new biomarkers
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Anthony Ford ◽  
Daniel Kepple ◽  
Jonathan Williams ◽  
Gabrielle Kolesar ◽  
Colby T. Ford ◽  

The unique biological features of Plasmodium vivax not only make it difficult to control but also to eliminate. For the transmission of the malaria parasite from infected human to the vector, gametocytes play a major role. The transmission potential of a malarial infection is inferred based on microscopic detection of gametocytes and molecular screening of genes in the female gametocytes. Microscopy-based detection methods could grossly underestimate the reservoirs of infection as gametocytes may occur as submicroscopic or as micro- or macro-gametocytes. The identification of genes that are highly expressed and polymorphic in male and female gametocytes is critical for monitoring changes not only in their relative proportions but also the composition of gametocyte clones contributing to transmission over time. Recent transcriptomic study revealed two distinct clusters of highly correlated genes expressed in the P. vivax gametocytes, indicating that the male and female terminal gametocytogeneses are independently regulated. However, the detective power of these genes is unclear. In this study, we compared genetic variations of 15 and 11 genes expressed, respectively, in the female and male gametocytes among P. vivax isolates from Southeast Asia, Africa, and South America. Further, we constructed phylogenetic trees to determine the resolution power and clustering patterns of gametocyte clones. As expected, Pvs25 (PVP01_0616100) and Pvs16 (PVP01_0305600) expressed in the female gametocytes were highly conserved in all geographical isolates. In contrast, genes including 6-cysteine protein Pvs230 (PVP01_0415800) and upregulated in late gametocytes ULG8 (PVP01_1452800) expressed in the female gametocytes, as well as two CPW-WPC family proteins (PVP01_1215900 and PVP01_1320100) expressed in the male gametocytes indicated considerably high nucleotide and haplotype diversity among isolates. Parasite samples expressed in male and female gametocyte genes were observed in separate phylogenetic clusters and likely represented distinct gametocyte clones. Compared to Pvs25, Pvs230 (PVP01_0415800) and a CPW-WPC family protein (PVP01_0904300) showed higher expression in a subset of Ethiopian P. vivax samples. Thus, Pvs230, ULG8, and CPW-WPC family proteins including PVP01_0904300, PVP01_1215900, and PVP01_1320100 could potentially be used as novel biomarkers for detecting both sexes of P. vivax gametocytes in low-density infections and estimating transmission reservoirs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (4) ◽  
pp. 93-100
A. A. Rogozhina

Determination of new biomarkers involved in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke is an extremely important task from the point of view of identifying possible mechanisms for preventing the occurrence of an acute event, better diagnosis, and influencing the stages of pathogenesis to reduce the inflammatory focus. Sphingolipids belong to new biomarkers of atherosclerosis, which are involved in inflammation, apoptosis, and ischemia. The widespread introduction of mass spectrometry has made it possible to study sphingolipids in more detail. This review aims to summarize the available data on the role of sphingolipids in ischemic stroke.

Satyendra Kumar Sonkar ◽  
Prashant Kumar Singh ◽  
Sharad Chandra ◽  
Gyanendra Kumar Sonkar ◽  
Vivek Bhosale ◽  

Abstract Introduction: A high incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and premature mortality is observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Thus, new biomarkers that may help predict the development of CVD in early stages of CKD are being investigated along with other traditional risk factors. Objective: To investigate cathepsin S as an early biomarker for CVD in patients with CKD. Methods: A total of 64 patients with CKD were included and classified into 2 groups: CKD patients with established CVD and CKD patients with non-established CVD. All patients were submitted to routine investigations including complete blood count, random blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum electrolytes, urea, creatinine, total protein, total albumin, calcium total, phosphorous, uric acid, vitamin D, parathormone, lipid profile, liver function test, measurement of serum cathepsin S (Cat S), and 2D Echo of the heart. Results: The level of serum Cat S was increased in CKD patients with CVD (p <0.05) as well as in later stages of CKD (p <0.05). CVD was also more common in patients in early stage CKD. In early stages CKD, Cat S and CVD were positively correlated. Conclusion: These findings suggest that serum Cat S might be useful as an early biomarker for CVD in CKD patients.

Heart ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. heartjnl-2021-320265
Keith M Channon ◽  
David E Newby ◽  
Edward D Nicol ◽  
John Deanfield

Cardiac imaging is central to the diagnosis and risk stratification of coronary artery disease, beyond symptoms and clinical risk factors, by providing objective evidence of myocardial ischaemia and characterisation of coronary artery plaque. CT coronary angiography can detect coronary plaque with high resolution, estimate the degree of functional stenosis and characterise plaque features. However, coronary artery disease risk is also driven by biological processes, such as inflammation, that are not fully reflected by severity of stenosis, myocardial ischaemia or by coronary plaque features. New cardiac CT techniques can assess coronary artery inflammation by imaging perivascular fat, and this may represent an important step forward in identifying the ‘residual risk’ that is not detected by plaque or ischaemia imaging. Coronary artery disease risk assessment that incorporates clinical factors, plaque characteristics and perivascular inflammation offers a more comprehensive individualised approach to quantify and stratify coronary artery disease risk, with potential healthcare benefits for prevention, diagnosis and treatment recommendations. Furthermore, identifying new biomarkers of cardiovascular risk has the potential to refine early-life prevention strategies, before atherosclerosis becomes established.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Seyedeh Saeideh Sahraei ◽  
Faezeh Davoodi Asl ◽  
Naser Kalhor ◽  
Mohsen Sheykhhasan ◽  
Hoda Fazaeli ◽  

Background. Research into the pathogenesis of endometriosis would substantially promote its effective treatment and early diagnosis. Currently, accumulating evidence has shed light on the importance of endometrial stem cells within the menstrual blood which are involved in the establishment and progression of endometriotic lesions in a retrograde manner. Objectives. We aimed to identify the differences in some genes’ expression between menstrual blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MenSCs) isolated from endometriosis patients (E-MenSCs) and MenSCs from healthy women (NE-MenSCs). Methods. Menstrual blood samples (2-3 mL) from healthy and endometriosis women in the age range of 22–35 years were collected. Isolated MenSCs by the Ficoll-Paque density-gradient centrifugation method were characterized by flow cytometry. MenSCs were evaluated for key related endometriosis genes by real-time-PCR. Results. E-MenSCs were morphologically different from NE-MenSCs and showed, respectively, higher and lower expression of CD10 and CD9. Furthermore, E-MenSCs had higher expression of Cyclin D1 (a cell cycle-related gene) and MMP-2 and MMP-9 (migration- and invasion-related genes) genes compared with NE-MenSCs. Despite higher cell proliferation in E-MenSCs, the BAX/BCL-2 ratio was significantly lower in E-MenSCs compared to NE-MenSCs. Also, the level of inflammatory genes such as IL1β, IL6, IL8, and NF-κB and stemness genes including SOX2 and SALL4 was increased in E-MenSCs compared with NE-MenSCs. Further, VEGF, as a potent angiogenic factor, showed a significant increase in E-MenSCs rather than NE-MenSCs. However, NE-MenSCs showed increased ER-α and β-catenin when compared with E-MenSCs. Conclusion. Here, we showed that there are gene expression differences between E-MenSCs and NE-MenSCs. These findings propose that MenSCs could play key role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis and further support the menstrual blood retrograde theory of endometriosis formation. This could be of great importance in exploiting promising therapeutic targets and new biomarkers for endometriosis treatment and prognosis.

Symmetry ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 128
Monica Laura Cara ◽  
Ioana Streata ◽  
Ana Maria Buga ◽  
Dominic Gabriel Iliescu

Brain asymmetry is a hallmark of the human brain. Recent studies report a certain degree of abnormal asymmetry of brain lateralization between left and right brain hemispheres can be associated with many neuropsychiatric conditions. In this regard, some questions need answers. First, the accelerated brain asymmetry is programmed during the pre-natal period that can be called “accelerated brain decline clock”. Second, can we find the right biomarkers to predict these changes? Moreover, can we establish the dynamics of these changes in order to identify the right time window for proper interventions that can reverse or limit the neurological decline? To find answers to these questions, we performed a systematic online search for the last 10 years in databases using keywords. Conclusion: we need to establish the right in vitro model that meets human conditions as much as possible. New biomarkers are necessary to establish the “good” or the “bad” borders of brain asymmetry at the epigenetic and functional level as early as possible.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Kazuma Higashisaka ◽  
Sonoko Takeya ◽  
Haruhiko Kamada ◽  
Masanori Obana ◽  
Makiko Maeda ◽  

Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has few objective symptoms, and it is difficult to make an early diagnosis by using existing methods. Therefore, new biomarkers enabling diagnosis of renal dysfunction at an early stage need to be developed. Here, we searched for new biomarkers of CKD by focusing on kidney-derived proteins that could sensitively reflect that organ’s disease state. Methods To identify candidate marker proteins, we performed a proteomics analysis on renal influx and efflux blood collected from the same individual. Results Proteomics analysis revealed 662 proteins in influx blood and 809 in efflux. From these identified proteins, we selected complement C1q as a candidate; the plasma C1q level was significantly elevated in the renal efflux of donors. Moreover, the plasma concentration of C1q in a mouse model of diabetic nephropathy was significantly increased, in association with increases in blood glucose concentration and urinary protein content. Importantly, we demonstrated that the tendency of C1q to increase in the plasma of CKD patients was correlated with a decrease in their estimated glomerular filtration rate. Conclusion Overall, our results indicate that our approach of focusing on kidney-derived proteins is useful for identifying new CKD biomarkers and that C1q has potential as a biomarker of renal function.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262339
Omayma O. Abdelaleem ◽  
Shereen Rashad Mohammed ◽  
Hassan S. El Sayed ◽  
Sherin Khamis Hussein ◽  
Doaa Y. Ali ◽  

Background Neonatal sepsis is a serious condition. Recent clinical studies have indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) are key players in the pathogenesis of sepsis, which could be used as biomarkers for this condition. Patients and methods A total of 90 neonates with sepsis and 90 healthy neonates were enrolled in this study. qRT-PCR was performed to measure the expression levels of serum miR-34a-5p and miR-199a-3p. Results miR-34a-5p and miR-199a-3p serum levels were significantly reduced in neonates with sepsis compared with those in healthy neonates (P = 0.006 and P = 0.001, respectively). Significant correlations of miR-34a-5p and miR-199a-3p with each of TLC, RDW, RBS, and C-reactive protein (CRP) as well as SNAPII were observed, indicating their associations with the severity of neonatal sepsis. Conclusion miR-34a-5p and miR-199a-3p may be useful as novel biomarkers in neonatal sepsis and may provide a new direction for its treatment.

Shuang Dai ◽  
Ting Liu ◽  
Yan-Yang Liu ◽  
Yingying He ◽  
Tao Liu ◽  

The development of various therapeutic interventions, particularly immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy, have effectively induced tumor remission for patients with advanced lung cancer. However, few cancer patients can obtain significant and long-lasting therapeutic effects for the limitation of immunological nonresponse and resistance. For this case, it’s urgent to identify new biomarkers and develop therapeutic targets for future immunotherapy. Over the past decades, tumor microenvironment (TME)-related long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have gradually become well known to us. A large number of existing studies have indicated that TME-related lncRNAs are one of the major factors to realize precise diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Herein, this paper discusses the roles of lncRNAs in TME, and the potential application of lncRNAs as biomarkers or therapeutic targets for immunotherapy in lung cancer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Jianyang Xiang ◽  
Wahafu Alafate ◽  
Wei Wu ◽  
Yichang Wang ◽  
Xiaodong Li ◽  

AbstractGlioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most lethal primary brain tumor with a poor median survival less than 15 months. Despite the development of the clinical strategies over the decades, the outcomes for GBM patients remain dismal due to the strong proliferation and invasion ability and the acquired resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, developing new biomarkers and therapeutic strategies targeting GBM is in urgent need. In this study, gene expression datasets and relevant clinical information were extracted from public cancers/glioma datasets, including TCGA, GRAVENDEEL, REMBRANDT, and GILL datasets. Differentially expressed genes were analyzed and NEK2 was picked as a candidate gene for subsequent validation. Human tissue samples and corresponding data were collected from our center and detected by immunohistochemistry analysis. Molecular biological assays and in vivo xenograft transplantation were performed to confirm the bioinformatic findings. High-throughput RNA sequencing, followed by KEGG analysis, GSEA analysis and GO analysis were conducted to identify potential signaling pathways related to NEK2 expression. Subsequent mechanism assays were used to verify the relationship between NEK2 and NF-κB signaling. Overall, we identified that NEK2 is significantly upregulated in GBM and the higher expression of NEK2 exhibited a poorer prognosis. Functionally, NEK2 knockdown attenuated cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tumorigenesis of GBM while NEK2 overexpression promoted the GBM progression. Furthermore, High-throughput RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis indicated that NEK2 was positively related to the NF-κB signaling pathway in GBM. Mechanically, NEK2 activated the noncanonical NF-κB signaling pathway by phosphorylating NIK and increasing the activity and stability of NIK. In conclusion, NEK2 promoted the progression of GBM through activation of noncanonical NF-κB signaling, indicating that NEK2- NF-κB axis could be a potential drug target for GBM.

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