mechanical force
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Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 315 ◽  
pp. 123154
Qixin Yuan ◽  
Gang Yang ◽  
Yongsheng Zhang ◽  
Tao Wang ◽  
Jiawei Wang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Ziang Xie ◽  
Lei Hou ◽  
Shuying Shen ◽  
Yizheng Wu ◽  
Jian Wang ◽  

AbstractMechanical force is critical for the development and remodeling of bone. Here we report that mechanical force regulates the production of the metabolite asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) via regulating the hydrolytic enzyme dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 (Ddah1) expression in osteoblasts. The presence of -394 4 N del/ins polymorphism of Ddah1 and higher serum ADMA concentration are negatively associated with bone mineral density. Global or osteoblast-specific deletion of Ddah1 leads to increased ADMA level but reduced bone formation. Further molecular study unveils that mechanical stimulation enhances TAZ/SMAD4-induced Ddah1 transcription. Deletion of Ddah1 in osteoblast-lineage cells fails to respond to mechanical stimulus-associated bone formation. Taken together, the study reveals mechanical force is capable of down-regulating ADMA to enhance bone formation.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 427
Yang Cao ◽  
Yuchen Zhang ◽  
Menghua Lin ◽  
Di Wu ◽  
Kunsong Chen

Strawberries are susceptible to mechanical damage. The detection of damaged strawberries by their volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can avoid the deficiencies of manual observation and spectral imaging technologies that cannot detect packaged fruits. In the present study, the detection of strawberries with impact damage is investigated using electronic nose (e-nose) technology. The results show that the e-nose technology can be used to detect strawberries that have suffered impact damage. The best model for detecting the extent of impact damage had a residual predictive deviation (RPD) value of 2.730, and the correct rate of the best model for identifying the damaged strawberries was 97.5%. However, the accuracy of the prediction of the occurrence time of impact was poor, and the RPD value of the best model was only 1.969. In addition, the gas chromatography–mass spectrophotometry analysis further shows that the VOCs of the strawberries changed after suffering impact damage, which was the reason why the e-nose technology could detect the damaged fruit. The above results show that the mechanical force of impact caused changes in the VOCs of strawberries and that it is possible to detect strawberries that have suffered impact damage using e-nose technology.

2021 ◽  
Danyang Zhao ◽  
Qiancheng Zhu ◽  
Xiaohui Li ◽  
Menghan Dun ◽  
Yin Wang ◽  

Development ◽  
2021 ◽  
Diego J. Hoyle ◽  
Daniel B. Dranow ◽  
Thomas F. Schilling

Secreted signals in patterning systems often induce repressive signals that shape their distributions in space and time. In developing growth plates (GPs) of endochondral long bones, Parathyroid hormone-like hormone (Pthlh) inhibits Indian hedgehog (Ihh) to form a negative feedback loop that controls GP progression and bone size. Whether similar systems operate in other bones and how they arise during embryogenesis remain unclear. We show that Pthlha expression in the zebrafish craniofacial skeleton precedes chondrocyte differentiation and restricts where cells undergo hypertrophy, thereby initiating a future GP. Loss of Pthlha leads to an expansion of cells expressing a novel early marker of the hypertrophic zone (HZ), entpd5a, and later HZ markers such as ihha, while local Pthlha misexpression induces ectopic entpd5a expression. Formation of this early pre-HZ correlates with onset of muscle contraction and requires mechanical force; paralysis leads to loss of entpd5a and ihha expression in the pre-HZ, mislocalized pthlha expression, and no subsequent ossification. These results suggest that local Pthlh sources combined with force determine HZ locations, establishing the negative feedback loop that later maintains GPs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Yuxiang Zhao ◽  
Xinzhong Liu ◽  
Biwen Liu ◽  
Qian Zhang ◽  
Dongdong Huan ◽  

To speed up the comprehensive utilization and treatment of copper tailings, the digital image processing technology is proposed in this study to detect the low-silicon copper tailings (LSCT) using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the particle size distribution (PSD) and the activity of LSCT are analysed under the action of mechanical force. Firstly, the current status and application of copper tailings are introduced, and the influence of the particle size of LSCT on its practical application performance is explained. Secondly, the LSCT SEM image target recognition model is designed based on the convolutional neural network (CNN), and the model parameters and the reference CNN are selected. Finally, the experimental process is designed, a SEM image data set of LSCT is prepared, the model is trained through the training set, and the image recognition test is performed on the produced data set. The experimental results show that when the number of iterations of the CNN is 10, the accuracy of model recognition can be guaranteed. After the action of mechanical force, the PSD of LSCT is mainly concentrated at 1 μm~100 μm; that around 1.4 μm~10 μm is the largest, and the PSD of LSCT around 1.4 μm increases with the increase of action time of mechanical force, but the PSD of the LSCT begins to increase when the grinding time exceeds 150 minutes, and the activity of LSCT reaches the maximum (75.545%) at 150 minutes. The average accuracy of SEM image detection of the model is 86.97%, and the model based on DenseNet shows better recognition accuracy than other models. This study provides a reference for analysing the PSD of LSCT.

2021 ◽  
pp. 002203452110503
X.Y. Fang ◽  
Y.X. Zhan ◽  
X.M. Zhou ◽  
L.N. Wu ◽  
J. Lin ◽  

Mechanical force–induced external root resorption is a major clinical side effect of orthodontic treatment. Recent work has revealed that M1 macrophages play a vital role in promoting orthodontic root resorption (ORR), but the mechanism of how mechanical force stimulation increases the M1/M2 macrophage ratio in periodontal tissue is poorly understood. In the current study, we showed that C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12)+ periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)+ monocytes in the periodontal ligament (PDL) were significantly increased after force application with ongoing root resorption, and these effects were partially rescued after force removal in mice. The expression of CXCL12 in PDLCs was increased by force stimulation in a time- and intensity-dependent manner in vitro. Blockage of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis using CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 was sufficient to alleviate ORR and reverse the force-enhanced M1/M2 macrophage ratio. Further mechanism exploration showed that Ly6Chi inflammatory monocytes homed in a CXCL12/CXCR4 axis-dependent manner. The number and proportion of CD11b+ Ly6Chi inflammatory monocytes in cervical lymph nodes were significantly increased by force loading, accompanied by decreased CD11b+ Ly6Chi monocytes in the blood. These changes were blunted by intraperitoneal injection of AMD3100. In addition, blockage of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis effectively reversed M2 suppression and promoted M1 polarization. Collectively, results indicate that force-induced CXCL12/CXCR4 axis mediates ORR by increasing the M1/M2 ratio in periodontal tissues through attracting Ly6Chi inflammatory monocytes and modulating macrophage polarization. The results also imply that AMD3100 is potentially inhibitory to root resorption.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-2
Xiaoyao Huang ◽  
Zihan Li ◽  
Peisheng Liu ◽  
Meiling Wu ◽  
An-qi Liu ◽  

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