t cell homing
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Blood ◽  
2021 ◽  
Adèle de Masson ◽  
Delphine Darbord ◽  
Gabor Dobos ◽  
Marie Boisson ◽  
Marie Roelens ◽  

Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a malignancy of skin-homing T-cells. Long-term remissions are rare in CTCL, and the pathophysiology of long-lasting disease control is unknown. Mogamulizumab is a defucosylated anti-human CCR4 antibody that depletes CCR4-expressing CTCL tumor cells and peripheral blood memory regulatory T cells. Prolonged remissions and immune side effects have been observed in mogamulizumab-treated CTCL patients. We report that mogamulizumab induced skin rashes in 32% of 44 CTCL patients. These rashes were associated with long-term CTCL remission, even in the absence of specific CTCL treatment. CTCL patients with mogamulizumab-induced rash had significantly higher overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.16 (0.04-0.73, p=0.01)). Histopathology and immunohistochemistry of the rashes revealed granulomatous and lichenoid patterns with CD163 macrophagic and CD8 T-cell infiltrates. Depletion of skin CTCL cells was confirmed by high-throughput sequencing analysis of TCRβ genes and in blood by flow cytometry. New reactive T-cell clones were recruited in skin. Gene expression analysis showed overexpression of CXCL9 and CXCL11, two chemokines involved in CXCR3-expressing T-cell homing to skin. Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis in skin of CTCL patients confirmed that CXCL9 and CXCL11 were primarily macrophage-derived and that skin T-cells expressed CXCR3. Finally, patients with rashes had a significantly higher proportion of exhausted reactive blood T-cells expressing TIGIT and PD1 at baseline compared to patients without rash, which decreased under mogamulizumab treatment, consistent with an activation of the antitumor immunity. Together, these data suggest that mogamulizumab may induce long-term immune control in CTCL patients by activation of the macrophagic and T-cell immune responses.

2021 ◽  
Lu Zhang ◽  
Ruonan Bo ◽  
Yi Wu ◽  
Longmeng Li ◽  
Zheng Zhu ◽  

Abstract Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy has revolutionized clinical oncology. However, the efficacy of ICB therapy is limited by the ineffective homing of T effector (Teff) cells to tumours and the immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment (TME). Here, we report a programmable tumour cells/Teff cells bispecific nano-immuno-engager (NIE) that can circumvent these limitations to improve ICB therapy. We have developed 28 nm non-toxic peptidic micellar nanoparticles (NIE-NPs) that bind α3β1 integrin on tumour cells membrane and undergo in situ transformation on surface of tumour cells into nanofibrillar network (NIE-NFs). The nanofibrillar network persistently facilitates cytotoxic T cells’ homing to the proximity of tumour cells via activatable α4β1 integrin ligands, and also allows sustained release of resiquimod to reprogram the TME. This bispecific NIE eliminates syngeneic 4T1 breast cancer and Lewis lung cancer models in mice, when given together with anti-PD-1 antibody. The in vivo structural transformation-based supramolecular bispecific NIE represents an innovative class of programmable receptor-mediated targeted immunotherapeutics to greatly enhance ICB therapy against cancers.

2021 ◽  
Frederic Lagarrigue ◽  
Boyang Tan ◽  
Qinyi Du ◽  
Zhichao Fan ◽  
Miguel A. Lopez-Ramirez ◽  

AbstractAgonist induced increase in integrin affinity for ligands (activation) plays a pivotal role in T cell trafficking and functions. Activation requires Rap1 GTPase-mediated recruitment of talin1 to the integrins in the plasma membrane. Rap1-interacting adaptor molecule (RIAM) is a Rap1 effector that serves this function in T cells. In addition, Rap1 directly binds to talin1 to enable integrin activation in platelets. Here, we assessed the relative contributions of the Rap1-talin1 interaction and RIAM and provide a complete accounting of the connections between Rap1 and talin1 that support integrin activation in conventional CD4+ (Tconv) and CD25HiFoxp3+CD4+ regulatory T (Treg) cells. Disruption of both Rap1 binding sites in talin1 (talin1 (R35E,R118E)) causes a partial defect in αLβ2, α4β1 and α4β7 integrin activation in both Tconv and Treg cells with resulting defects in T cell homing and functions. Over-expression of RIAM bypasses the integrin activation defect in Tconv cells expressing talin1 (R35E,R118E), indicating that RIAM can substitute for Rap1 binding to talin in integrin activation. Conversely, deletion of RIAM in talin1 (R35E,R118E) Tconv cells abrogates activation of αLβ2, α4β1 and α4β7. RIAM and lamellipodin (LPD) are mammalian members of the MRL protein family; LPD plays a more important role than RIAM in Treg cell integrin activation. Nevertheless, loss of RIAM profoundly exacerbates the defects in Treg cell function caused by the talin1 (R35E,R118E) mutation. Most importantly, deleting both MRL proteins combined with talin1 (R35E,R118E) phenocopies the complete lack of integrin activation observed in Rap1a/b null Treg cells. In sum, these data reveal the functionally significant connections between Rap1 and talin1 that enable αLβ2, α4β1 and α4β7 integrin activation in T cells.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Thomas Bromberger ◽  
Sarah Klapproth ◽  
Ina Rohwedder ◽  
Jasmin Weber ◽  
Robert Pick ◽  

β2 integrins mediate key processes during leukocyte trafficking. Upon leukocyte activation, the structurally bent β2 integrins change their conformation towards an extended, intermediate and eventually high affinity conformation, which mediate slow leukocyte rolling and firm arrest, respectively. Translocation of talin1 to integrin adhesion sites by interactions with the small GTPase Rap1 and the Rap1 effector Riam precede these processes. Using Rap1 binding mutant talin1 and Riam deficient mice we show a strong Riam-dependent T cell homing process to lymph nodes in adoptive transfer experiments and by intravital microscopy. Moreover, neutrophils from compound mutant mice exhibit strongly increased rolling velocities to inflamed cremaster muscle venules compared to single mutants. Using Hoxb8 cell derived neutrophils generated from the mutant mouse strains, we show that both pathways regulate leukocyte rolling and adhesion synergistically by inducing conformational changes of the β2 integrin ectodomain. Importantly, a simultaneous loss of both pathways results in a rolling phenotype similar to talin1 deficient neutrophils suggesting that β2 integrin regulation primarily occurs via these two pathways.

Wenxuan Hong ◽  
Ming Kong ◽  
Mengwen Qi ◽  
Hui Bai ◽  
Zhiwen Fan ◽  

Fulminant hepatitis (FH) is a major cause of acute liver failure. Concanavalin A (ConA) belongs to the lectin family and is frequently used as an inducer of FH in animal models. ConA induced FH is characterized by massive accumulation of T lymphocytes in the liver. A host of chemoattractive substances are known to promote T cell homing to the liver during acute hepatitis. Here we investigated the involvement of Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1), a chromatin remodeling protein, in FH. BRG1-flox mice were crossed to Alb-Cre mice to generate hepatocyte conditional BRG1 knockout (LKO) mice. The mice were peritoneally injected with a single dose of ConA to induce FH. BRG1 deficiency mitigated ConA-induced FH in mice. Consistently, there were fewer T lymphocyte infiltrates in the LKO livers compared to the wild type (WT) livers paralleling downregulation of T cell specific cytokines. Further analysis revealed that BRG1 deficiency repressed the expression of several chemokines critical for T cell homing including nephronectin (Npnt). BRG1 knockdown blocked the induction of Npnt in hepatocytes and attenuated T lymphocyte migration in vitro, which was reversed by the addition of recombinant nephronectin. Mechanistically, BRG1 interacted with β-catenin to directly bind to the Npnt promoter and activate Npnt transcription. Importantly, a positive correlation between infiltration of CD3+ T lymphocyes and nephronectin expression was detected in human acute hepatitis biopsy specimens. In conclusion, our data identify a novel role for BRG1 as a promoter of T lymphocyte trafficking by activating Npnt transcription in hepatocytes. Targeting the BRG1-Npnt axis may yield novel therapeutic solutions for FH.

2020 ◽  
pp. BMT48
Pierre Antoine ◽  
John Maher

Current targeted therapies for breast cancer include hormone inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. However, a significant unmet therapeutic need remains for refractory disease and in particular for the triple negative subtype, which lacks hormone receptors and HER2. Chimeric antigen receptors T cells are genetically engineered to deploy selective cytolytic activity against cells that express cognate native target. Durable remissions have been achieved in refractory hematological malignancies but similar success against solid tumors remains elusive. Several hurdles hinder progress, including the need to identify safe antigens, promote T-cell homing to tumor sites and to ensure the persistence of functional chimeric antigen receptors T cells within the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Perspectives to enable the attainment of this goal are presented in this review.

2020 ◽  
Kanika Vanshylla ◽  
Kathrin Held ◽  
Tabea M. Eser ◽  
Henning Gruell ◽  
Kanika Jain ◽  

AbstractHumanized mice have been critical for HIV-1 research, but are inefficient at mucosal HIV-1 transmission. We present a fetal tissue-independent model called CD34T+ with enhanced human leukocyte levels in the blood and improved T cell homing to the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. CD34T+ mice are highly permissive to intra-rectal HIV-1 infection, which can be prevented by infusion of broadly neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, CD34T+ mice provide a novel platform for mucosal HIV-1 transmission and prevention studies.

Viruses ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 12 (8) ◽  
pp. 817
Jayeshbhai Chaudhari ◽  
Chia-Sin Liew ◽  
Aspen M. Workman ◽  
Jean-Jack M. Riethoven ◽  
David Steffen ◽  

Both virulent and live-attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains can establish persistent infection in lymphoid tissues of pigs. To investigate the mechanisms of PRRSV persistence, we performed a transcriptional analysis of inguinal lymphoid tissue collected from pigs experimentally infected with an attenuated PRRSV strain at 46 days post infection. A total of 6404 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected of which 3960 DEGs were upregulated and 2444 DEGs were downregulated. Specifically, genes involved in innate immune responses and chemokines and receptors associated with T-cell homing to lymphoid tissues were down regulated. As a result, homing of virus-specific T-cells to lymphoid tissues seems to be ineffective, evidenced by the lower frequencies of virus-specific T-cell in lymphoid tissue than in peripheral blood. Genes associated with T-cell exhaustion were upregulated. Likewise, genes involved in the anti-apoptotic pathway were upregulated. Collectively, the data suggested that the live-attenuated PRRSV strain establishes a pro-survival microenvironment in lymphoid tissue by suppressing innate immune responses, T-cell homing, and preventing cell apoptosis.

Blood ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 135 (21) ◽  
pp. 1870-1881 ◽  
Tanner Dalton ◽  
Ekaterina Doubrovina ◽  
Dmitry Pankov ◽  
Raymond Reynolds ◽  
Hanna Scholze ◽  

Abstract Despite advances in T-cell immunotherapy against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected lymphomas that express the full EBV latency III program, a critical barrier has been that most EBV+ lymphomas express the latency I program, in which the single Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA1) is produced. EBNA1 is poorly immunogenic, enabling tumors to evade immune responses. Using a high-throughput screen, we identified decitabine as a potent inducer of immunogenic EBV antigens, including LMP1, EBNA2, and EBNA3C. Induction occurs at low doses and persists after removal of decitabine. Decitabine treatment of latency I EBV+ Burkitt lymphoma (BL) sensitized cells to lysis by EBV-specific cytotoxic T cells (EBV-CTLs). In latency I BL xenografts, decitabine followed by EBV-CTLs results in T-cell homing to tumors and inhibition of tumor growth. Collectively, these results identify key epigenetic factors required for latency restriction and highlight a novel therapeutic approach to sensitize EBV+ lymphomas to immunotherapy.

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