ischemic heart
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Health Scope ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol In Press (In Press) ◽  
Maryam Shirvani Shiri ◽  
Sara Emamgholipour ◽  
Rajabali Daroudi ◽  
Maryam Tatary ◽  
Zohreh Kazemi ◽  

Background: Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide and in Iran, which imposes a heavy financial burden both on patient’s family and society. Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the direct medical costs of inpatients with IHD and its influencing factors in Iran in 2020. Methods: The sample of this cross-sectional study included 41,357 patients with IHD selected from the hospital information system (HIS) of the Iran Health Insurance Organization from August 23, 2019, to June 20, 2020. The study used the claims data of these patients, which included their demographics, length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, hospital accreditation grade, hospital ownership type, and patient discharge status. The multiple linear regression model was employed to evaluate the relationship between hospitalization costs and the associated factors. All statistical tests were conducted at the significance level of P < 0.05 using the R 3.6.3 software. Results: The mean age of patients was 63.95 ± 12.63 years old, and most of them were male (54.4%). The mean hospitalization cost per patient and per day was 586.42 ± 472.51 USD and 103.64 ± 100.29 USD, respectively. Moreover, the mean LOS was 4.92 days. Drugs and consumable medical supplies, as well as nursing and hoteling services, had the highest shares of hospitalization costs (29.54% and 29.4%, respectively). The hospitalization costs of patients with IHD were higher among men (β = 1.24), age 61 - 70 years (β = 1.38), LOS ≥ 5 (β = 2.92), ICU admission (β = 1.62), Iranian health fund (β = 1.21), and private hospitals (β = 1.91). Top-grade and first-grade hospitals had higher costs compared to grade 2 (β = 0.67), grade 3 (β = 0.35), and grade 4 (β = 0.72) hospitals. Deceased patients had also higher costs than patients with complete recovery (β = 0.63), relative recovery (β = 0.59), follow-up (β = 0.51), transfer to other medical centers (β = 0.44), and discharge against medical advice (DAMA) (β = 0.62). Conclusions: According to the results, shortening the LOS and controlling the high costs of drugs and consumable medical supplies are among the main strategies to reduce high hospitalization costs.

2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Susan L. Dunn ◽  
Deb Bomgaars ◽  
Kristin M. Van De Griend ◽  
Gwenneth A. Jensen ◽  
Lynn L. White ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Ekaterina Kushnareva ◽  
Vladimir Kushnarev ◽  
Anna Artemyeva ◽  
Lubov Mitrofanova ◽  
Olga Moiseeva

Objective: Immune checkpoints inhibitors are promising and wide-spread agents in anti-cancer therapy. However, despite their efficacy, these agents could cause cardiotoxicity, a rare but life-threatening event. In addition, there are still no well-described predictive factors for the development of immune-related adverse events and information on high risk groups. According to known experimental studies we hypothesized that cardiovascular diseases may increase myocardial PD-L1 expression, which could be an extra target for Checkpoint inhibitors and a potential basis for complications development.Methods: We studied patterns of myocardial PD-L1 expression in non-cancer-related cardiovascular diseases, particularly ischemic heart disease (n = 12) and dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 7), compared to patients without known cardiovascular diseases (n = 10) using mouse monoclonal anti-PD-L1 antibody (clone 22C3, 1:50, Dako). Correlation between immunohistochemical data and echocardiographic parameters was assessed. Statistical analyses were performed using R Statistical Software—R studio version 1.3.1093.Results: In the myocardium of cardiac patients, we found membranous, cytoplasmic, and endothelial expression of PD-L1 compared to control group. In samples from patients with a history of myocardial infarction, PD-L1 membrane and endothelial expression was more prominent and frequent, and cytoplasmic and intercalated discs staining was more localized. In contrast, samples from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy displayed very faint endothelial staining, negative membrane staining, and more diffuse PD-L1 expression in the cytoplasm and intercalated discs. In samples from the non-cardiac patients, no convincing PD-L1 expression was observed. Moreover, we discovered a significant negative correlation between PD-L1 expression level and left ventricular ejection fraction and a positive correlation between PD-L1 expression level and left ventricular end-diastolic volume.Conclusions: The present findings lay the groundwork for future experimental and clinical studies of the role of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in cardiovascular diseases. Further studies are required to find patients at potentially high risk of cardiovascular adverse events associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors therapy.

Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 103
Dong Hyuk Jung ◽  
Byoungjin Park ◽  
Yong Jae Lee

Serum calcium and phosphate levels are controlled by a regulatory system, but their individual concentration tendencies and interactions may affect long-term vascular health. This study aimed to assess the effects of serum calcium and phosphate levels on incident ischemic heart disease (IHD) in a large-scale community-dwelling Korean cohort. We evaluated 15,259 non-diabetic individuals (median age, 45 years; range, 30–85) without previous IHD or ischemic stroke using the Korean National Health Insurance data. The study population was classified based on the calcium, phosphate, and calcium/phosphate ratios. Using Cox proportional hazards regression models, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for IHD over 50 months after baseline enrolment. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of IHD gradually increased with serum calcium and phosphate quartiles and decreased with calcium/phosphate ratio quartiles, with an overall crude rate of 2.1% (315/15,259). After setting the lowest calcium, phosphate, and calcium/phosphate ratio quartiles as a reference group, the HRs (95% CIs) of the highest calcium, phosphate, and calcium/phosphate ratio quartiles for IHD were 1.77 (1.15–2.72), 1.73 (1.18–2.55), and 0.58 (0.39–0.87), respectively, after adjusting for potential confounding variables. Serum calcium and phosphate levels were positively associated with IHD incidence, while the serum calcium/phosphate ratio exhibited an inverse relationship. Serum calcium and phosphate homeostasis may merit serious consideration to understand the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis as a risk modifier for IHD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (6) ◽  
pp. 69-72
Anchal Jaiswal ◽  
Sanjay Kumar Singh ◽  
Seema Joshi

Given increasing evidence, most deaths are due to non-communicable diseases; half of them are the cardiovascular disease. Hridaya is moolasthana of pranvavaha and rasavaha strotas. According to Acharya Sushruta, any condition that produces disturbance in the heart is Hridroga. It is classified into five types. Vataja Hridroga is characterized by Ruja in Urah Pradesha (Pain in the chest region). Vatika type seems to have conceived the disease entity correlated with ischemic heart disease. None of the other Cardiac afflictions appears to have been described under Hridroga. The prevalence rate in the younger age group is increasing day by day so, we need to know the detailed knowledge of vatika hridroga

Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 127
Adriana Adameova ◽  
Csaba Horvath ◽  
Safa Abdul-Ghani ◽  
Zoltan V. Varga ◽  
M. Saadeh Suleiman ◽  

Extensive research work has been carried out to define the exact significance and contribution of regulated necrosis-like cell death program, such as necroptosis to cardiac ischemic injury. This cell damaging process plays a critical role in the pathomechanisms of myocardial infarction (MI) and post-infarction heart failure (HF). Accordingly, it has been documented that the modulation of key molecules of the canonical signaling pathway of necroptosis, involving receptor-interacting protein kinases (RIP1 and RIP3) as well as mixed lineage kinase domain-like pseudokinase (MLKL), elicit cardioprotective effects. This is evidenced by the reduction of the MI-induced infarct size, alleviation of myocardial dysfunction, and adverse cardiac remodeling. In addition to this molecular signaling of necroptosis, the non-canonical pathway, involving Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-mediated regulation of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, and phosphoglycerate mutase 5 (PGAM5)–dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp-1)-induced mitochondrial fission, has recently been linked to ischemic heart injury. Since MI and HF are characterized by an imbalance between reactive oxygen species production and degradation as well as the occurrence of necroptosis in the heart, it is likely that oxidative stress (OS) may be involved in the mechanisms of this cell death program for inducing cardiac damage. In this review, therefore, several observations from different studies are presented to support this paradigm linking cardiac OS, the canonical and non-canonical pathways of necroptosis, and ischemia-induced injury. It is concluded that a multiple therapeutic approach targeting some specific changes in OS and necroptosis may be beneficial in improving the treatment of ischemic heart disease.

Emma Altobelli ◽  
Filippo Gianfelice ◽  
Paolo Matteo Angeletti ◽  
Reimondo Petrocelli

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a major public health problem. In the last decade, in some European countries, abdominal aortic screening (AAS) is emerging as a potential prevention for the rupture of AAA. The goals of our study were to estimate AAA prevalence and risk factors in males and females in a central Italian population, also defining the cost-effectiveness of AAS programs. A pilot study screening was conducted between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2019 in the municipality of Teramo (Abruzzo Region, Italy) in a group of men and women, ranging from the age of 65 to 79, who were not previously operated on for AAA. The ultrasound was performed by means of Acuson sequoia 512 Simens with a Convex probe. The anterior posterior of the infra-renal aorta was evaluated. The odds ratio values (ORs) were used to evaluate the risk of AAA, and the following determinants were taken into consideration: gender, smoke use, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease. We also estimated the direct costs coming from aneurysmectomy (surgical repair or endovascular aneurysms repair—EVAR). A total of 62 AAA (2.7%, mean age 73.8 ± 4.0) were diagnosed, of which 57 were in men (3.7%, mean age 73.6 ± 4.0) and 5 were in women (0.7%, mean age 74.3 ± 4.1). Male gender and smoke use are more important risk factors for AAA ≥ 3 cm, respectively: OR = 5.94 (2.37–14.99, p < 0.001) and OR = 5.21 (2.63–10.30, p < 0.000). A significant increase in OR was noted for AAA ≥ 3 cm and cardiac arrhythmia and ischemic heart disease, respectively: OR = 2.81 (1.53–5.15, p < 0.000) and OR = 2.76 (1.40–5.43, p = 0.006). Regarding the cost analysis, it appears that screening has contributed to the reduction in costs related to urgency. In fact, the synthetic indicator given by the ratio between the DRGs (disease related group) relating to the emergency and those of the elective activity went from 1.69 in the year prior to the activation of the screening to a median of 0.39 for the five-year period of activation of the screening. It is important to underline that the results of our work confirm that the screening activated in our territory has led to a reduction in the expenditure for AAA emergency interventions, having increased the planned interventions. This must be a warning for local stakeholders, especially in the post-pandemic period, in order to strengthen prevention.

Xiaoying Guo ◽  
Qi Shi ◽  
Wanqin Zhang ◽  
Zhongwen Qi ◽  
Hao Lv ◽  

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