boiling point
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2022 ◽  
Vol 114 ◽  
pp. 103532
Norihide Maeda ◽  
Akira Kishimoto ◽  
Hiroshi Machida ◽  
Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi ◽  
Keiichi Yanase ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 67-75

The Accidental Death of an Anarchist (1970) is one of famed Italian play-wright Dario Fo, written as a response the neo-fascist tension that reached a boiling point in during the ‘Hot Autumn.’ A period of immense turmoil in late 20th -cemtury Italy. The play draws from the conventions of the Brechtian form and commedia dell’arte, aptly transforming them into mechanisms that can help both the play and spectators subvert the high cultures of Gramscian cultural hegemony, absorbed into ADA’s comic microcosm. This essay explores how political and theatrical realms are immortalised and then pit against each other through the course of the play, with the character of the Maniac acting as a rhetorical device acting as the connection between the two. In essence, this paper believes that Style is considered over substance in many of the styles of theatre Accidental Death operates within; the stylistic elements that quantitatively constitute the Brechtian form, commedia dell’arte, and farce allow them to subvert the ‘high cultures’ that are held culpable in Gramscian cultural hegemony, all of which ADA absorbs into its comic microcosm. This leads to a sustained paradox between the political and theatrical dimensions of the play, where the theatrical lends credence to the political though the use of fictional formal elements.

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 141
Edgar Gutierrez-Fernandez ◽  
Tiberio A. Ezquerra ◽  
Mari-Cruz García-Gutiérrez

We reported on the interaction between poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) and high-boiling-point additives in PEDOT:PSS aqueous dispersions and in the final polymer films with the aim of stablishing correlations between the structure of both inks and solid thin films. By Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) using synchrotron radiation, it was found that the structural changes of dispersions of PEDOT:PSS with high-boiling-point additives can be explained as a two-step mechanism depending on the additive concentration. A compaction of PEDOT:PSS grains was observed at low concentrations while a swelling of the grains together with a phase segregation between PEDOT and PSS segments was evidenced at larger concentrations. Thin films’ morphology and structure were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and synchrotron Grazing Incidence Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering (GIWAXS) respectively. Our two-step model provides an explanation for the small and sharp domains of PEDOT:PSS thin films observed for low-additive concentrations (first step) and larger domains and roughness found for higher-additive concentrations (second step). A reduction of the ratio of PSS in PEDOT:PSS thin films upon the presence of additives was also observed. This can be related to a thinning of the PSS shells of PEDOT:PSS grains in the dispersion. The results discussed in this work provide the basis for a controlled tuning of PEDOT:PSS thin films structure and the subsequent electrical properties.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Muhammad Javaid ◽  
Muhammad Ibraheem ◽  
Ebenezer Bonyah

The physical and structural properties of molecular structure or graph such as boiling point, melting point, surface tension, or solubility are studied using topological index (TI). Topological index is a mathematical formula that can be applied to any graph which models some molecular structures. The various operations play an important role in graph theory such as joining, union, intersection, products, and subdivision. In this paper, we computed the bounds for general Randic coindex of F -sum graphs such as ( S -sum, R -sum, Q -sum, and T -sum) in the form of their factor graphs. At the end, results are illustrated by numerical table for the particular F -sum graphs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-16
Aliaa K. Alhead ◽  
Shatha F. Khaleel

This study includes analysis of different crude oil stock for various field Iraqi oil by gas chromatography instrument, using simulated distillation technique for determining the  initial and final  boiling point distribution and specified compound distillation information (normal paraffins) (Recovery W/W) for (nC5 – nC44), ASTM-D5307 becomes the analytical method. This method need tow samples; the first one spiked with internal standard and the second without internal standard. This analysis for quantitative and qualitative oil characterization which is often useful for evaluating the range of hydrocarbons in crude oil using Simulated Distillation. The study was performed using: Quarterly analysis of SIMDIS GC Distillation for three field (East Baghdad, Badra, Amara) Comparison of analyzes of SIMDIS GC Distillation with Different API (light, intermediate, heavy) with Initial boiling point (IBP). Finding experimental relationship between API and Initial boiling point (IBP):          The result of this study shows that the boiling point increase as the number of carbon is increase, the values of n-Pentane (nC5) to n- Tetratetracontane (nC44) (w/w) changes from winter and summer (difference in temperatures), Positive correlation between C6 and C5 with API, where their percentages increase with increasing API for crude oil and C6 and C5 are lower in summer than in winter due to the evaporation of light components of the samples in summer. Initial boiling point increase as the API is decrease that mean in crude oil have heavy component increases and light component decrease (inverse relationship).

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (24) ◽  
pp. 8519
Nikolay Rogalev ◽  
Vladimir Kindra ◽  
Ivan Komarov ◽  
Sergey Osipov ◽  
Olga Zlyvko ◽  

Thermal power plants (TPPs) with back-pressure steam turbines (BPSTs) were widely used for electricity and steam production in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) due to their high efficiency. The collapse of the USSR in 1991 led to a decrease in industrial production, as a result of which, steam production in Russia was reduced and BPSTs were left without load. To resume the operation of TPPs with BPSTs, it is necessary to modernize the existing power units. This paper presents the results of the thermodynamic analysis of different methods of modernization of TPPs with BPSTs: the superstructure of the steam low-pressure turbine (LPT) and the superstructure of the power unit operating on low-boiling-point fluid. The influence of ambient temperature on the developed cycles’ efficiency was evaluated. It was found that the usage of low-boiling-point fluid is thermodynamically efficient for an ambient temperature lower than 7 °C. Moreover, recommendations for the choice of reconstruction method were formulated based on technical assessments.

Seán Stewart

Abstract When drops of liquid are placed onto highly heated substrates at temperatures well above their boiling point, the drops float on a thin layer of vapour formed between the liquid and the hot surface. In a 290 year old phenomenon referred to as the Leidenfrost effect, drops freed from contact with the surface below can undergo a range of surprising and unexpected dynamical behaviour. In this paper we trace various early developments associated with the dynamics of Leidenfrost drops. By showing how many of the more recent discoveries found in the dynamic behaviour of Leidenfrost drops were either anticipated or antedated, we hope to draw attention to the long, rich, and largely overlooked history of the Leidenfrost effect and show there is much one can learn from its forgotten past.

N.O. Borschev ◽  
O.A. Yuranev

Russian enterprises continue developing rocket and space vehicles based on cryogenic propellants, i.e. liquid hydrogen, oxygen, and methane. Hence, the issues of fuel tanks’ thermal strength are increasingly important. During structural tests, the operating temperatures of the test object should be simulated, since the temperature condition affects the strength and rigidity of the structure. Consequently, during ground-based experimental tests, hydrogen tanks must be cooled down to 20 K, the boiling point of hydrogen. JSC TsNIIMash is developing a helium system capable of cooling large-sized structures to a temperature of 20 K. Helium can be used in a gaseous state to cool down the structure, since the boiling point of helium, 4 K, is lower than the boiling point of hydrogen. Until now, the tanks were cooled only by filling with liquid nitrogen, therefore the temperature state of the tanks during the tests was simulated only for this case. In order to determine the applicability of the method developed, the cooling time of large-sized containers was estimated by cooling a hydrogen tank, which by its dimensions is typical for an advanced medium-class second stage launcher, to 20 K by gaseous helium.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Simon Mukwembi ◽  
Farai Nyabadza

AbstractA general perception among researchers is that boiling points, which is a key property in the optimization of lubricant performance, are difficult to predict successfully using a single-parameter model. In this contribution, we propose a new graph parameter which we call, for lack of better terminology, the conduction of a graph. We exploit the conduction of a graph to develop a single-parameter model for predicting the boiling point of any given alkane. The model was used to predict the boiling points for three sets of test data and predicted with a coefficient of determination, $$R^2=0.7516,~0.7898$$ R 2 = 0.7516 , 0.7898 and 0.6488, respectively. The accuracy of our model compares favourably to the accuracy of experimental data in the literature. Our results have significant implications on the estimation of boiling points of chemical compounds in the absence of experimental data.

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