The optical-mechanical system of a space camera is composed of several complex components, and the effects of several factors (weight, gravity, modal frequency, temperature, etc.) on its system performance need to be considered during ground tests, launch, and in-orbit operation. In order to meet the system specifications of the optical camera system, the dimensional parameters of the optical camera structure need to be optimized. There is a highly nonlinear functional relationship between the dimensional parameters of the optical machine structure and the design indexes. The traditional method takes a significant amount of time for finite element calculation and is less efficient. In order to improve the optimization efficiency, a recurrent neural network prediction model based on the Bayesian regularization algorithm is proposed in this paper, and the NSGA-II is used to globally optimize multiple prediction objectives of the prediction model. The reflector of the space camera is used as an example to predict the weight, first-order modal frequency, and gravitational mirror deformation root mean square of the reflector, and to complete the lightweight design. The results show that the prediction model established by BR-RNN-NSGA-II offers high prediction accuracy for the design indexes of the reflector, which all reach over 99.6%, and BR-RNN-NSGA-II can complete the multi-objective optimization search efficiently and accurately. This paper provides a new idea of optimization of optical machine structure, which enriches the theory of complex structure design.
Blade thickness is an essential parameter of the impeller, which has significant effects on the pump performance. The plastic pump generally adopts thick blade due to low strength of plastic. The effects of blade thickness on the internal flow and performance of a plastic centrifugal pump were discussed based on the numerical methods. Two kinds of blade profile, the constant thickness blade (CTB) and the variable thickness blade (VTB), were investigated. The results indicated that, for the CTB, when the blade thickness was less than 6 mm, the pump performance did not change significantly. When the blade thickness exceeded 6 mm, the pump head and efficiency decreased rapidly. The pump head and efficiency of CTB 10 decreased by 42.2% and 30% compared with CTB 4, respectively. For the VTB, with blade thickness in a certain range (6 mm–14 mm), the pump performance changed slightly with the increased of trailing edge thickness. The minimum blade thickness of the plastic centrifugal pump should be 4 mm based on the finite element analysis. A variable thickness blade (VTB 4-8-4) with the maximum thickness located at 60% chord length was proposed to improve the pump performance, and its efficiency was 1.67% higher than that of the CTB 4 impeller.
Screw machines, mainly including single-screw type and twin-screw type, have gone through significant development and improvement during the past decade. This paper reviews the relevant studies available in the open literature for acquiring insight into and to establish the state of the art of the research and application status of screw machines. The related research on different aspects, which would affect the performance and reliability of screw machines includes rotor profile and geometric characteristics, thermodynamic modelling, vibration and noise, lubrication and wear, control of capacity and built-in volume ratio, and liquid injection technology. In the aspect of thermodynamic modelling, the available methods, i.e., empirical or semi-empirical model, lump model, and 3D CFD model, adopted for the performance prediction and optimal design of screw machines are summarized. Then, the review covers the application status of screw machines in the fields of air compression and expansion, refrigeration and heat pump, organic Rankine cycle (ORC), and other popular applications, with an emphasis on the reported performance and progress in technologies of screw machines. Finally, conclusions and perspectives for future research in the area of screw machines are presented. The review provides readers with a good understanding of the research focus and progress in the field of screw machines.
The technology of increasing coal seam permeability by high-pressure water jet has significant advantages in preventing and controlling gas disasters in low-permeability coal seam. The structural parameters of a nozzle are the key to its jet performance. The majority of the current studies take strike velocity as the evaluation index, and the influence of the interaction between the nozzle’s structural parameters on its jet performance is not fully considered. In practice, strike velocity and strike area will affect gas release in the process of coal breaking and punching. To further optimize the structural parameters of coal breaking and punching nozzle, and improve water jet performance, some crucial parameters such as the contraction angle, outlet divergence angle, and length-to-diameter ratio are selected. Meanwhile, the maximum X-axis velocity and effective Y-axis extension distance are used as evaluation indexes. The effect of each key factor on the water jet performance is analyzed by numerical simulation using the single factor method. The significance and importance effect of each factor and their interaction on the water jet performance are quantitatively analyzed using the orthogonal experiment method. Moreover, three optimal combinations are selected for experimental verification. Results show that with an increase in contraction angle, outlet divergence angle, and length-to-diameter ratio, the maximum X-axis velocity increases initially and decreases thereafter. The Y-direction expansion distance of the jet will be improved significantly with an increase in the outlet divergence angle. Through field experiments, the jet performance of the improved nozzle 3 is the best. After optimization, the coal breaking and punching diameter of the nozzle is increased by 118%, and the punching depth is increased by 17.46%.
Marble is a common rock used in many buildings for structural or ornamental purposes and is widely distributed in underground engineering projects. The rocks are exposed to high temperatures when a tunnel fire occurs, and they will be rapidly cooled during the rescue process, which has a great impact on the rock performance and the underground engineering stability. Therefore, the role of cyclic thermal shocks on the physical and mechanical properties of marble specimens was systematically investigated. Different cyclic thermal shock treatments (T = 25, 200, 400, 600, 800 °C; N = 1, 3, 5, 7, 9) were applied to marble specimens and the changes in mass, volume, density and P-wave velocity were recorded in turn. Then, the thermal conductivity, optical microscopy and uniaxial compression tests were carried out. The results showed that both the cyclic thermal shock numbers (N) and the temperature level (T) weaken the rock properties. When the temperature of a thermal shock exceeds 600 °C, the mass loss coefficient and porosity of the marble will increase significantly. The most noticeable change in P-wave velocity occurs between 200 and 400 °C, with a 52.98% attenuation. After three thermal shocks, the cyclic thermal shock numbers have little influence on the uniaxial compressive strength and Young’s modulus of marble specimens. Shear failure is the principal failure mode in marble specimens that have experienced severe thermal damage (high N or T). The optical microscopic pictures are beneficial for illustrating the thermal cracking mechanism of marble specimens after cyclic thermal shocks.
A mobile fuel cell systems power output can be increased by pressure amplification using an electric turbocharger. These devices are subject to frequent transient manoeuvres due to a multitude of load changes during the mission in automotive applications. In this paper, the authors describe a simulation approach for an electric turbocharger, considering the impact of moist air and condensation within the cathode gas supply system. Therefore, two simulation approaches are used: an iterative simulation method and one based on a set of ordinary differential equations. Additional information is included from turbine performance maps taking into account condensation using Euler–Lagrange CFD simulations, which are presented. The iterative calculation approach is well suited to show the impact of condensation and moist air on the steady state thermodynamic cycle and yields a significant shift of the steady state operating line towards the surge line. It is shown that a substantial risk of surge occurs during transient deceleration manoeuvres triggered by a load step.
Voluntary hand movements are usually impaired after a cerebral stroke, affecting millions of people per year worldwide. Recently, the use of hand exoskeletons for assistance and motor rehabilitation has become increasingly widespread. This study presents a novel hand exoskeleton, designed to be low cost, wearable, easily adaptable and suitable for home use. Most of the components of the exoskeleton are 3D printed, allowing for easy replication, customization and maintenance at a low cost. A strongly underactuated mechanical system allows one to synergically move the four fingers by means of a single actuator through a rigid transmission, while the thumb is kept in an adduction or abduction position. The exoskeleton’s ability to extend a typical hypertonic paretic hand of stroke patients was firstly tested using the SimScape Multibody simulation environment; this helped in the choice of a proper electric actuator. Force-myography was used instead of the standard electromyography to voluntarily control the exoskeleton with more simplicity. The user can activate the flexion/extension of the exoskeleton by a weak contraction of two antagonist muscles. A symmetrical master–slave motion strategy (i.e., the paretic hand motion is activated by the healthy hand) is also available for patients with severe muscle atrophy. An inexpensive microcontroller board was used to implement the electronic control of the exoskeleton and provide feedback to the user. The entire exoskeleton including batteries can be worn on the patient’s arm. The ability to provide a fluid and safe grip, like that of a healthy hand, was verified through kinematic analyses obtained by processing high-framerate videos. The trajectories described by the phalanges of the natural and the exoskeleton finger were compared by means of cross-correlation coefficients; a similarity of about 80% was found. The time required for both closing and opening of the hand exoskeleton was about 0.9 s. A rigid cylindric handlebar containing a load cell measured an average power grasp force of 94.61 N, enough to assist the user in performing most of the activities of daily living. The exoskeleton can be used as an aid and to promote motor function recovery during patient’s neurorehabilitation therapy.
A fuel metering valve actuated by two binary-coded digital valve arrays (BDVAs) is proposed to improve the reliability of conventional fuel metering valves piloted by a servo valve. The design concept of this configuration is obtained from the structural characteristics of the dual nozzle-flapper and the flow regulation method of the digital hydraulic technology. The structure and working principle of the fuel metering valve are presented. Then, a mathematical model of the entire valve is developed for dynamic analysis. Subsequently, the mechanism of the transient flow uncertainty of the BDVA is revealed through simulation to determine the fluctuation in the velocity of the fuel metering valve. Furthermore, step response indicates that the delay time of the fuel metering valve is within 4.1 ms. Finally, to improve the position tracking accuracy of the fuel metering valve, a velocity feedforward proportional-integral controller with pulse code modulation is proposed. A series of comparative analyses indicate that compared with those of the velocity feedforward controller, the average and standard deviation of the position error for the proposed controller are reduced by 78 and 72.7%, respectively. The results prove the feasibility of the proposed valve and the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.
In order to study the influence of tip clearance on the performance and energy dissipation of the axial-flow pump and the axial-flow pump as a turbine, and find the location of high dissipation rate, this study took an axial-flow pump model as its research object and designed four tip radial clearance schemes (0, 0.2, 1 and 2 mm). The unsteady calculation simulation of each tip clearance scheme was carried out based on CFD technology. The calculated results were compared with the experimental results, and the simulation results were analyzed using entropy production analysis theory. The results showed that, under both an axial-flow pump and axial-flow pump as turbine operating conditions, increasing the blade tip clearance led to a decrease in hydraulic performance. Compared with the 0 mm clearance, the maximum decreases in pump efficiency, head and shaft power under 2 mm tip clearance were 15.3%, 25.7% and 12.3% under the pump condition, and 12.7%, 18.5% and 28.8% under the turbine condition, respectively. Under the axial-flow pump operating condition, the change in blade tip clearance had a great influence on the total dissipation of the impeller, guide vane and outlet passage, and the maximum variation under the flow rate of 1.0 was 53.9%, 32.1% and 54.2%, respectively. Under the axial-flow pump as a turbine operating condition, the change in blade tip clearance had a great influence on the total dissipation of the impeller and outlet passage, the maximum variation under the flow rate of 1.0 was 22.7% and 17.4%, respectively. Under the design flow rate condition, with the increase in tip clearance, the dissipation rate of the blade surface showed an increasing trend under both the axial-flow pump and axial-flow pump as turbine operating conditions, and areas of high dissipation rate were generated at the rim and clearance.
The remote prognosis and diagnosis of bearings can prevent industrial system failures, but the availability of realistic experimental data, being as close as possible to those detected in industrial applications, is essential to validate the monitoring algorithms. In this paper, an innovative bearing test rig architecture is presented, based on the novel concept of “self-contained box”. The monitoring activity is applicable to a set of four middle-sized bearings simultaneously, while undergoing the independent application of radial and axial loads in order to simulate the behavior of the real industrial machinery. The impact of actions on the platform and supports is mitigated by the so-called “self-contained box” layout, leading to self-balancing of actions within the rotor system. Moreover, the high modularity of this innovative layout allows installing various sized bearings, just changing mechanical adapters. This leads to a reduction of cost as well as of system down-time required to change bearings. The test rig is equipped with suitable instrumentation to develop effective procedures and tools for in- and out-monitoring of the system. An initial characterization of the healthy system is presented.