important to confirm the factors that affect the possibility of suicide. Aim of the Work This study aimed at evaluating suicide risk and its correlation with each of personality disorders and severity of addiction in a sample of 72 tramadol addicts from outpatient clinic of Institute of psychaitry Ain Shams University hospitals. Patients and Methods This is a descriptive Cross sectional study conducted in outpatient clinic of Institute of psychaitry Ain Shams University hospital. The present study aimed at analyzing the demographic data of 72 tramadol addicts, over six months period from January 2018 to August 2019. The severity of the addiction problem among those patients was assessed using Addiction Severity Index (ASI), suicidal probability was assessed using suicide probability scale (SPS), Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-VI Axis II (SCID-II) for assessing personality disorders and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID I). Results The results showed that 32 (44.44%) of the patients had a risk of suicide probability. Also there was a statistically significant difference between risk of suicidal probability and personality disorders especially antisocial personality. It was found that the need for more power for work and pleasurable effects were the most risk factors for tramadol addiction. Conclusion Suicide probability was found to be (44.44%) among the studied tramadol addicts. The risk of suicide probability among them was found to be significant in each of the following: antisocial personality disorder, longer duration of addiction, being single and positive family history of addiction. Attention should be paid to include the assessment of suicidal risk as part of routine assessment of addicts.

2021 ◽  
Mitsuhiro Sado ◽  
Akira Ninomiya ◽  
Maki Nagaoka ◽  
Akihiro Koreki ◽  
Naho Goto ◽  

BACKGROUND Augmented mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) with treatment as usual (mainly pharmacotherapy) is reported as effective post treatment for anxiety disorders. However, whether its effectiveness persists in the long term is unclear. OBJECTIVE This study aims to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of the follow-up program by conducting a feasibility randomized controlled trial (RCT) to compare the augmented MBCT with follow-up and that without follow-up in preparation for a definitive RCT. METHODS We conducted an eight-week RCT with a ten-month follow-up. Patients aged 20–65 years who met the DSM-IV criteria for panic disorder, agoraphobia, or social anxiety disorder, not remitted with the usual treatment for at least four weeks were included in the study and randomly allocated to the augmented MBCT with follow-up sessions or the augmented MBCT without the follow-up sessions. For this feasibility RCT, the primary outcomes were 1) study inclusion rate, 2) dropout rate, 3) attendance rate, and 4) mean and standard deviation of the several clinical measures at 8 weeks and 5, 8, and 12 months. RESULTS We started recruiting participants in January 2020. The study is ongoing, and data collection will be completed by May 2022. CONCLUSIONS This study is novel in terms of the design, which compares augmented MBCT with and without follow-up sessions. The limitations of the trial are as follows: 1) mixed participants in terms of delivery mode of the intervention, and 2) lack of a pharmacotherapy-alone arm. For its novelty and significance, this study will bring fruitful knowledge to future definitive RCTs. CLINICALTRIAL UMIN Clinical Trials Registry: UMIN000038626. Registered November 19, 2019.

2021 ◽  
pp. 002214652110410
Patricia Louie ◽  
Laura Upenieks ◽  
Christy L. Erving ◽  
Courtney S. Thomas Tobin

A central paradox in the mental health literature is the tendency for black Americans to report similar or better mental health than white Americans despite experiencing greater stress exposure. However, black Americans’ higher levels of certain coping resources may explain this finding. Using data from the Nashville Stress and Health Study (n = 1,186), we examine whether black Americans have higher levels of self-esteem, social support, religious attendance, and divine control than white Americans and whether these resources, in turn, explain the black–white paradox in mental health. In adjusted models, the black–white paradox holds for depressive symptoms and any DSM-IV disorder. Findings indicate that black Americans have higher levels of self-esteem, family social support, and religiosity than white Americans. Causal mediation techniques reveal that self-esteem has the largest effect in explaining black–white differences in depressive symptoms, whereas divine control has the largest effect in explaining differences in disorder.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Areerat Hnoonual ◽  
Phawin Kor-anantakul ◽  
Chariyawan Charalsawadi ◽  
Juthamas Worachotekamjorn ◽  
Pornprot Limprasert

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders which are etiologically heterogeneous. Chromosomal microarray is now recommended as the first-tier clinical diagnostic test for ASD. We performed chromosomal microarray in 16 Thai patients with ASD using an Illumina HumanCytoSNP-12 v2.1 array and found one case with uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 15. Methylation-specific PCR showed abnormal methylation of the maternal SNRPN allele. Haplotype analysis revealed that the patient had received both chromosomes 15 from his father. These results were consistent with Angelman syndrome. However, his clinical features had no clinical significance for classic Angelman syndrome. He had first presented at the pediatric clinic with no speech, poor social interaction skills and repetitive behaviors consistent with ASD based on the DSM-IV criteria at 2 years of age and later confirmed by ADOS at 5 years of age. He was strikingly overweight but had no dysmorphic facies, seizures nor ataxia and was diagnosed as non-syndromic ASD, a diagnosis which was believed until at 10 years of age, his DNA was included for analysis in this current cohort study. Our findings suggest that ASD patients with unknown etiology should be considered for methylation-specific PCR testing for Angelman syndrome where chromosomal microarray is not available. In the study, we also review the clinical features of Angelman syndrome caused by UPD and the frequency of ASD in individuals with Angelman syndrome.

Cephalalgia ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 033310242110398
Sara Bottiroli ◽  
Federica Galli ◽  
Elena Ballante ◽  
Stefania Pazzi ◽  
Grazia Sances ◽  

Aims In this study, we tested the validity of the Severity of Dependence Scale in detecting dependence behaviours in patients with chronic migraine and medication overuse (CM + MO) using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire as gold standard measures. Methods Four hundred and fifty-four patients with CM + MO filled in the Severity of Dependence Scale and the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire and underwent a psychological evaluation for the diagnosis of substance dependence according to the DSM-IV criteria. Results Sixty-nine percent of subjects (n = 313) presented substance dependence according to the DSM-IV criteria. These patients scored significantly higher than those without substance dependence in Severity of Dependence Scale total score ( Z = −3.29, p = 0.001), and in items 1 ( Z = −2.44, p = 0.015), 2 ( Z = −2.50, p = 0.012), 4 ( Z = −2.05, p = 0.04), and 5 ( Z = −3.39, p = 0.001). Severity of Dependence Scale total score ( β = 0.13, SE = 0.04, z = 3.49, p < 0.001) was a significant predictor for substance dependence. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves showed that Severity of Dependence Scale discriminated patients with or without substance dependence. Conclusion Severity of Dependence Scale could represent an interesting screening tool for dependency-like behaviors in CM + MO patients.

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