Toll Like Receptor 4
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2022 ◽  
Jong-hoon Lee ◽  
Seongcheol Cho ◽  
Badar Kanwar ◽  
Keum-ho Lee ◽  
Tuan Ngoc Minh Nguyen ◽  

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces immune-mediated inflammasome diseases. Moreover, its pathophysiology involves the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway, neuropilin‑1 pathway, inflammasome activation pathway, sterile alpha motif (SAM) and histidine-aspartate domain (HD)-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) tetramerization pathway, cytosolic DNA sensor cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)/stimulator of interferon genes (STING) signaling pathway, spike protein/inflammasome-genetic pathway, and immunological memory engram pathway. Therefore, it is necessary to prescribe anticatalytic treatments to alleviate the SARS-CoV-2 inflammasome, immunologic engram, and spike protein levels.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 ◽  
Fathimath Zaha Ikram ◽  
Alina Arulsamy ◽  
Thaarvena Retinasamy ◽  
Mohd. Farooq Shaikh

Background: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule that plays an important role in the repair and regeneration of tissue injury. It also acts as a pro-inflammatory cytokine through the activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), to elicit the neuroinflammatory response. HMGB1 may aggravate several cellular responses which may lead to pathological inflammation and cellular death. Thus, there have been a considerable amount of research into the pathological role of HMGB1 in diseases. However, whether the mechanism of action of HMGB1 is similar in all neurodegenerative disease pathology remains to be determined. Objective: Therefore, this systematic review aimed to critically evaluate and elucidate the role of HMGB1 in the pathology of neurodegeneration based on the available literature. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed on four databases; EMBASE, PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL Plus. Results: A total of 85 articles were selected for critical appraisal, after subjecting to the inclusion and exclusion criteria in this study. The selected articles revealed that HMGB1 levels were found elevated in most neurodegeneration except in Huntington’s disease and Spinocerebellar ataxia, where the levels were found decreased. This review also showcased that HMGB1 may act on distinctive pathways to elicit its pathological response leading to the various neurodegeneration processes/diseases. Conclusion: While there have been promising findings in HMGB1 intervention research, further studies may still be required before any HMGB1 intervention may be recommended as a therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases.

Yongxiang Zhao ◽  
Xinjing Lv ◽  
Jie Huang ◽  
Huiting Zhou ◽  
Hairong Wang ◽  

AbstractSepsis, a life-threatening organ dysfunction induced by severe infection and uncontrolled host immune response, threatens the health of people all over the world. Herein, a type of nanoparticle formulation with simple components is synthesized by encapsulating monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), a TLR4 agonist, with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle. The obtained nanoparticles ([email protected]) could provide Escherichia coli (E. coli)-induced sepsis protection by regulating the immune system after sepsis challenge, including promoting the levels of various cytokines, boosting the percentage of natural killer cells and accelerating bacterial clearance. Notably, the survival mice pre-treated with these nanoparticles could resist repeated E. coli-induced sepsis. Our work therefore provides the great promise of [email protected] nanoparticles as a simple yet effective nano-drug for prevention and protection against E. coli-induced sepsis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yang Yu ◽  
Lina Yu ◽  
Nuo Cheng ◽  
Xiaoguang Liu ◽  
Chunlu Fang ◽  

Background: Apolipoprotein A5 (ApoA5), an important modulator of plasma and hepatic triglyceride metabolism, has been found to be downregulated by metformin to improve non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Meanwhile, exercise has been recommended as a therapeutic strategy for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, no study has yet determined whether exercise affects hepatic ApoA5 expression or the inhibition of ApoA5 to toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). We herein examined the effects of exercise on hepatic ApoA5 expression and the relevance of ApoA5 and TLR4-mediated pathway in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NASH.Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were built NASH model with high-fat diet for 12 weeks, and following mice were subjected to exercise for 12 weeks on a treadmill. Microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to measure histological analysis of liver and hepatic lipids, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot were used to determined mRNA and protein levels of ApoA5 and TLR4-mediated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway components, respectively. ApoA5 overexpression plasmids transfected into mice to investigate the relevance of ApoA5 and TLR4.Results: 12 weeks of exercise remarkably alleviated HFD-induced hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as reduced serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS), hepatic TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and NF-κBp65 expression. Importantly, exercise did not reduce ApoA5 expression but instead enhanced its ability to suppress TLR4-mediated NF-κB pathway components by decreasing circulating LPS in our experiments involving transfection of ApoA5 overexpression plasmids and LPS interventions.Conclusion: The results demonstrated that exercise improved HFD-induced NASH by triggering the inhibitory effects of ApoA5 on the TLR4-mediated NF-κB pathway.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Lih-Lian Chen ◽  
Mei-Hsien Lee ◽  
Chia-Lin Chang ◽  
Kuo-Tong Liou ◽  
Shu-Hsiang Liu ◽  

Cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine used to treat nocturia by tonifying and warming the kidney. Our recent clinical study found that overactive bladder (OAB) patients treated with cinnamon powder (CNP) patches exhibited significantly ameliorated OAB symptoms without significant side effects, but the mechanism of action is unclear. To explore the beneficial effects and action mechanisms of CNP and its major active component cinnamaldehyde (CNA) in an OAB-related murine model, cyclophosphamide- (CYP-) induced OAB injury was performed on male ICR mice in the presence or absence of CNP and CNA, as well as solifenacin, a clinical drug for OAB as a reference. Twenty-four-hour micturition patterns (frequency of urination and volume of urine per time), as well as histopathological examination, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and Western blotting of the bladder, were analyzed for mechanism elucidation. Administration of CYP (300 mg/kg, i.p.) induced typical OAB pathophysiological changes, including increased frequency of urination and reduced volume of urine. CYP-induced mice displayed strong edema of the bladder and hemorrhagic cystitis, accompanied by loss of normal corrugated folds and decreased muscarinic receptors (M2/M3) in the urothelium, and disordered/broken structures of the lamina propria and detrusor. These changes were correlated with increased leukocyte (CD11b) infiltration colocalized with inflammatory (pp65 NFκB, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)/Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)) and fibrotic (stem cell factor (SCF)/c-Kit, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)/β-catenin) signals. Treatment with CNP (600 mg/kg, p.o.) and CNA (10–50 mg/kg, p.o.), but not solifenacin (50 mg/kg), 30 min after CYP induction significantly ameliorated CYP-induced dysfunction in micturition patterns and pathophysiological changes. CNP and CNA further suppressed MIF/TLR4-associated inflammatory and SCF/c-Kit-related fibrotic signaling pathways. Our findings indicate that suppression of inflammatory and fibrotic signals contributes to the crucial mechanism in the improvement of CYP-induced OAB by CNP and CNA.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 16
Xinghua Wang ◽  
Anthony Pham ◽  
Lu Kang ◽  
Sierra A. Walker ◽  
Irina Davidovich ◽  

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-released nanoparticles that transfer biomolecular content between cells. Among EV-associated biomolecules, microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) represent one of the most important modulators of signaling pathways in recipient cells. Previous studies have shown that EVs from adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and adipose tissue modulate inflammatory pathways in macrophages. In this study, the effects of miRNAs that are abundant in adipose tissue EVs and other biogenic nanoparticles (BiNPs) were assessed in terms of altering Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-induced cytokines. TLR-4 signaling in macrophages is often triggered by pathogen or damage-induced inflammation and is associated with several diseases. This study demonstrates that miR-451a, which is abundant in adipose tissue BiNPs, suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokines and increases anti-inflammatory cytokines associated with the TLR4 pathway. Therefore, miR-451a may be partially responsible for immunomodulatory effects of adipose tissue-derived BiNPs.

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